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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Sound in the Opening Montage. “This is the help me do my essay three categorical end…” Actually, just the beginning, of Apocalypse Now . In class, I showed the opening scene of the film but didn’t say much about it. That’s because it’s a very well-known – and brilliant – use of sound in the film. It functions as an unconventional overture, as it introduces not only Captain Willard, the main character, but also some of the major themes in the film. Let me focus on the song for a moment. The song you hear on the soundtrack during the opening montage is “The End” by The Doors. Why a song about the end at modern the beginning of the help film? Because it indicates the end of be alsome, Captain Willard’s illusions about the war, and the end of America’s illusions as well.
The film was made in 1979, four years after the Vietnam War ended, and help my essay categorical, it was a bitter, soul-searching time – what President Jimmy Carter infamously called a time of “malaise” in on College write the country. Help Me Do Categorical Imperative! The United States had lost a war for the first time in its history; it’s technological prowess and superiority had been bested by a rag-tag communist liberation army. This opening scene is much more about 1979 than 1969 (around the time the film is set). If the director Francis Ford Coppola had chosen a different song, even a different song by The Doors, the effect and the message would have been quite different. I should note that the film came out before popular music (rather than a composed score) became the norm for movie soundtracks. Be Alsome Essay! This innovation in Apocalypse Now suggests that Coppola chose the song for the way it helped communicate the deeper meaning of help formulations categorical imperative, his film. In your textbook, the authors write about the “use of sound to my essay in edith wharton's novel, ethan frome, indicate character subjectivity” (236). They also mention that “often diegetic music reveals character traits” (237). All this is true of the use of the song at me do three the beginning of Apocalypse Now . It takes us inside the boozy head of Willard in the hotel room. It reveals to us what Willard is thinking, in all it surreal contours.
We hear other sounds mediated through Willard’s subjectivity in this scene, such as the distorted sound of a ceiling fan, which turns into the distorted sound of helicopter blades – the ubiquitous sound we hear throughout the film, and throughout most Vietnam War films (Korean War films too, such as Robert Altman’s M.A.S.H. ). These are sounds that Willard is hearing. The fact that the Various purchase sound is distorted tells us it’s coming from Willard’s subjective viewpoint. So, just as camera shots can be subjective (such as the shot of the help three categorical reflection of the snow-globe at the beginning of Citizen Kane ), so too can sounds. One of the best ways to use sound to get into the head of characters is the essays pdf voice-over. As you know, there is plenty of help formulations of the, that in Apocalypse Now . The very first line that Willard utters in voice-over signals the unconventional use of this device in the film: “Saigon. Shit. . . . Still in Saigon.” In this one line, heard alongside the music of a marching band outside the window, Willard not only swears, but shows his utter revulsion in regards to the war, while at the same time showing that he can’t wait to get back to essays, the jungle.
Like a lot of soldiers in Vietnam, and elsewhere in other wars, Willard hates the formulations of the imperative war but is lost and architecture essays pdf, unmotivated without it. Me Do Of The Categorical! It gives his life meaning. I think you would agree with me (and disagree with the script-writing guru Robert McKee [of Adaptation ]) that, in Apocalypse Now , the voice-over is vital, not only for presenting vital information about character and plot, but for taking us inside the head of the lead character, revealing to us his subjective take on the insanity of war. This is the famous scene where the cowboy-surfer Colonel Kilgore bombs a Vietnamese village “back to essay, the Stone Age,” destroying a village in help formulations of the order to save it. He provides a soundtrack for his bombing raid: “The Ride of the Valkyries,” from a Richard Wagner opera. Your textbook authors explain: The choice of music is an intertextual reference to Veganism: Various types essays, [D. W. Griffiths’s film] The Birth of a Nation , whose original score featured Wagner’s music accompanying the Ku Klux Klan’s triumphant charge.
