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Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from home. Recently I saw two ads for writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and a query leter. Should I include only my writing credits and education? Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of those jobs had nothing to do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about getting a day job in the writing or publishing business? If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from do my the environmental, home, and (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to your writing skills. You know that you have the skills to handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an employer?
Don't despair: There is an alternative. Essay Life Is A. Instead of using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead. This type of resume is a perfectly acceptable alternative to the chronological resume, and can someone dali, enables you to focus on life is a race, the skills and experience that are directly relevant to the job for which you're applying. A skills resume differs from a job-history resume in that it lists your skills and project essay - Literary, qualifications in essay life is a race a separate section, rather than as a subset of your work history. The basic framework for such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. Paper Online. If you're using a print resume, center these in a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer. 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com.
Optional. If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Section 3: Qualifications. Essay Life Race. This is the critical part of your resume. You may want to give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and Editing Experience . Buy Research Paper Tunnels. Here, you'll want to list each type of skill that is relevant to the job you're applying for. Essay Is A. For example, if the job listing asks for demonstrated writing and editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and geometry lite, HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in is a XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters.
Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for cpm homework help brite, details.) Even if your work history has nothing to do with your writing skills, you should include it. A history of race employment indicates to buy research online tunnels a potential employer that you are, in fact, employable. If your history indicates several periods of steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from job to is a job or gets fired frequently. If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is another good indication of your ability to function well as an employee. Unlike the job-history listings in a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to can someone do my essay and surrealism keep these sections short. List your job title, dates, the is a race, name of the company and its location, and a contact name and essay best, number if you wish. Life Is A Race. Use no more than two or three lines to summarize your duties and major achievements.
Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of people supervised, whether you were responsible for a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc. Paper Online Tunnels. If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for a period of time, list this as your most recent job. This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in your employment history. For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Essay Is A Race. Don't bother to essay 80s music recap the skills you've already listed above. Needless to life is a race say, if you can find any duties in best your work history that relate to writing or the race, job you're trying to obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to the company newsletter. Do not, however, list your reasons for leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and best 80s music, never include negative information about your previous employers. Is A. Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the can someone do my essay dali, most recent degrees and race, working backwards. If you have a college education, omit information about high school.
This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to can someone do my essay dali the job you're seeking. (Keep in mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and editorial jobs ask for a degree in writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.). Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to accept experience in lieu of formal education. Section 6: Awards and Memberships. Life Race. This is the section to list any awards you've received, especially relating to writing and editing. (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). Essay Effects Of The Oil Industry. Section 7: Personal Information. It was once fashionable to race list personal interests and hobbies on a resume. Now, however, that is considered inappropriate. If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to the job in question, try to tunnels find a way to life list those under skills instead. (For example, if you're applying for a job at an archaeology magazine and you've participated in do my and surrealism several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and experience.). Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. Essay. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail.
Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to contribute to the creative development of essay best a publication and essay, expansion of its circulation. Writing and tunnels, Editorial Background. Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and is a, business writing. Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Paper Online. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present. City, state Brief description of is a race your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to paper online recap the skills you've already listed above. Is A. City, state; contact name and phone number if desired. Brief summary of best your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. Company Name Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions.
M.A., University of Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism. B.A., University of Somewhere Else, 1985 - English. Certification in Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in HTML, Online School of HTML, 1997. Awards and essay life is a, Memberships. Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Speakers' Bureau Certificate of Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild. Member, Mystery Writers' Association of America. Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998. In addition to cpm homework geometry lite brite your resume (which you should try to keep to one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to provide a publications list.
This should also be kept to a single page. Give it the same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and use it to list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to the position. Double-space the is a, list, which should include the title of can someone do my essay the environmental of the each article or story, the essay life is a race, publication in which it appeared, and the date of Egg baby … publication. If it appeared online (and is essay life is a race still available), you may wish to include the URL as well. You may also be asked for clips.
Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for papers online cheap east yacht solution, color copies. Essay Is A. It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at can someone and surrealism, the range of samples offered by job applicants. One individual who was applying to a job I was about to vacate offered the first three pages of essay two unfinished short stories as samples of her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?). If you haven't assembled a portfolio of your best work, this is a good time to do so. Cpm Homework Geometry Lite Brite. Find a nice leather binder at an office supply store, and insert your best clips into plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to hold an is a race 8.5x11 page without the need to actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. If you write in several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into sections. Include color copies of paper any awards you've received, along with a copy of essay is a race your publications list. This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to put in best your skills and experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is that you're not likely to is a get the online, job of your dreams. The long answer is: If you know you'd like to be able to apply for a job in the writing, editing, or publishing business in the future, start preparing now . If you have dreams of becoming an life is a editor, and can someone essay dali and surrealism, you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities.
Today, you can find a host of part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for Writers section for a list of links to job boards. Essay Life. For many of these jobs, all you need is skill and a modem. 80s Music. Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation. While it's often easy to find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin. A history of paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on life, your table at the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to help geometry brite arrive. A good skills resume may be all you need to get your foot in the door. After that, it's up to essay life you.
If that sounds intimidating, why not think of yourself in the same terms as one of your queries or manuscripts? With the proper presentation -- the right envelope, a professional approach, and appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on your way to the job of your dreams. Copyright 2001 Moira Allen. Papers Online Cheap. Moira Allen is the editor of Writing-World.com, and has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and essay life race, regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . Egg Baby - Literary. An award-winning writer, Allen is the author of eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to Queries, Pitches and essay life, Proposals, and #1 - Egg baby essay - Literary …, Writing to Win: The Colossal Guide to Writing Contests. In addition to Writing-World.com, Allen hosts VictorianVoices.net, a growing archive of articles from Victorian periodicals, and The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for grieving pet owners. She lives in Maryland with her husband and the obligatory writer's cat. Is A Race. She can be contacted at editors at writing-world.com. Copyright 2017 by Moira Allen. All rights reserved. #1 - Egg Baby Project Essay - Literary. All materials on this site are the property of their authors and may not be reprinted.
without the author's written permission, unless otherwise indicated.
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resume tape format This application claims priority of a provisional application, Ser. Life Is A. No. Can Someone Do My Essay Dali And Surrealism. 60/008,700, filed Dec. Is A Race. 15, 1995. The invention relates to electronic resume storage and retrieval systems and methods. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION.
Resumes are a primary communication medium between employers and job applicants (candidates). Employers annually spend billions of dollars to solicit resumes using newspaper advertisements, job fairs, college recruitment seminars, and other methods. Buy Research Solution. In response, job applicants spend billions more to essay life is a compose, typeset, print, and ship those resumes. Unfortunately, present resume delivery practices are expensive and frustrating for buy research yacht solution job applicants. Life Race. Identifying potential employers, obtaining addresses, producing resumes for each, and finally delivering them is burdensome and time-consuming. The success rate for such efforts is discouragingly low, and the associated expenses can be quite significant. This makes the entire process quite inefficient from the do my essay the environmental effects applicant's point of view.
Employers, too, suffer from the inefficiencies of resume collection and handling. Life Is A. The solicitation, receipt, storage, management, search, and retrieval of dozens, hundreds, and in some cases thousands of resumes can be a difficult, unwieldy, and do my expensive burden on the employer. Physical, paper-based resumes are often stored in desk drawers and filing cabinets. The numerous limitations of present resume practices include consumption of essay is a race substantial physical space; difficulty in searching through large quantities of buy research papers east coast yacht solution paper documents; the near-impossibility of life is a correlating applicants whose resumes may vary widely in organization, content, and clarity; and the lack of uniformity in the search process from one practitioner to essay best 80s music another. From the above discussion, it is essay is a race, clear that a very significant need exists for an improved method of resume solicitation, sorting, delivery, handling, and management. Yet prior attempts to can someone do my essay resolve some of these problems have achieved only limited success. Document scanners have been used in some attempts to reduce the physical space consumed by physical resumes. However, search methods do not work well on scanned images because scanned resumes are stored as pictures, not searchable words or text. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been used in some attempts to convert paper-based resumes to pure text. However, employers are typically unwilling to forgo the traditional resume because of the widely held belief that the ability to review the format, style, and presentation of the essay race resume itself is can someone do my essay, of value.
Still other attempts have employed the aforementioned OCR conversion to allow the use of keyword search methods on the resulting text of full resumes, in an attempt to life is a race find those which contain key words or phrases. However, such methods have proven inefficient because of the nature of written language. As just one example, an employer seeking applicants residing in the state of Indiana will find numerous false matches when searching with the buy research online east coast standard postal service abbreviation IN. The letter pair in appears frequently in the English language (many times in this sentence alone), yet most such matches in life race the full text of a resume would have little or nothing to do with the searcher's true intent. A further difficulty with keyword search methods is the can someone the environmental effects oil industry requirement that the words or phrases in question must match with near-perfect accuracy. Is A Race. The diversity of buy research papers cheap east coast solution job applicant writing skills and vocabularies causes many resumes, which otherwise might describe applicants with similar attributes, to be written using very different terms and phrases.
Such wide variation causes keyword search methods to race often erroneously exclude qualified applicants--without notification to the searcher--while simultaneously including unqualified ones. Prior attempts at applying computer technology to resume management have been limited in scope, applicability, and usefulness. For example, many have been intended for use only by employers, employment specialists, or headhunters. Job applicants themselves are completely excluded from accessing such systems. One prior attempt, described in U.S. Pat. No. 80s Music. 5,164,897 to Clark et al. (incorporated by reference), is illustrative.
The first sentence of the prior art section of this patent describes the prior art as applying to employment agencies (sometimes called search firms). The preferred embodiment section of the patent then describes a system designed for use by such agencies and firms--without direct applicant involvement of essay is a any kind. Other attempts have allowed applicants to buy research online cheap east coast yacht initially enter some data, but make no explicit provision for essay life is a ongoing involvement. Such approaches can result in outdated information and questionable results. Other attempts have required the installation of specialized computer hardware and/or software, or personnel training at cpm homework geometry brite the employer's place of business. Essay Life Is A Race. The difficulty in buy research papers cheap learning and using the system often effectively restricts access to just those who have been appropriately trained.
Other attempts have incorporated rudimentary computer-based searching methods. The most common method involves the aforementioned keyword searches on the contents of entire resumes, such as offered by Online Career Center, Indianapolis, Ind. and life race TMP Interactive, Framingham, Mass. The inherent limitations of such methods have already been discussed. Another attempt at geometry lite brite incorporating computer-based searching methods is seen in the services available from Intellimatch, San Jose, Calif., (Internet address: http://www.intellimatch.com). This attempt accepts weighted ranking data provided by applicants and employers. Is A Race. There are several disadvantages of this type of method: First, the 80s music user interface for interacting with such ranking systems can be complex, non-intuitive, unfamiliar, difficult to learn, and essay life slow to operate. Second, there is no objective reference for ranking standards--individual applicants are asked to rank themselves, leading to buy research online an extremely subjective collection of personal opinions.
Third, employers are asked to life is a rank their requirements in a like fashion, again without reference to an objective standard. Fourth, these highly subjective data are then compared to each other, compounding assumptions upon assumptions and often yielding startlingly mismatched and valueless results. Another attempt at providing resume services on buy research cheap coast the Internet is provided by Beverly Hills Software, 469 South Bedford Drive, Beverly Hills, Calif. 90212, (Internet address: http://www.Bhs.Com). This attempt prompts applicants to life enter text-only information using a template. However, keyword searches still involve searching the entire contents of resume data; no searching by fields is available.
A visual template is buy research online cheap east coast yacht solution, provided for applicant data, but the resulting pure text is sorted as one large text file, like other systems. There is also no provision for essay is a race charging or collecting fees. Some of the aforementioned examples have attempted to incorporate various remote connection means. Such remote methods have traditionally been limited to text-only resume storage and keyword-based searches of the full resume text. None have succeeded in addressing all of the problems described above. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION.
The invention provides a method of and apparatus for storage and retrieval of resume images in a manner which preserves the appearance, organization, and information content of the original document. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for storing formatted summaries or outlines of resume images, and efficient searching and subsequent selection of the resume outlines and their associated resume images. One embodiment of the invention provides a user interface for essay best creating the aforementioned resume outlines which is based on a familiar paper-based method already in common use, thus reducing the training required to essay is a effectively use the do my essay dali and surrealism system. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for computer-assisted searching of the aforementioned stored resume outlines in a manner which minimizes the need for specialized equipment and training. In one embodiment, such searches can be or suspended, and essay is a resumed at a later time. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for enabling the automatic and continuous execution of the searches through resume outlines, thereby determining when a potentially qualifying applicant has entered their resume outline and resume image and enabling employers to be automatically notified thereof. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for coordinating the terminology and vocabulary used by can someone essay and surrealism applicants and potential employers in essay race the entry and searching for the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the do my essay dali invention provides a method of and apparatus for the controlled expansion of the terminology and life is a vocabulary used by east applicants and potential employers in the entry of and searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, or other commercial connectivity services, for applicant submission of outlines or resume images, or employer searches through outlines or viewing of resume images. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems to automatically notify applicants or employers under certain conditions, such as the expiration of a time interval or occurrence of an is a race event.
One embodiment of the invention employs common and commercially available computer hardware and software to reduce or eliminate the need for specialized equipment by and training of the applicant or employer. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems for billing and payment for services. Other features of the invention will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the following detailed description, claims, and drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Preferred embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to the following accompanying drawings. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a system embodying the invention. FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a server included in the system shown in FIG.
1. FIG. 3 is an example of a resume outline form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to essay best an applicant's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1. FIG.
4 is an example of a search request form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1. FIG. 5 is an example of a summary of essay race a resume outline sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine in response to a search request.
FIG. Best 80s Music. 6 is an example of a vocabulary assistance process in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. FIG. 7 is an example of is a a resume image stored by the server of do my essay dali FIG. 2. FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flowchart of essay life is a race a process performed by the server of FIG. 2. in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. This disclosure of the #1 - Egg baby project essay … invention is submitted in furtherance of the constitutional purposes of the U.S. Patent Laws to essay life promote the can someone progress of science and essay life is a useful arts (Article 1, Section 8)
FIG, 1 shows a resume storage and retrieval system 10 embodying the cpm homework help brite invention. The system 10 comprises a server 12 including a memory 14, and a database 16 defined in the memory 14. Essay. The server 12 can be a minicomputer, a microcomputer, a UNIX (TM) machine, a mainframe computer, a personal computer such as an Intel (TM) PC, 286, 386, 486, Pentium, P6, etc. (TM) personal computer or clone, or Apple (TM), Macintosh (TM), or PowerPC (TM) personal computer or clone, or any other appropriate computer. #1 - Essay - Literary …. The memory 14 is preferably long term memory (e.g. hard drive, disk drive, tape unit, CD-ROM, etc.). Essay. The server 12 includes typical components (FIG. 2) such as a CPU or processor 18, input devices such as a keyboard (not shown), and 80s music mouse (not shown), output devices (not shown) such as a monitor and essay is a printer, RAM 20, ROM 22, serial ports (not shown), parallel ports (not shown), and communication hardware 24, which may either be internal or external, such as internal communication cards (e.g., modem card or network card) or external communication hardware (e.g., external modem), etc. In one embodiment, the communication hardware 24 connects the server 12 to the Internet, so that the server 12 defines an Internet node. More particularly in one embodiment, the essay the environmental effects oil industry server 12 is essay race, a World Wide Web server connected to the Internet. Can Someone Do My The Environmental Of The. In this embodiments the server 12 has a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system such as UNIX (if the server is a UNIX machine), Windows NT, LINUX (if the server is a personal computer), etc. The system 10 further includes a job applicant's client machine (or applicant's client machine) 26 in selective communication with the life server 12.
The job applicant's client machine 26 is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 28. Papers Online Cheap. Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link 28 between the server 12 and the applicant's client machine 26. Essay Race. For example, the communication link 28 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, a combination of the preceding, or any other desired type of connection. Many applicant's client machines 26 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time. Essay Best. Different applicant's client machines can connect with the server using different types of communication links 28. For example, one of the communication links 28 can be a hard wired connection while another one of the communication links 28 is a telephone connection. After the essay life communication link is established, communications can take place over the link using any of various protocols, such as e-mail, FTP (file transfer protocol), TCP/IP (Internet protocol, which can be used with HTTP-hyper text transfer protocol, or GOPHER), ASCII, X-MODEM, Y-MODEM, KERMIT, any variation s on these protocols, or any other appropriate protocol. During a session, the server 12 communicates to the applicant's client machine a resume outline form 30 (FIG. 3) to be completed by a job applicant. The form 30 has a plurality of fields 31 relevant to employment, using which typical information found on a resume is summarized by the applicant, The form 30 has fields that are similar to blanks found on traditional job application forms available from employers.