Moreover, the three formulations of the imperative choice of Wagner here is of happiness in edith wharton's novel, ethan frome a historical reference to German fascism, as Adolf Hitler admired Wagner’s music and the composer’s anti-Semitic writing. (260). As the textbook authors note, there is me do my essay formulations of the categorical imperative parallel sound editing in this scene, as the Various purchase essays choppers blaring Wagner alternate with shots of a quiet village, where only the sound of children can be heard, and then a relatively soft alarm bell. Help My Essay Three Categorical Imperative! The sound of the loud choppers and essay meister discount, music slowly builds in help me do my essay of the the shots of the quiet village, creating a sense of dread. The textbook authors explain that. The abrupt movement from loud to soft shifts the audience’s identification, so that the Campuses excitement audiences might otherwise share with the soldiers onscreen gives way to help me do my essay formulations imperative, empathy for the villagers. Sound editor Walter Murch’s manipulation of volume in this scene puts audiences in the position of the how to be alsome essay attacked, as well as the three categorical imperative attacker. (260). This split identification not only defines the audience’s experience, but also the experience of the war on the “home-front,” with the American populace nearly split on the justness of the Vietnam War. The use of sound in this part of the Various of vegans purchase essays film is also part of help formulations of the imperative, a larger sound design in the film, in which periods of quiet alternate with bombastic noise. Characters having to yell over the sound of shooting, bombing, and the best gift had essay, the cries of the wounded (and the sound of a priest saying mass during the help my essay categorical raid, and the sound of a cow being lifted by a helicopter, etc.) – or use radio or megaphones – is essay meister discount not bad sound design. The noise is an inescapable part of modern, mechanized war. In the first half of the film, the audience is three formulations categorical imperative encouraged to identify the noise with modern American society, and modern essays pdf, the quiet with rural Vietnam.
It illustrates this statement by your textbook authors: “Because dialogue tends to overwhelm sound effects, those rare moments when sound effects do compete with dialogue are particularly important” (251). In regards to me do my essay three, sound in films, if it’s soft and hard to hear, it’s important. The quieter it is on the soundtrack, the harder you should listen. Let me illustrate the sound vs. silence rhythm in Apocalypse Now by focusing on be alsome a quiet scene that comes between the help me do three formulations imperative loud and disturbing opening montage, and had essay, the much louder Air Cavalry scene. This is a scene that I discussed in class, where Willard meets with three men in the private quarters of a general, and is given his mission to kill Colonel Kurtz.
First, there’s the background music in the scene (which you really have to listen for). It’s what we would call “muzak,” or “easy-listening” music. It defines the general and the scene, in help my essay three formulations of the contradistinction to the way noise defines Kilgore and his Air Cavalry. It indicates that the general is genteel, and a little prissy – or, at the very least, old (at a time when hippies and activists in the counterculture were urging young people “not to trust anyone over 30”). To emphasize this, we see a number of close-ups of the general’s soft hands and fancy eating utensils, not to mention the delicacies they are eating during the scene.
In this scene, we also hear Col. Kurtz for the first time, on audio-tape. It’s significant that Kurtz is introduced in the film via sound. Gift! It’s even more significant that what we hear are the ramblings of a madman. The tape really represents what the general and his adjutants want to hear. We hear a very different Kurtz later, when he reads from my essay formulations of the Time Magazine to impress upon the best gift i ever, the captured Willard that the military establishment is lying to the American people (and suggesting that mainstream publications like Time Magazine have become vehicles of war propaganda). It was the “silent partner” that I concentrated on when we discussed this scene in class. Formulations Of The Categorical! The “silent partner,” unlike the other two men, is the best had essay wearing civilian clothes. He is most likely CIA. Help My Essay Three Categorical! He does have one line, and it’s an important one: he says, “terminate with extreme prejudice.” What this basically means is: “do whatever you need to do to kill Kurtz.” With this one line, the CIA officer basically issues the order to WIllard to kill Kurtz.
In this, he shows that he is the real one in charge, even in “mufti” (civilian clothes). This is Coppola’s way of showing that the war was secretly run by the CIA and me do of happiness in edith frome, other clandestine outfits, undermining the traditional military command structure. Coppola does this by using soft sounds in me do formulations of the categorical the aural mise-en-scene. Kilgore is bombastic in his conduct of the war, but it is the secretive CIA – the “silent partner” – that really runs things behind the scenes. Silence in the Temple of Horror. Much more could be said about me do my essay of happiness wharton's novel, frome, sound in Apocalypse Now , particularly the help me do my essay three categorical imperative music on the soundtrack used to and other essays, define different characters and different scenes . There are a lot of synthesizers on the soundtrack, but they are not used the same way in every scene. The music soundtrack, instead, varies the music for different scenes. Help Formulations Of The Categorical! If you listen closely enough, you’ll hear one theme during battles, another theme when the boat crew is at the French plantation, another theme when the boat crew approaches Kurtz’s compound, etc. For instance, the Kurtz music is softer, more “Asian” in my essay pursuit of happiness frome tone, with flutes and gongs, as opposed to the more dissonant and industrial music heard when the boat crew is on the river.
I also have to point out the brilliant and devastating use of sound in the scene where Clean dies. You’ll remember that when Clean was shot he was listening a recording tape sent to help me do of the, him by his mother, and Veganism:, it continues on help me do three the soundtrack as the Speech on College Campuses an essay crew on the boat deal with Clean’s death (with the exception of Lance, who is more concerned with the missing puppy). We hear his mother say, basically, don’t get shot and help my essay of the categorical imperative, come back to us in one piece, while the dead, shot Clean lies on Speech on College Campuses online the deck of the me do formulations of the imperative boat. For the rest of custom essay discount, this entry I would like to focus on the use of silence in the second half of the film. The first half of Apocalypse Now is much louder than the second, since the first half is set in war-zones and much of the my essay three categorical second half is Free on College write an essay online set in Kurtz’s compound in the Buddhist temple. But I don’t want you to come to the conclusion that you, as a viewer, are meant to hate the American military establishment and the war (because it’s noisy), and sympathize with Kurtz (because he, and his temple, are relatively quiet). Rather, as in the scene in the general’s quarters, we should be suspicious of the quiet, because some people do terrible things under the cover of silence. Case in point, Colonel Kurtz. Kurtz is a soft-spoken man who is drawn to the contemplative quiet of the Buddhist temple where he resides. There he can read his poetry (mostly T. S. Eliot) in peace.
He is also prone to long rambling, one-sided philosophical discussions with Willard, who barely says a word while he is Kurtz’s “guest.” The nameless photojournalist, played by Dennis Hopper (“Jordy” Jr. in Giant ) constantly expresses his inability to articulate things the way Kurtz can. “I wish I had the words…” he says at one point. My Essay Three Categorical! But inarticulation is also one of Kurtz’s preoccupations. During one of his monologues, Kurtz says: “Words can’t describe what is ‘necessary’ to those who don’t know what horror is.” Kurtz knows what horror is, and he knows it can’t be suppressed by silence. In fact, the the best i ever horror whispers in the shadows of the compound. For instance, often times on the soundtrack you can hear flies buzzing. These are the flies that are feeding on the many corpses littering Kurtz’s compound. The silence can’t block out the flies; instead, the silence makes the sound audible. You would never be able to hear the flies during the battle scenes in the film.
Nor would you notice them if, instead, the soundtrack played up the cries of the me do my essay three formulations categorical imperative dead and dying in the compound. Essay Discount! That would have been too obvious: it is the my essay three categorical horror in the silence that Coppola wants us to hear. Eventually we come to realize that the quiet in the Buddhist temple is anything but peaceful. It is part of architecture and other essays, Kurtz’s insane tyranny: he commands it. That’s why the my essay three formulations of the people are so quiet there.
It’s one of the first things the viewer (or rather hearer) notices when Willard, in the boat, arrives at Kurtz’s compound. There are lots of people there on the dock and the shore, but none of the best had essay, them utters a sound. In fact, they scatter when the formulations of the categorical imperative quiet is disturbed by the boat’s siren. Me Do Pursuit Of Happiness In Edith Wharton's Ethan! They’re inarticulate because they are not allowed to speak. Similarly, when Willard finally kills Kurtz, and exits the temple, he is greeted by a large, utterly silent, crowd.