In the illustrated embodiment, the form 30 has various sections, such as a personal information section 32, an optional information section 34, a position desired section 36, an education section 38, and an employment history section 40. Can Someone Do My Essay Dali And Surrealism. Other sections can be used, as desired. Essay. Each section has various fields 31. For example, in the illustrated embodiment, the personal information section 32 has fields 39, 41, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, and 56 for the job applicant's first, middle, and last names, address, city, state or province (e.g., the two letter postal service abbreviations), zip code or postal code, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address, respectively; the optional information section 34 has fields 58, 60, 62 and 64 relating to citizenship, fields 66 and 68 relating to security clearance, and a field 70 for a social security or social insurance number; the position desired section 36 has a field 72 for geometry brite job title, fields 74, 76, 78, and is a race 80 relating to the type of employment sought (full time permanent, full time temporary, part time permanent, or part time temporary), fields 82, 84, 86, and 88 relating to compensation requirements, and a field 90 relating to do my dali and surrealism the date when the applicant will be available for the new position, the education section 38 has fields 94, 96, 98, 100, 102, 104, 106, and essay life is a race 108 relating to majors, degrees, school names and locations, and grade point averages (multiple copies of fields 100, 102, 104, 106 and 108 can be included for multiple colleges attended); and the employment history section 40 has fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 for employer name, employer city, employer state or province, previous job title, start date for that position, and can someone essay oil industry end date for that position (multiple copies of fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 can be included for multiple prior positions). Other or additional fields can be used, as desired, or synonyms can be used in place of the words shown in essay life FIG. Egg Baby Project Essay - Literary …. 3 adjacent the fields. For World Wide Web applications, the form 30 is an HTML form, and has submit and clear buttons 122 and 124 using which the essay applicant can either send the information from the filled fields to the server, or can clear the form and can someone the environmental effects of the start over. The form 30 further includes a vocabulary assistance button 146, the function of which is discussed below. Upon receiving the form 30, the job applicant fills in (using his/her machine 26) as many fields 31 as desired, including some mandatory information such as name and contact information (address and/or phone number) in section 32. The applicant also effects creation of a graphics file 126 (FIG.
7) of the applicant's resume for essay life race receipt by the server. The graphics file 126 contains all the formatting, fonts, and #1 - Egg baby project essay - Literary margins of essay is a a traditional paper resume, and is of great assistance to do my essay dali employers wishing to gain some insight into the professionalism of an applicant. The graphics file can be, for example, in a file format identified by essay life one of the following extensions: .GIF,.TIF (or .TIFF), .JPG (or .JPEG or .JPE),.BMP,.TGA,.EPS,.PCX or another form of graphics file that maintains the appearance, format information, and font information of the original document. The applicant can create the do my essay graphics file in any appropriate manner at a location 134 remote from the server 12. For example, the life applicant can create the graphics file using a scanner 128 (FIG. 1), by the environmental of the oil industry scanning his or her actual printed resume. Alternatively, the applicant can use a facsimile machine 130 (FIG. 1) to fax his or her actual printed resume to a facsimile machine 132 in essay is a the possession of the administrator of the system 10 (e.g., located at can someone do my essay the environmental effects oil industry the location of the server 12). The facsimile machine 132 creates graphics file 126 that is stored by the server.
In one embodiment, the system administrator can convert the life is a race graphics file from a fax format to one of the above mentioned graphics file formats. Preferably, however, the server 12 itself will automatically perform the conversion from fax format to a more appropriate format such as described in can someone do my effects the previous paragraph, so that human intervention is not required. In this preferred embodiment, the is a facsimile machine 132 may comprise a fax card housed in the server 12. In another embodiment, the can someone do my the environmental of the oil industry system administrator can receive a mail copy of a printed resume, and can scan it into the server 12 for the applicant using a scanner 133 in the possession of the is a system administrator (e.g., located at the location of the server 12). The server 12 receives and stores in the database 16 the graphics file 126 as well as an entry defined by the summary information filled in on the form 30 by the job applicant. In one embodiment, the graphics file 126 can be communicated to the server using a different protocol than was used for transmitting the summary information. For example, the can someone do my and surrealism summary information can be sent from the applicant's client machine 26 to essay life race the server 12 via HTML, and the graphics file 126 can be sent from that applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via e-mail. Essay 80s Music. Any other combination of protocols can be used, at the applicant's option. The form 30 is essay, useful in cpm homework brite that it provides searchable information. The information of the graphics file 126 cannot be easily searched.
In addition, the form defines fields 31, so that searches can be performed by field, by prospective employers. Further, the race form 30 is of a format known to both applicants and buy research papers online coast yacht solution employers (i.e., a format like a traditional employer's job application), so that the need for training applicants and employers in essay using the buy research system is avoided. Instead, applicants can easily fill the essay is a form 30, and employers can easily search the database. In a preferred embodiment, the employers search the database using a form 136 (FIG. 4) that is very similar in appearance to the form 30 presented to applicants The forms 30 and 136 provide a standard framework to be used by all applicants, and all employers.
The server 12 associates or links the summary information entry from the form 30 with the dali graphics file 126 submitted by the applicant's client machine 26. Is A. In other words, if a search by buy research paper wind an employer turns up the summary information for a particular applicant, the graphics file 126 containing an image of essay is a race that applicant's resume can be easily pulled up as well. The form 30 and graphics file 126 may be transmitted by the applicant's client machine during a single session. It is essay, also possible that the race applicant may fill out and transmit the form 30 during one session, and then upload the resume image during another session. Or, the applicant could fax a resume at some later time. #1 - Egg Baby …. In other words, it is not required that the two actions occur during a single session.
The system further comprises an essay life is a race employer's client machine 138 in selective communication with the server 12. The employer's client machine is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 140. Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link between the buy research online server 12 and the employer's client machine 138. For example, the communication link 140 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, or any other desired type of connection. Several employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 simultaneously. Employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time that one or more applicant's client machines 26 are connected to the server 12. Different employer's client machines 138 can connect with the server 12 using different types of communication links 140. For example, one employer's client machine 138 can be communicating with the server 12 using a telephone connection, while another employer's client machine 138 communicates with the server 12 using an Internet connection. Employers may prefer to essay life is a use a telephone connection, instead of an can someone do my and surrealism Internet connection, because of less security risk in transmitting credit card information. Is A. If an Internet connection is help geometry lite brite, used, some security precautions are taken in the preferred embodiment.
For example, a secure server can be used for the server 12, or encryption can be used (e.g., using PGP--pretty good privacy encryption, such as is provided by ViaCrypt (TM) software, or some other encryption method). Upon connection, the server 12 provides the employer's client machine 138 with search form 136 (FIG. 4). The search form 136 is essay life race, preferably similar to the form 30 filled by applicants, as described above, and preferably includes fields 31 corresponding to fields contained on Egg baby - Literary … the form filled by applicants. Life Is A. After filling in cpm homework help the search form, entering search terms in the fields of importance to race the employer, the employer sends the search form to the server (e.g., by pressing a submit, send, or search button 142 on geometry lite brite the form in a HTML application). This results in the employer's client machine 138 providing a search request to the server 12 and initiating a search of the summary information in the database 16. As was the case with the life race applicant's form 30, the form 136 also includes a clear button 144, in an HTML application, using which the employer can clear the form 136 and start over. The search parameters are defined by the filled search form 136 The filled search form 136 indicates which fields 31 are to be searched for which keywords. For example, based on which fields 31 are filled with which keywords, a search query can be constructed which takes the logical OR of each word contained in Egg baby project essay - Literary … a field, and which takes the logical AND of each of the essay is a fields 31. Other logical and weighted combinations are possible. In one embodiment, if an employer fills in US in the citizenship field, and fills in Engineer, Scientist in the job title field, a search query can be constructed requiring that qualifying applicants be U.S. citizens AND be engineers OR scientists.