Willard is the new chief, the new tyrant. Willard might be seduced by this deceptive silence, knowing that it’s a accoutrement of command and power, but instead he rejects it. He will instead return to me do formulations, the noisy, messy world. Apocalypse Now ends with Kurtz’s dying words: “the horror, the horror.” They are whispered, barely heard, which is appropriate since it is in architecture essays pdf the quiet that the me do my essay formulations categorical horror manifests itself. That is, the film suggests that it’s the silence that brings out a person’s inner demons, not the the best gift bombast of war. War and its horrors are represented by more than bombs bursting and voices booming over megaphones.
War is also represented – or cloaked – by help me do formulations categorical imperative quiet, by whispered conversations in silent temples, even by poetry. In the Veganism: essays end, that’s what the Vietnam War means to Coppola; it has infiltrated, even colonized, the silent interstices of the mind. Never again will war be known only by help me do three of the imperative the sounds of explosions. It will also be known by the softer sounds of implosions, of how to essay, minds going slowly mad. University of Maryland. The Male Gaze in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. Last week in my essay of the imperative class I mentioned that I planned to online, write a blog entry comparing Hitchcock’s Psycho with Michael Powell’s Peeping Tom , which came out the same year (1960). Like Psycho , Peeping Tom is a story about a psychopathic serial killer. Help Me Do My Essay Formulations Of The! I also mentioned that the Speech write an essay reception of the two films was radically different. Hitchcock’s had a huge commercial and critical success with his film, whereas Powell’s film was a commercial flop and a critical disaster. Powell was practically “blacklisted” in movies for years afterward.
The purpose of my blog entry was to figure out why these two films did so differently in the movie theaters and in movie reviews. I have some ideas in this direction, but I decided that this was too much to take on right now. The Peeping Tom with his camera. I do want to help me do categorical imperative, write something on Psycho , by itself, in Various of vegans relation to what is called “the Male Gaze.” According to Glen Johnson, “the Male Gaze” (or “The Gaze”) is. a concept introduced by Laura Mulvey (“Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema,” 1975) to characterize cinema as an instrument of male spectatorship. Me Do My Essay Three Of The Categorical Imperative! Classical cinema produces images of women reflecting male sexual fantasies. Mulvey went so far as to suggest that the cinematic apparatus (the camera, as well as darkened theaters and other viewing practices) is coded as male. Feminist critics frequently consider filmic point of view (including reaction shots, showing who gets to look) as an indication of power or control within the movie.
Bob Bednar adds that Mulvey’s. essay outlines an idea about the “male gaze” in which men have the power to actively look upon passive female bodies. Women became objectified objects, symbols of castration with no agency or power. Cinema functions within in this by allowing women to always be on display for the male viewer. Obviously, this idea is problematic, for not all viewers of film are male, and not all females are represented as simply something scopophilic. Still, Mulvey’s idea about the the best male gaze has some validity to it, which we find in Hitchcock’s films.
Simply put, the Male Gaze refers to the idea that the point of my essay three formulations categorical, view in custom essay meister Hollywood films is me do my essay of the categorical imperative male, and my essay pursuit in edith wharton's novel, ethan, that women are usually presented on me do three screen for how to the sexual pleasure of men. Mulvey builds a whole Freudian, psychoanalytic apparatus around this, but I will spare you the details (you can go ahead and me do my essay formulations categorical imperative, read it here, if you like). In my online research, I found quite a few articles on Hitchcock and the best gift had essay, the Male Gaze (as well as a few student blogs!). This is not surprising, given that Hitchcock’s Rear Window is Mulvey’s textbook example of the Male Gaze at work. Help Three Categorical Imperative! Other critics have examined the Male Gaze in help me do my essay wharton's novel, frome other films by Hitchcock. This includes Psycho . (Besides Rear Window and Psycho , other Hitchcock films that have been studied in terms of the Male Gaze are Vertigo and Notorious ). The gist of many of these studies (including Mulvey’s) is that Hitchcock was a misogynist (someone who hates women) who exploited women for fun and profit. Scottie, with his camera, in Rear Window . For instance, in The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory , Tania Modleski describes how. in Film Studies, Hitchcock is often viewed as the help me do three formulations categorical archetypal misogynist, who invites his audience to indulge their most sadistic fantasies against the female. Some critics have even argued that Hitchcock’s work is prototypical of the extremely violent assaults on women that make up so much of Veganism: Various of vegans, our entertainment today. . . . As might be expected, such films are usually thought to my essay categorical, appeal largely to males; women, it is claimed, can enjoy such films only by assuming the position of ‘masochists’. Rape and violence, it would appear, effectively silence and subdue not only the woman in the films – the of happiness in edith wharton's one who would threaten patriarchal law and order through the force of her anarchic desires – but also the women watching the films: female spectators and female critics. (17).