Alternative appropriate systems for creating search queries can also be employed. For example, different fields 31 can be assigned different importance weights. It may be more critical to have a close match in the city field in the Personal Information section than to have a close match in the compensation field. In one embodiment, employers are able to indicate logical connectors between keywords, such as engineer NOT chemical (e.g., if an employer is looking for any type of engineer other than a chemical engineer) In a preferred embodiment, the employer can use natural English (without logical connectors), and the server 12 creates an appropriate search query. Upon completing the search, the server 12 communicates to wind the employer's client machine an amount of the summary information for is a entries that satisfy the search parameters (search query). Preferably, contact information (e.g., name, address, phone number, e-mail, fax number, etc.) of qualifying applicants is suppressed at #1 - essay … this stage, In one embodiment, the information presented to the employer for each entry that satisfies the search parameters is summarized information, for easy and quick review in a standardized, compact, format.
An example of summarized information is essay life is a race, shown in FIG. 5. Relevancy ranking is performed in a preferred embodiment. The relevancy ranking identifies entries in the database 16 which, while perhaps not perfectly matching the criteria specified in the search form 136, are substantially similar enough to be of potential interest to the employer. Help Brite. Relevancy ranking can be performed in a manner such as performed by: CPL Retrieval Engine, sold by Personal Library Systems, 2400 Research Blvd., Suite 350, Rockville, Md. 20850; NexTrieve Indexing Engine from Nexial Systems, St.
Annastraat 4, 6109 RH, Ohe en Laak, The Netherlands; MetaMorph Text Retrieval Engine sold by Thunderstone Software--EPI Inc., 11115 Edgewater Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44102; InTEXT Retrieval Engine, sold by InTEXT Systems, 715 Sutter Street, Folsom, Calif. 95630; or Fast Data Finder, sold by life is a Paracel Inc., 80 South Lake Avenue, Suite 650, Pasadena, Calif. 91101, or any other appropriate manner. Summarized information (as shown in FIG. Can Someone The Environmental Effects. 5) is provided for the best matches to the search request, after taking into account the relevancy ranking described above The maximum number of matches supplied to the employer's client machine can be set to life is a any appropriate number by either the administrator of the paper wind tunnels system 10, or the employer performing the search.
In one embodiment, the employer can request summarized information for additional, less relevant, entries than those initially presented. The server 12 then queries the employer's client machine as to essay life is a race whether to present graphics files 126 of essay effects resumes associated with the entries that satisfy the search parameters. The server does not present the graphics files 126 of the resumes or the contact information for entries that satisfy the search parameters until payment is made or authorized by essay life race the employer. The employer may establish an account, and provide billing information (such as by providing a credit card number) to the administrator of the essay system 10 at one time, and will then be able to subsequently log in using a password, and order contact information and graphics files without having to again transmit a credit card. In this manner, the employer can connect once using a telephone connection or secure connection, transmit the billing information, and subsequently use an insecure connection. In a preferred embodiment, no password is required of employers unless they choose to set up an essay life is a race account as described above. In this preferred embodiment, they can search without establishing an account, but can only obtain contact information and graphics files if they provide billing information such as a credit card. Means other than passwords can be employed to establish secure access to the server 12. Egg Baby Essay - Literary. For example, the employer can transmit to a specific IP (Internet Protocol) address, or can initiate a dialup connected to a specific telephone number and transmit billing information for is a race that session without setting up a password. The server 12 is capable of storing employer's search requests, and periodically later repeating the search (update searching).
Thus, additional entries matching the search parameters can be located in the event the lite database has been modified and contains new entries that satisfy the search parameters. If the employer desires the ability to store search requests and perform update searches, he or she will be required by the server 12 to essay obtain a user name and cpm homework help geometry lite password, so the employer can be identified by the server in a subsequent connection session. The server 12 is also capable of suspending execution of a search request upon receiving a suspend request from the employer's client machine, and is a race of resuming the search at can someone essay effects of the a later time upon essay is a race receiving a resume request from the employer's client machine 138. For example, the employer may view the summary information for a certain number of hits (entries that satisfy the search parameters) and wish to take a break before more closely studying the results, or before looking at less relevant matches. Again, if the employer desires the ability to suspend and later resume search requests, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server 12 in a subsequent connection session. The server further comprises vocabulary assistance capability for assisting an applicant in filling form 30, or for assisting an employer in formulating a search request using form 136. The vocabulary assistance routine provides to the applicant's or employer's client machine alternative terminology which can be selected for the environmental effects of the filling the form 30 or the form 136.
An example of vocabulary assistance is illustrated in FIG. 6. If the applicant or employer requests vocabulary assistance while filling the job title field 72 (e.g., by pressing a vocabulary assistance button 146 or 148 while the cursor of the machine 26 or 138 is in field 72), alternative terms to those filled in the field will be presented (e.g., by presenting a menu, such as a pop-up menu, to the machine 26 or 138). The applicant or employer can then select alternative terminology from the menu, which will then be added in the field. Alternatively, instead of using the vocabulary assistance while initially filling the form 136, an essay is a employer may be dissatisfied with the results of a search, and may then return to do my essay the environmental effects oil industry the form 136 and is a race initiate vocabulary assistance on one or more of the fields. #1 - Egg Baby Project Essay - Literary …. The vocabulary assistance routine of the server 12 preferably learns related terms over time. The vocabulary assistance routine can operate in a manner similar to essay spell check routines found in word processing programs. The server also sends reminders to applicants, after some time has passed, that they should update their summary information and cheap east coast yacht graphics files. This can be via e-mail, or any other desired manner. FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flow chart illustrating operation of a system according to one embodiment of the invention. At step S1, a determination is made as to whether a client has connected to the system.
If so, the system proceeds to step S2; if not, the system proceeds to step S7. At step S2, the server sends a main menu to the connected client, and requests a selection. After performing step S2, the life system proceeds to step S3. At step S3, a determination is wind tunnels, made as to whether the user selected to life race enter new applicant data. Help Lite Brite. If so, the system proceeds to step S12; if not, the system proceeds to step S4. At step S4, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to update existing applicant data. Is A. If so, the system proceeds to step S25; if not, the system proceeds to step S5. At step S5, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to begin a new search of applicants. If so, the system proceeds to step S34; if not, the system proceeds to step S6. At step S6, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to continue a previously suspended search of applicants.
If so, the system proceeds to step S29; if not, the system proceeds to step S64. At step S7, a determination is made as to whether it is can someone do my and surrealism, time for essay life is a an applicant to cheap east update the information they have provided to the server, If so, the essay life race system proceeds to step S8; if not, the system proceeds to can someone do my essay dali step S9. At step S8, the server notifies applicants that it is recommended that they update their resume information. After performing step S8, the system proceeds to step S9. At step S9, a determination is made as to whether it is time to continue suspended searches. If so, the system proceeds to is a race step S10; if not, the system proceeds to step S11.
At step S10, suspended searches are performed. After performing step S10, the system proceeds to step S11. At step S11, a determination is made as to whether the operator of the system has requested a system shutdown (for maintenance, or some other reason). If so, the system shuts down; if not, the best system proceeds to step S1. At step S12, a new applicant identification number is assigned by the server, and essay race the server sends to the client a request for a selection of a password After performing step S12, the system proceeds to step S13. At step S13, the system receives a response from the client. Can Someone Do My Essay Dali And Surrealism. After performing step S13, the essay system proceeds to step S14. At step S14, the server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S14, the geometry brite system proceeds to step S15.
At step S15, the server sends the essay is a race resume outline form to the connected client, and #1 - Egg baby essay - Literary requests that the applicant fill out the form. After performing step S15, the system proceeds to is a race step S16. At step S16, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S16, the system proceeds to step S17. At step S17, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. #1 - Egg Baby Essay. If so, the system proceeds to step S18; if not, the system proceeds to step S19. At step S18, the requested vocabulary assistance information is added to essay the resume outline form. An example of vocabulary assistance is shown in FIG.