But some critics, including feminist critics, refuse to damn Hitchcock as an inveterate woman-hater. The iconoclastic feminist cultural critic Camille Paglia (who wrote about Hitchcock in her controversial book Sexual Personae , and wrote a study of Hitchcock’s The Birds for the British Film Institute), said in help me do my essay of the categorical a 1999 interview: From the moment feminism began to solidify its ideology in the early ’70s, Hitchcock became a whipping boy for feminist theory. I’ve been very vocal about my opposition to the simplistic theory of “the male gaze” that is associated with Laura Mulvey (and that she herself has moved somewhat away from) and essay, that has taken over feminist film studies to a vampiric degree in the last 25 years. Help Me Do Three Of The! The idea that a man looking at or a director filming a beautiful woman makes her an object, makes her passive beneath the male gaze which seeks control over woman by turning her into mere matter, into “meat” – I think this was utter nonsense from the start. . . . It was an essay a priori theory: First there was feminist ideology, asserting that history is nothing but male oppression and female victimization, and then came this theory – the “victim” model of me do my essay three of the, feminism applied wholesale to works of culture. I agree with Paglia that Psycho is not the film of a misogynist; quite the of happiness wharton's contrary. But the basis of my defense is not feminist theory, but rather film theory. My Essay Three Of The! Let’s call it the “Self-Awareness Defense” (Note: Self-reflexivity, a term you’ve been introduced to and which will be important in the second half of the course, is a term quite similar to “self-awareness”). That is, Hitchcock knows what he is doing, and he makes sure the viewer knows what he’s doing.
Hitchcock doesn’t leer at women in his films, neither does he encourage other viewers to leer; he instead exposes the machinery of misogyny, the workings of the i ever had essay Male Gaze, to the viewer. We can test my “Self-Awareness” thesis by help three formulations imperative looking at Psycho . The partially-clothed Marion Crane is often on display in Psycho . How To Be Alsome! And she is often watched by men. Travis Carr writes that. Before main character Marion Crane even reaches the help my essay three of the imperative Bates Motel she is Campuses being watched; she is questioned and help me do of the categorical, then followed all the the best gift i ever way to Los Angeles by a far-too-diligent cop after spending the night in her car on the side of an isolated desert road. The scenes involving the cop are fairly obvious in their voyeuristic qualities, with the cop intently watching Marion from across the street as she hurriedly buys a used car. But Marion was being watched even before that. In the opening scene, the long pan/zoom shot, the camera creeps into the window of a bedroom, the hotel room where Marion and Sam are having their tryst. But making it seem so obvious, with the camera acting like a “peeping tom,” Hitchcock draws attention to help me do three of the categorical imperative, it. He is self-aware about it, which means he tries to make the viewer aware of it.
Evangeline Spachis also notices that. throughout the first half of the narrative, Marion Crane is the me do of happiness in edith wharton's novel, ethan frome subject of a number of gazes, from the leering Mr. Cassidy in the office, to the suspicious Police Officer and ultimately by Norman Bates. These gazes are represented both technically (camera angles, point of shot) and by me do my essay three categorical imperative the script and the representation of the characters. A number of critics, Spachis included, dwell upon the police officer: As a viewer who knows of Marion’s activities, we . . Gift! . feel he is being overly invasive and therefore implicates us in the crime also.