6. Buy Research Tunnels. For example, if an applicant has listed cellular and satellite in the job title field, and requests vocabulary assistance for the job title field, the server will generate a list of alternative terms such as development, firmware, software, and systems, and will transmit that list to the applicant's client machine, The client can then select any of the listed vocabulary assistance terms for addition to the job title field. Vocabulary assistance is available for many of the fields on the outline form. Is A Race. After performing step S18, the system proceeds to step S15. At step S19, the best server stores the information filled in the resume outline form in essay race the database After performing step S19, the system proceeds to step S20. At step S20, the server sends to the client a list of available resume image reception methods and requests that the applicant select a method. After performing step S20, the system proceeds to step S21. At step S21, the server receives the help geometry response from the client After performing step S21, the system proceeds to life race step S22. At step S22, the essay best 80s music server prepares to receive the resume image from the client using the selected reception method. After performing step S22, the system proceeds to step S23. At step S23, the server receives the life resume image. After performing step S23, the system proceeds to step S24.
At step S24, the server stores the resume image in the database. Help Lite Brite. After performing step S24, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S25, the system sends to the client a message requesting an applicant identification (user name) and password. After performing step S25, the system proceeds to step S26. At step S26, the server receives and verifies the password and ID. After performing step S26, the system proceeds to life is a step S27.
At step S27, the server retrieves the existing resume outline information from the database for this applicant. After performing step S27, the system proceeds to step S28. At step S28, the essay best server fills the empty resume outline form with the outline information retrieved from the database After performing step S28, the system proceeds to essay life is a S15. At step S29, the server sends to cheap coast yacht solution the client a message requesting a client ID (user name) and password. Life Race. After performing step S29, the system proceeds to step S30. At step S30, the server receives and verifies the ID and password. After performing step S30, the system proceeds to step S31. At step S31, the server sends to the client a list of this client's suspended searches and requests that the client make a selection.
After performing step S31, the system proceeds to step S32. At step S32, the server receives the selection from the essay dali client. Essay Life Race. After performing step S32, the system proceeds to step S33. At step S33, the server fills the empty resume outline form with selected search criteria for the suspended search which was selected for execution. After performing step S33, the system proceeds to step S35. At step S34, the can someone do my essay the environmental of the server prepares an empty resume outline form.
After performing step S34, the essay life race system proceeds to dali and surrealism step S35. At step S35, the essay life is a race server sends an outline form to the client and requests that the can someone do my essay and surrealism client return the form with desired search criteria. After performing step S35, the system proceeds to step S36. At step S36, the server receives the response from the client After performing step S36, the server proceeds to step S37. At step S37, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance.
If so, the life is a system proceeds to step S45; if not, the system proceeds to step S38. At step S38, a determination is made as to buy research cheap coast whether the client requested suspension of the search. If so, the system proceeds to essay race step S46; if not, the system proceeds to step S39. At step S39, the server searches the database of existing resume outline information After performing step S39, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S40, the server summarizes compliant resume outlines, sends the summarized outlines to the client, and requests desired action. For example, the desired action can be a request that the can someone do my of the employer select whether to is a modify the search, or to view a entire (not summarized) outline satisfying the search parameters. After performing step S40, the cpm homework help geometry system proceeds to step S41.
At step S41, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S41, the system proceeds to step S42. At step S42, a determination is made as to whether the essay is a race client chose to modify the papers online cheap east yacht solution search criteria. If so, the system proceeds to step S35; if not, the system proceeds to step S43. At step S43, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to view an entire outline. If so, the system proceeds to step S44; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S44, the server sends to the client a list of available resume outline delivery methods, and is a request selection by the client. Can Someone Do My Essay The Environmental Effects Of The. After performing step S44, the essay is a system proceeds to step S49. At step S45, requested vocabulary assistance is added to the resume outline form. After performing step S45, the system proceeds to lite brite step S35. At step S46, the server sends to the client a request for client ID (user name) and password.
After performing step S46, the system proceeds to essay race step S47. At step S47, the can someone do my the environmental effects oil industry server receives and verifies the life race client ID and password. After performing step S47, the system proceeds to step S48. At step S48, the server stores the search criteria. After performing step S48, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S49, the server receives the response from the client. Papers Yacht Solution. After performing step S49, the system proceeds to life is a race step S50. At step S50, the server sends a complete resume outline to the client. By complete resume outline, what is meant is do my the environmental effects of the, non-summarized information, in a format such as is shown in FIG. 3, except with contact information suppressed. After performing step S50, the life is a system proceeds to step S51.
At step S51, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to essay 80s music purchase the essay life race resume image associated with the resume outline that matched the search criteria. If so, the system proceeds to step S52; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S52, the server sends to the client a message asking if the employer has an existing account, After performing step S52, the system proceeds to step S53. At step S53, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S53, the cheap east yacht solution system proceeds to step S54. At step S54, a determination is made as to essay whether the client indicated that employer does have an existing account.
If so, the system proceeds to step S55; if not, the system proceeds to step S61. At step S55, the server sends to the client a request for account ID and password. Essay Best 80s Music. After performing step S55, the system proceeds to step S56. At step S56, the is a server receives and Egg baby project essay - Literary verifies the response. Life Race. After performing step S56, the system proceeds to step S57. At step S57, the server sends to the client a list of available resume image delivery methods, and requests selection of one of those methods. After performing step S57, the system proceeds to step S58. At step S58, the server receives the response from the client.
After performing step S58, the system proceeds to step S59. At step S59, the buy research paper server retrieves the life is a resume image from the database. After performing step S59, the online cheap system proceeds to step S60. At step S60, the server delivers the essay life is a race resume image to the client via the method selected by the employer After performing step S60, the system proceeds to cpm homework help lite brite step S40. At step S61, the server sends to the client a request for a credit card or other billing information. Essay Life Is A. After performing step S61, the system proceeds to best 80s music step S62. At step S62, the server receives the essay life race response from the client. After performing step S62, the system proceeds to step S63. At step S63, a determination is made as to whether the client's billing information can be confirmed by a bank or other appropriate financial institution. If so, the wind system proceeds to step S57; if not, the system proceeds to step S52. At step S64, a determination is race, made as to whether there has been inactivity for too long of a time.
If so, the system proceeds to buy research wind step S65; if not, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S65, any searches that are in progress are suspended, and the connection is terminated with respect to this client. In compliance with the life is a statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural and methodical features. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown and described, since the can someone do my essay of the oil industry means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of putting the invention into effect. The invention is, therefore, claimed in is a any of its forms or modifications within the proper scope of the appended claims appropriately interpreted in accordance with the doctrine of equivalents.
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Resistance Pco Patients Undergoing Iui Biology Essay. Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with approximately 75% of life is a women who suffer from infertility due to anovulation. Additionally, around 20- 25% of an ovulatory women with PCOS do not respond at all to clomiphene citrate and essay effects oil industry are considered to life, be 'clomiphene- resistant'. Aromatase inhibitors have been suggested as an alternative treatment to clomiphene as the discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate has been attributed to its anti-estrogenic action and estrogen receptor depletion. Objective: The Present study is designed to compare Metformin - letrozole with Metformin - clomiphene citrate in clomiphene resistance PCO patients undergoing IUI. Materials and essay 80s music Methods: In this single blind randomized trial, ovarian cycles were studied in 100 clomiphene- resistant patients with PCOS.The Inclusion criteria concerned PCOS patients who had failed to become pregnant after receiving 150 mg clomiphene citrate per day in3 months. The Patients were matched for their age, body mass index (BMI), and life is a race infertility period. They were randomly allocated to a metformin-letrozole group (n = 50) and a metformin- clomiphene citrate group (n = 50). Chemical and project essay - Literary clinical pregnancies were assessed after IUI.
Abortion rates were determined in both groups. Results: Regarding pregnancy rate, there is essay life race no significant difference between the two groups. One miscarriage (2%) occurred in do my essay, the metformin-clomiphene citrate group, whereas none was seen in essay, the metformin- letrozole group. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in pregnancy rate between clomiphene citrate and letrozole groups although it has been 2% in the former and 5% in the latter. Keywords: Letrozole, Clomiphene Citrate, Ovarian stimulation, PCO, IUI, Metformin. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with approximately 75% of women who suffer from help geometry infertility due to anovulation (1,2). The introduction of small amounts of FSH indirectly with clomiphene citrate.
into the circulation is capable of inducing ovulation and pregnancy in a large number of essay race anovulatory women with PCOS. (3). Cpm Homework Lite? Ovulation is restored in approximately 80% but results in pregnancy in only about 35-40% of patients who are given clomiphene (3,4,5). Additionally, around 20- 25% of anovulatory women with PCOS do not respond at all to clomiphene citrate and are considered to essay life, be 'clomiphene resistant' (6,7). Patients who do not respond to clomiphene are likely to be more obese, insulin- resistant, and hyperandrogenic than those who do respond (7). Numerous studies in women who were treated with Clomiphene Citrate and in various model systems have reported adverse effects on the quality or quantity of cervical mucus, endometrial growth, and maturation (8,9,10,11,12,13). It is generally believed that these effects are most apparent at higher doses or after longer durations of treatment with Clomiphene Citrate (9,10,11). The endometrium is can someone dali believed to be one of the life most important targets of the antiestrogenic effect of cpm homework Clomiphene Citrate and may explain a large part of the lower pregnancy rate and the possible higher miscarriage rate with Clomiphene Citrate. A reduction in endometrial thickness below the level thought to be needed to sustain implantation was found in life is a, up to 30% of women receiving Clomiphene Citrate (10).
This observation has been confirmed by other studies such as Nelson et al, 1990 and buy research papers online cheap east yacht Li et al, 1992. (12,13). Aromatase inhibitors have been suggested as an alternative treatment to life is a race, clomiphene as the discrepancy between ovulation and can someone do my dali and surrealism pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate has been attributed to its anti-estrogenic action and estrogen receptor depletion. The aromatase inhibitors do not possess the adverse anti-estrogenic effects of clomiphene but, by suppressing estrogen production, mimic the central reduction of negative feedback through which clomiphene works. Letrozole, the most prevalently used antiaromatase for life is a this indication, has been shown to be effective, in cpm homework geometry, early trials, in inducing ovulation and pregnancy in women with anovulatory PCOS and inadequate clomiphene response (14) and improving ovarian response to essay life is a race, FSH in poor responders (15). Evidence from larger trials is still awaited, but some encouragement may be taken from the solidity of the working hypothesis and the success of the preliminary results. The Present study is designed to cpm homework geometry brite, compare Metformin - letrozole with Metformin - clomiphene citrate in clomiphene resistance PCO patients undergoing IUI.
In this single blind randomized trial, 148 ovarian cycles were studied in 100 clomiphene- resistance patients with PCOS who were chosen among 250 PCOS patients attending the infertility research center of essay race Shahid Sadoughi medical university in Yazd, Iran during the years 2007-2008 .The Study was approved by #1 - Egg baby project - Literary Yazd Medical University Ethical Board and was fully supported and funded by essay is a Yazd Medical University. In this study, 50 people are needed in each group so as to gain a significant difference of oil industry 22% in pregnancy rate at a significant level of life 5% and a power 80%. Randomization is essay conducted on the basis of random numbers table right after metformin administration. The major criteria for essay life is a race diagnosis of cpm homework help geometry PCOS were oligo and life is a race /or anovulation, clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, namely 10 or more follicles with 2 - 9 mm size) which are in essay best 80s music, accordance with the revised 2003 Rotterdom criteria of PCOS. Thyroid, liver, kidneys function, and prolactin level were checked for normal values. Samples without any of them were excluded from the study.
Data were collected from the samples via questionnaires along with conversation and physical examination done by a medical researcher. Hysterosalpingo graphy and sperm analysis of our samples were normal. Inclusion criteria covered PCOS patients who had failed to become pregnant after receiving 150 mg clomiphene citrate per day in 3 months that considered as clomiphene failure. In this study, however , the selected cases took the essay life race drug in online solution, just one treatment cycle Exclusion criteria concerned patients with a history of liver and kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes (based on the criteria set by is a race the American Diabetic Association), or patients who had taken metformin or drugs affecting insulin secretion or clomiphene citrate in the previous 2 months. The Patients were randomly allocated to a metformin-letrozole group (n=50) and a metformin clomiphene citrate group (n = 50).
All the papers online coast patients of both groups received 1500 mg/day metformin for 6-8 weeks. Is A? After metformin administration , two patients in the letrozole group had drug side effects and were excluded from the study. If pregnancy occurred, the patient was excluded from the study. In case of pregnancy failure after the end of this period, the patients in the metformin- clomiphene group were given 100 mg clomiphene citrate for 5 days starting from the third day of their menstrual cycle, and those in the metformin-letrozole group received 5 mg letrozole for 5 days from the can someone do my essay dali third day of life is a their menstrual cycle. The drug administration continued in cpm homework geometry, three cycles for all the life is a race included patients. Monitoring of follicular development was done by transvaginal sonography every other day from day 12 of the cycle by a single sonographist. Online Wind Tunnels? A total of essay life 10 000 IU of HCG was administered to those in whom at least one ovarian follicle was ≥18 mm in size. Endometrial thickness, number of mature follicles gt;18mm, estradiol level, and the ratio of chemical and clinical pregnancies were determined. Chemical pregnancies were assessed 2 weeks after IUI by serum level of β HCG measurement.
Existence of at least one gestational sac in ultrasonography was confirmed as a clinical pregnancy. Do My Essay Dali? Ongoing pregnancy was defined as the observation of at least one fetus with heart activity in sonography after the first trimester of pregnancy. Abortion rates were determined in essay is a, both groups. The sample is divided into two groups using the random allocation software. SPSS version 12.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. T-test, chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used when appropriate.
P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. On the whole, 148 ovarian cycles were studied in 98 patients (70 cycles in 48 patients in the metformin - letrozole group and 78 cycles in 50 patients in project essay …, the metformin - clomiphene citrate group). Ninty eight PCO patients who were allocated to the two groups were included in essay race, the study. All the can someone essay oil industry patients had at least 2 out of 3 Rotterdom criteria. Essay Is A Race? No significant statistical difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the mean of best 80s music demographic variables, including age, BMI, duration of essay life infertility. The total Mean estradiol on the day of HCG administration was significantly higher among the patients in buy research papers online cheap east, the metformin- clomiphene group as compared with those in the metformin-letrozole group (175.01 ± 168.93 Vs 70.24 ± 138.32 pg /ml; P lt; 0.05) (Table I). Mean endometrial thickness was also significantly lower in essay life is a, the metformin- clomiphene group as compared to can someone do my essay effects, those in the metformin-letrozole group (0.9 ± 9.3 cm versus 1.03 ± 10.2 cm; P lt; 0.05) (Table I). One miscarriage (2%) occurred in the metformin-clomiphene citrate group, whereas none were seen in the metformin- letrozole group. The clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly different between the two groups (4 patients (8.3%) in metformin-letrozole group as compared to 1 patient (2%) in essay is a race, metformin- clomiphene group; P gt; 0.05) (Table II). The rate of pregnancy in the cycles was 1% (1of 78 cycles) in can someone effects of the oil industry, the clomiphene-citrate group but 5% (4 of 70 cycles) in is a race, the letrozole group, which was not statistically significant. Table I. Comparison of essay and surrealism baseline parameters and different variables in the metformin-clomiphene citrate group and the metformin-letrozole group based on mean ± SD.
Metformin clomiphene group. Metformin letrozole group. Endometrial thickness on day of hcg administration (mm)* Duration of infertility. LevelE2Mean total (pg/ml) on day of HCG administration. Number of follicles gt; 18 mm in diameter. P-value: No difference was found between the life is a two groups for the above parameters (by t-Test as appropriate). Table II.
Comparison of essay 80s music Pregnancy and miscarriage rate in the metformin-clomiphene citrate group and the metformin-letrozole group based on mean ± SD. Metformin clomiphene group. Metformin letrozole group. Regular menses after metformin. Chemical pregnancy rate.
Clinical pregnancy rate. Intension to treat Analysis. P-value*: No difference was found between the life two groups for the above parameters (by exact t-Test as appropriate). The results of this study indicate that clomiphene-failure women with PCOS experience higher pregnancy rates and fewer abortions when they receive combined metformin-letrozole in comparison with metformin-clomiphene. No significant relationship was observed between age, BMI ,and duration of infertility in the clomiphene citrate and the letrozole groups was observed. Mean of endometrial thickness on the day of HCG administration was significantly less in patients that received clomiphene citrate than those who received letrozole. (Our results were similar with results that were presented by Mitwally et al (16,17). But in study that was done by Al-Fozan et al a significant relationship was not reported between these two groups. Fisher et al in 80s music, their study believed that the cause of endometrial thickening in patients receiving letrozole is because of life improved vascularization as compared with clomiphene citrate (18). Some studies showed that clomiphene citrate can cause inadequate endometrial thickness in 15-50% of patients (19) and the quality or quantity of the cervical and endometrial mucosa can affect(14). These side effects may be attributed to the anti-estrogenic effect and the relatively longer half-life of clomiphene citrate, thus decreasing endometrial thickness by its long-term effect in decreasing the number of estrogen receptors (14). One miscarriage was happened in essay 80s music, the metformin-clomiphene-citrate group whereas none were seen in essay is a, the metformin- letrozol group.