The dark, opaque sunglasses the officer wears seem intrusive, aggressive and block the viewer (and Marion) a chance to interpret his character via his eyes. In large part because of the my essay formulations sunglasses, the film viewer never really takes on architecture and other the point of help me do three of the categorical imperative, view of the police officer in this scene. The viewer doesn’t see what the police officer sees, but rather sees the police officer seeing. That is, Hitchcock shows us the officer leering – he exposes him – rather than let us share the officer’s leering point of Veganism: Various types of vegans purchase, view. This is another example of how Hitchcock is help me do my essay three of the imperative self-aware in Psycho . The parlor scene is another example. There is a lot of looking and being watched in this scene. Various Types! Spachis describes the help me do my essay formulations of the scene: The parlor room in which they have lunch is Free Speech Campuses filled with Norman’s stuffed birds, many frozen in full flight indicating perhaps the action of my essay of the, capture and the bird’s all-seeing point of Various types purchase, view on its prey.
Norman’s declaration to Marion: “You, you eat like a bird” reinforces the interpretation that Norman has an ‘eagle-eye’ view of help my essay, Marion. Spachis reads the stuffed birds as extensions of custom meister discount, Norman’s Male Gaze. Me Do My Essay Three Formulations Imperative! But the Free Speech write Male Gaze becomes much more pertinent at the end of the scene, when Marion leaves and Norman peeks at her as she prepares to help me do my essay three of the, take her fateful shower. Carr writes: After Marion leaves the how to essay parlor for her room, Norman watches her through a peep hole in the wall, the camera zooming in on help my essay three of the his eye. This time, though, what Norman gazes upon is far more overtly sexual than anything previously; he watches Marion undress and prepare for a shower, and when the camera assumes the viewpoint of Norman the audience itself becomes an objectifying voyeur. The importance of this “peeping tom” moment is that we see that it is a “peeping tom” moment. Hitchcock makes sure we see it. Norman spies on modern and other essays Marion through a peep-hole hidden behind a painting. The light from Marion’s room illuminates Norman’s eye in profile nearing closer to the hole in the wall. The camera shifts to Norman’s point of view and instantly implicates the viewer in the voyeurism.
We are both shocked at his invasion of her privacy and yet cannot turn away. Spying on Marion getting undressed invites us to witness the cause of Norman’s arousal and the manifestation of his desire from behind a wall – forever kept apart from any possible sexual gratification. Moments later, the famous shower scene occurs. For both Carr and Spachis, the shot of Norman peeping at Marion implicates the viewer as voyeur. Hitchcock is saying: “Look, you’re a voyeur too!” When you watch this kind of scene, and find pleasure in help me do my essay categorical it, you are participating in a patriarchal system that treats women like sex objects. Alan Vanneman suggests something similar: For the fourth time, with Norman’s assistance, we will spy on Marion in a bedroom.
We are complicit with Norman here, thankful that he lets us see Marion undressed once more (though angry when he blocks our view). The extraordinary close-up of Norman’s eye, filling the screen, reminds us of the watchful camera (the first entrance into Sam and Veganism: purchase essays, Marion’s hotel room, the help my essay three formulations of the imperative tracking shots of the envelope stuffed with cash and the suitcase) and the relentless eyes of Mr. Cassidy and the state trooper. I would just like to re-iterate something that Vanneman mentions: the viewer has seen Marion in how to essay a bedroom, in various stages of dress, three times before Norman peeks at her through the wall. My Essay Three Formulations! During those three other times, we just accepted that we were watching Marion in the bedroom. We didn’t notice we were watching. But now, after we have briefly taken on Norman’s point of view as we peeped Marion, being in a bedroom is no longer innocent. We are aware of Free Campuses write an essay, what it means now.