The clinical pregnancy rate between the can someone essay dali and surrealism two groups did not show significant difference. Is A? In study was performed by Mitwally and Casper effect of letrozol administration in 10 women with PCOS was assessed. #1 - Project Essay - Literary? They found that pregnancy occurred in 20% of women (14). Sammour et al in their study on efficacy of letrozole and clomiphen citrate in 49 women with idiopathic infertility showed that pregnancy rate was higher in patients receiving letrozole than clomiphene citrate group (16.7 versus 5.6%) (20). According to results of essay life those studies; pregnancy rate is higher in patients receiving letrozole than clomiphene citrate group but is lower when compared with the current study. Essay …? Moll et al in their study showed that in is a, clomiphene citrate-resistant women, the combination of clomiphene plus metformin was the preferred treatment. Some studies reported that rate of help lite miscarriage was higher than expected in essay, clomiphene group. (In this study), There is one case of abortion in clomiphene group. This increase may be due to changes in peripheral estrogen level in the cervical and endometrial mucosa. Buy Research Wind? Some evidence exists that assess the hazardous effects of clomiphene citrate accumulation during pregnancy and the initial stages of development in mouse and essay life rabbit but has not been proved (21). We Hypothesize that clomiphene may have direct adverse effects on Egg baby project essay - Literary …, oocytes.
Some studies reported that inadequate uterine blood flow during the early luteal phase was one of the probable causes of low pregnancy rate in patients who received clomiphen citrate. (21) Women with oligomenorrhea and PCOS had some ovulatory disorder because of insulin resistance and its related factors (22). Serum insulin level was main role in PCOS pathogenesis. Is A? Metformin can increase tissue sensitivity to insulin as well as decrease plasma insulin level and hepatic glucose production. Paper Online? In PCOS, metformin can decrease the level of L.H. and ovarian androgen level as well as correct hyperinsulinemia (23). Some clinical trials presented the effect of essay life race metformin on the activity of ovaries (22).
These studies showed that metformin can correct menstrual irregularity by inducing ovulation (16,17). According to Nestler study, ovarian response to clomiphen was higher in obese women with PCOS (24). Aromatase is the enzyme necessary for converting androstenedione to essay 80s music, estrone and finally to E2 in peripheral tissues and Aromatase inhibitors can prevent peripheral estrogen production in patients that have higher peripheral estrogen production (25). According to noted mechanism, some of selective aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole are used to induce ovulation especially in infertile women with PCOS (21). They may also have direct action on the ovaries and increase follicular sensitivity to FSH.
Women with PCOS may also have relatively low levels of essay life ovarian aromatase. Do My Essay The Environmental? High androgen levels result in the formation of is a race multiple small ovarian follicles. In addition, androgens increase the number of FSH receptors in the ovaries, which results in increasing FSH sensitivity. High exogenous FSH or low estrogen production because of essay 80s music aromatase inhibitors will lead to growth of one or more ovarian follicles (25,26).
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compels us act essay Updated 13 March, 2005. Published in Science, December 13, 1968. For copyright permission, click here. The author is professor of biology, University of California, Santa Barbara. Essay Is A? This article is based on a presidential address presented before the essay effects of the meeting of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of life Science at Utah State University, Logan, 25 June 1968. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York (1) concluded that: Both sides in do my essay effects of the oil industry, the arms race are . confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution.
If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of race science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation. I would like to focus your attention not on can someone do my essay dali and surrealism the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is essay life race no technical solution to do my essay dali and surrealism, the problem. An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of essay life is a race change in cpm homework, human values or ideas of morality. In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome.
Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and life, York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. . . . Whether they were right or not is not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the do my oil industry important concept of essay life is a a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and, more specifically, with the identification and discussion of one of these. It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly.
Put another way, there is no technical solution to project essay …, the problem. I can win only by essay life race, giving a radical meaning to the word win. I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can drug him; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the #1 - Egg baby project - Literary … game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game--refuse to play it. This is essay life is a race what most adults do.) The class of No technical solution problems has members. My thesis is Egg baby essay - Literary that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class.
How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. Essay Life? It is fair to project, say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem--technologically. Essay Life Is A Race? I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe. Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per buy research papers cheap east yacht capita share of the world's goods must steadily decrease.
Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for essay life is a race the view that the world is infinite; or that we do not know that it is buy research not. Essay Is A? But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the can someone immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is life race finite. Space is no escape (2). A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the can someone essay oil industry situation of mankind? Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No--for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is not mathematically possible to maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. Life Is A? This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern (3), but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts.
To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. Buy Research Papers Online East Solution? For man, maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Life? Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing music and cpm homework help lite brite, writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art . I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the essay life usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem.
The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. The problem of the acquisition of papers cheap coast energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown (4). The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is still unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty of defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem. Reaching an acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work--and much persuasion. We want the essay life is a maximum good per person; but what is wind tunnels good?
To one person it is wilderness, to race, another it is ski lodges for thousands. To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable. Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in can someone the environmental effects oil industry, real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of weighting are needed. In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the life is a race incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the lite values of the variables.
Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to work out an acceptable theory of weighting. Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at essay life race, the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in #1 - …, the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of life is a race zero.
Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on cpm homework help geometry brite earth today are (in general) the most miserable. This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the essay positive growth rate of #1 - Egg baby a population is evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcize the spirit of Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of essay race Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to promote . the public interest (5). Buy Research Paper Online Tunnels? Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the best decisions for an entire society.
If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez-faire in essay is a race, reproduction. If it is cpm homework geometry lite brite correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the essay life race optimum population. If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known pamphlet (6) in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the can someone do my essay philosopher Whitehead used it (7): The essence of dramatic tragedy is is a not unhappiness. It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in paper tunnels, fact involve unhappiness. For it is only by essay life, them that the futility of escape can be made evident in the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way.
Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the can someone do my essay and surrealism carrying capacity of the land. Finally, however, comes the essay life is a race day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. Help Geometry? At this point, the life is a inherent logic of the can someone do my essay of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to essay is a race, me of buy research papers cheap east yacht solution adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and essay is a, one positive component. 1) The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal. Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the can someone do my positive utility is life race nearly +1. 2) The negative component is a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal.
Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by cpm homework help geometry lite, all the herdsmen, the negative utility for life is a race any particular decision-making herdsman is only a fraction of -1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd. And another; and another. Buy Research Paper Wind? But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Essay Life? Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit--in a world that is limited.
Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is #1 - - Literary … a platitude. Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial (8). The individual benefits as an individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is race a part, suffers. Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts, shows how perishable the #1 - … knowledge is. Life Is A Race? During the Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with red plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas.
Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an increased demand for Egg baby - Literary already scarce space, the life city fathers reinstituted the cpm homework system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.) In an approximate way, the logic of commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the is a race invention of private property in real estate. Buy Research Wind Tunnels? But it is understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Essay Life? Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on online the western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to essay, increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance.
Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the philosophy of the commons. #1 - Egg Baby Project Essay? Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction (9). The National Parks present another instance of the working out of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to all, without limit. Essay Life Is A? The parks themselves are limited in extent--there is only one Yosemite Valley--whereas population seems to grow without limit. The values that visitors seek the parks are steadily eroded.
Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the cpm homework geometry parks as commons or they will be of no value anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right enter them. The allocation might be on the basis of wealth, by life is a race, the use of an auction system. It might be on cpm homework help the basis merit, as defined by some agreed-upon standards. Is A Race? It might be by lottery. Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to long queues. Buy Research East Coast? These, I think, are all the reasonable possibilities. Life Is A Race? They are all objectionable.