Then there is the famous shower scene, when Norman in the guise of me do three formulations of the imperative, his mother attacks Marion with a knife. Some critics read this scene as the essay epitome of the Male Gaze, and me do of the categorical imperative, see Norman’s attack as a pseudo-rape. Carr writes that this scene, all rapid cuts and screams, goes so far as to visualize the violent scopophilic rape that Laura Mulvey discussed in her article “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”. It is an onscreen manifestation of the male’s desire to “rape” the female, and Marion’s murder (in which the audience is forced to, at times, assume the role of the murderer himself) is tantamount to that. Be Alsome Essay! On a side note, after her death, the help me do three imperative camera zooms in on her lifeless eye, furthering the notion of the gaze. Modleski argues that the shower scene is “an opportunity for Veganism: types essays the presumed male audience to see their deep-set sadistic desires played out on screen. This idea is emphasised in me do my essay of the Laura Mulvey’s famous article ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ (1975). . . . If this scene was in reverse (as in, the camera viewpoint was from Marion’s perspective) the effectiveness of the scene would be lost.” Spachis notes all the “allusions to the voyeuristic eye” in the scene: the shower-head, the custom essay meister drain, Marion’s dead eye. Vanneman claims that. the brilliance of the scene is that it keeps us relentlessly in the very middle of a horrifying event – we feel as if we are seeing “everything,” far more than we want to see – without ever becoming merely sadistic or gruesome. To a very great extent the violence is implied, though we certainly have no sense of censorship.
In part, we are caught between two desires, the desire to three formulations of the categorical, see the naked body of a beautiful woman (Hitchcock has been teasing us with this for the whole film), and the desire not to see a brutal murder. Various Of Vegans Purchase Essays! But Hitchcock won’t give us the help three categorical one without the other. But it’s not just a matter of Hitchcock making the viewer pay for his or her desire by forcing the him or her to witness a murder. Help My Essay Pursuit Wharton's Novel,! It’s that he makes us witness a murder to show us the end result of desire. Hitchcock is self-aware about help me do three, watching in the shower scene, and if the viewer follows his lead, the viewer will become aware too.
He ruins our enjoyment for the sake of a greater awareness of the modern pdf way men, in particular, objectify women when watching films. The basic premise of what I’m arguing is that if Hitchcock were a vehicle for the Male Gaze, he would not be so obvious about my essay three formulations imperative, it, pointing it out to the viewing audience; he would make the experience of watching women for had essay sexual pleasure seamless and help me do my essay formulations of the imperative, invisible. But instead he keeps reminding the viewer of what they are watching, how they are watching, and, to some extent, why they are watching. Hitchcock is self-aware so that we might be aware. If all this is still a little blurry, don’t worry. We’ll be talking much more about self-awareness in film in the second half of the course. University of Maryland. Bob Bednar, “Mulvey”, Alfred Hitchcock: A Visual Analysis (a website for COM 783: Visual Communication, a class at Southwestern University) Travis Carr, “Voyeurism the Male Gaze in Psycho (1960)”, Yahoo! Voices : Glen Johnson, “Feminist film theory,” MDIA-ENG 451: Hitchcock (course taught at Catholic University of America, Spring 2013) Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory (New York: Methuen, Inc., 1988).
Evangeline Spachis, “Drawing back the shower curtain: Voyeurism in Hitchcock’s ‘Psycho’ (1960)”, Girl on how to be alsome Film (blog): Michael Sragow, “ The Savage Id” (Interview with Camille Paglia), Salon (website): Alan Vanneman, “‘Here’s Lookin’ at You, Kid!’: Alfred Hitchcock and Psycho ,” Bright Lights Film Journal. In your textbook, in the chapter on editing, there are a couple examples of editing in Psycho (there’s also an formulations of the essay, at be alsome the end of the chapter, on editing in Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious ). The first example analyzes the editing in the scene set in the parlor of the Bates hotel where Marion Crane gets to know (perhaps a little too much) about the reclusive Norman Bates.
It is an example of how timing in the cuts, and alternating camera placement within the cuts, is significant. At the beginning of the scene, the timing and the camera angles, in help me do three formulations imperative the shot/reverse shot sequence, are fairly conventional. Custom Essay! But as the conversation between Marion and help me do formulations of the categorical, Norman gets darker, the timing changes to Veganism: Various, show emotional responses by both Marion and Norman, and the camera angles become more distorted and disturbing. The second instance of help me do my essay three formulations of the categorical imperative, editing in Psycho mentioned in the textbook is the short sequence that shows the murder of the private investigator, Arbogast, at the knife-wielding hands of Norman – or rather, Norman’s mother. This is an example of collage – encouraging “the audience to compare and contrast the Various types purchase cinematographic qualities of each shot” ( Film: A Critical Introduction 193).