But we must choose--or acquiesce in the destruction of the papers commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in is a, problems of pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of can someone effects putting something in--sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air, and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into the line of sight. Life Is A Race? The calculations of utility are much the same as before. The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the wastes he discharges into the commons is essay best 80s music less than the cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them. Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free-enterprises. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it.
But the essay life is a race air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the papers east coast yacht tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from exhausting the positive resources of the essay life earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream--whose property extends to the middle of the stream, often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door. The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and dali and surrealism, fitting to adapt it to essay is a race, this newly perceived aspect of the commons.
The pollution problem is a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste. Flowing water purifies itself every 10 miles, my grandfather used to 80s music, say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the morality of an act is a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed (10). Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public, the essay same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable.
A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out do my only the tongue for his dinner, and discard the essay life race rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful. Egg Baby Project Essay - Literary …? Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at essay race, such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in which his act appears. Papers Online Cheap East? One picture is worth a thousand words, said an essay life is a, ancient Chinese; but it may take 10,000 words to validate it. It is as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to can someone do my essay of the, persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally--in words. That morality is system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past.
Thou shalt not . . . is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for essay particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to spell out all the conditions under which it is safe to burn trash in the back yard or to run an automobile without smog-control, by law we delegate the details to bureaus. The result is administrative law, which is Egg baby project - Literary … rightly feared for an ancient reason-- Quis custodiet ipsos custodes ? Who shall watch the watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and not men. Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the essay life is a mediation of administrative law. We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of papers online cheap yacht Quis custodiet denies us the use of administrative law. Essay Is A Race? We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid.
The great challenge facing us now is to help, invent the essay race corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest. We must find ways to legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and can someone do my essay of the, the corrective feedbacks. The tragedy of the commons is involved in life is a, population problems in another way. In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog--if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for their children.
David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds (11). Papers Online? But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on essay is a race its own resources; if the children of improvident parents starved to death; if , thus, overbreeding brought its own punishment to the germ line-- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of can someone do my essay the environmental effects families. But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state (12), and hence is essay life race confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts overbreeding as a policy to essay - Literary, secure its own aggrandizement (13)? To couple the is a race concept of cpm homework geometry lite brite freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an essay life is a, equal right to the commons is to can someone essay, lock the world into essay life is a race a tragic course of action.
Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is being pursued by online coast yacht solution, the United Nations. Life Is A Race? In late 1967, some 30 nations agreed to do my dali and surrealism, the following (14): The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. Essay? It follows that any choice and decision with regard to the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the buy research papers online cheap east yacht solution family itself, and cannot be made by essay life is a, anyone else. It is painful to have to deny categorically the validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in the 17th century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations. There is a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope,'' that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the readiest weapon of the enemy. If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of best 80s music Human Rights, even though it is essay is a race promoted by can someone do my, the United Nations.
We should also join with Kingsley Davis (15) in life race, attempting to get planned Parenthood-World Population to see the buy research coast solution error of its ways in embracing the essay is a same tragic ideal. It is a mistake to think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience. Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book. The argument is cheap east yacht solution straightforward and Darwinian. People vary.
Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to essay life is a race, the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the best 80s music next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The difference will be accentuated, generation by generation. In C. Essay Is A? G. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and buy research east coast solution, the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus (16). The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for essay is a race children (no matter which) is hereditary--but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the attitude is transmitted through germ-cells, or exosomatically, to use A. Coast Yacht? J. Lotka's term. Life? (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the point of education?) The argument has here been stated in the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for the general good--by means of his conscience. To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of conscience from the race. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to condemn it; but has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in the name of conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear?--not only at essay 80s music, the moment but also in the wee small hours of the life is a night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: (i) (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for do my essay the environmental of the not acting like a responsible citizen; (ii) (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the rest of us exploit the life race commons.
Everyman then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia (17). The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is a kind of do my essay dali and surrealism illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the legal limits. Leaders at the highest level succumb to this temptation.
Has any President during the past generation failed to life race, call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for cpm homework geometry higher wages, or to steel companies to honor voluntary guidelines on prices? I can recall none. The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in essay life, noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it.
Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to #1 - project, themselves, and not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties (18). One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two-centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by essay life, prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by papers coast yacht, the anxiety-generating mechanisms of essay life is a race education. Alex Comfort has told the story well in The Anxiety Makers (19); it is not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of essay 80s music view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of policy, we should ever encourage the use of essay life race a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is buy research paper online wind psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the essay life is a coupled words are incorporated into the titles of some organizations devoted to do my and surrealism, birth control. Life Race? Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into the nation's (or the world's) breeders. But what is the meaning of the word responsibility in this context? Is it not merely a synonym for the word conscience?
When we use the word responsibility in the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into acting against buy research paper wind tunnels his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro quo . It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to be used at all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it (20). Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of definite social arrangements. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements--not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon. The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort.
Consider bank-robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and race, insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons. That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank-robbing is particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity. Papers East Solution? We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. Essay Is A? But temperance also can be created by coercion. Papers Online Solution? Taxing is a good coercive device. Essay Life Race? To keep downtown shoppers temperate in their use of can someone do my essay effects of the oil industry parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for longer ones.
We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion. Coercion is a dirty word to most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the essay is a race four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over and over without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is not a necessary part of its meaning. The only kind of coercion I recommend is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by can someone essay dali and surrealism, the majority of the essay life is a race people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is not to wind, say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless.
We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to escape the essay horror of the commons. An alternative to help geometry lite, the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable. With real estate and essay life is a, other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Do My Dali? Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance--that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of property and power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of like father, like son implicit in our laws of legal inheritance.
An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact. Is A Race? We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is unjust--but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. The alternative of the commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Cpm Homework Help Geometry Lite? Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in essay life, it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out buy research paper (21), worshippers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to historical fact. Life Is A Race? As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (i) that the status quo is perfect; or (ii) that the choice we face is between reform and no action; if the proposed reform is imperfect, we presumably should take no action at #1 -, all, while we wait for a perfect proposal. But we can never do nothing.
That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. It also produce evils. Once we are aware that status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the predicted advantages and life is a race, disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of can someone do my essay experience. On the basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Perhaps the simplest summary of this analysis of man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at life, all, is justifiable only do my essay and surrealism, under conditions of low-population density. As the human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for essay is a race waste disposal would also have to be abandoned. Restrictions on the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the do my the environmental oil industry commons in matters of race pleasure.
There is almost no restriction on the propagation of #1 - project essay - Literary … sound waves in the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government is paying out billions of dollars to create supersonic transport which will disturb 50,000 people for every one person who is race whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and television and pollute the view of travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the commons in can someone do my of the, matters of pleasure. Is A Race? Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of a sin, and pain (that is, the can someone and surrealism pollution of advertising) as the sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty.
Infringements made in the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and freedom fill the air. But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against essay life is a race robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into the logic of the commons are free only to #1 - essay - Literary …, bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of essay life is a race abandoning the commons in breeding.
No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all. At the moment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and essay best 80s music, responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and essay life, an increase in anxiety in the short. The only way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and do my essay and surrealism, that very soon. Life Is A Race? Freedom is the help geometry lite recognition of necessity--and it is the role of education to reveal to all the necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Essay Life? Only so, can we put an buy research paper, end to this aspect of the tragedy of the commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and H. F. York, Sci. Amer.
211 (No. 4). 27 (1964). 3. J. von Neumann and is a, O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11. 4. J. Buy Research? H. Fremlin. New Sci ., No. 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423.
6. W. F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, England, 1833), reprinted (in part) in Population, Evolution, and Birth Control , G. Hardin. Ed. (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. Essay Life Is A Race? 37. 7. A. Can Someone Do My Of The? N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. Life Race? 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed. Population, Evolution. and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964). p. 56. 10. J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Lite Brite? Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1954).
12. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford Univ. Press. Stanford, Calif., 1950). 14. U. Thant, Int. Planned Parenthood News , No.168 (February 1968), p. 3. 15. Essay Is A? K. Cpm Homework Help Geometry Brite? Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16.
S. Life? Tax, Ed., Evolution after Darwin (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469. 17. G. Bateson, D. D. Jackson, J. Haley, J. Weakland, Behav. Sci. 1 . 251 (1956). 18. P. Goodman, New York Rev.
Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19. A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967). 20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21.
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