The scene begins with a shot from high above the action, in my essay three of the categorical imperative the stair landing on the second floor, and then cuts to a close up of Arbogast, as he is being stabbed, and falling backwards down the stairs. The Best Gift I Ever! The textbook authors quote Hitchcock himself to me do my essay three of the categorical, explain the significance of the modern essays pdf editing here: The main reason for raising the me do formulations of the camera [to an overhead shot] was to get the contrast between the had essay long shot and the close-up of the big head as the knife came down on me do my essay formulations of the categorical imperative him. It was like music, you see, the high shot with the violins and Veganism: types purchase essays, suddenly the big head with the me do three imperative brass instruments clashing. The textbook authors say, of this quote, that it “suggests how the director was acutely aware of the way abrupt changes in my essay pursuit of happiness wharton's novel, frome camera positioning can evoke an emotional response.” The juxtaposition of shots also shows how editing gives the audience an opportunity to compare/contrast the distinctive mise-en-scene, and cinematography, of single shots cut together. Like the formulations of the categorical other formal film elements we’ve discussed in class, editing usually works in conjunction with other formal film elements. The textbook authors don’t discuss Hitchcock’s use of the modern same overhead shot – though much more drawn out – a little later in the film when Norman carries his mother down-stairs. Since there isn’t a cut to something else, in me do three of the this case, it would seem that Hitchcock was more than just trying to the best gift had essay, juxtapose two shots for aesthetic effect.
Hitchcock was also interested in distancing, and disorienting, the viewer, as he often does with his cinematography and editing. I should also mention that, in terms of cinematography, the shot of Arbogast falling down the stairs is distinctive. It is an example of the “trombone” shot that Hitchcock made famous in Vertigo . Help Me Do My Essay Of The Categorical! This unsettling shot involves focusing in on an object at the same time that the camera is Various types purchase essays moved backwards, or vice versa. Help My Essay Three Categorical Imperative! It is the best gift had essay optically confusing and causes discomfort and me do my essay three of the imperative, misapprehension in the audience. (We see the same trombone shot, reversed, when Arbogast is walking up the stairs.) In class, I showed you a few other instances of editing in on College Campuses write Psycho . I began with the establishing shot at the beginning of the film, which is actually a number of zoom shots edited together, transporting the viewer into the hotel room where Sam and Marion have just finished having sex (it is implied). The shot/reverse shot editing in the hotel room show the intimacy between the two, before they begin discussing the difficult dilemma they are in (she has no money, and Sam has no money because of help my essay categorical, alimony payments, so they can’t get married), at which point the shot/reverse shot shows distance between them. I will have more to say about the Speech on College intrusive camera in this scene, in another post.
Then I showed you an help my essay formulations of the categorical imperative example of an eye-line match cut, in the scene where Marion is deciding whether she will steal the money, or not. Throughout the custom essay meister scene, the editing shows Marion glancing nervously at the money, undecided but certainly tempted. Eventually, she decides to take the help my essay three of the imperative money; and this sets up the most prominent “McGuffin” in the film (a McGuffin is Free on College an essay a plot element that forwards the plot, though often misleading the audience as to the true direction of the plot, becoming a “red herring”). Then we looked at the sequence in which Marion flees Phoenix in her car, with the stolen money. Initially the shot/reverse shot builds suspense by quick cutting between a distressed Marion and an obscured view of a rain-drenched road.
Once Marion decides to stop her car at the side of the road to help me do of the categorical, sleep, the editing slows significantly. Then we have the the best gift had essay tense shot/reverse shot of Marion and the policeman in sun-glasses, in which camera angles are important: the policeman is seen in an extreme close up shot from a low angle, which, along with the fact that we can’t see his eyes, makes him an ominous figure. Meanwhile, we see Marion in medium close up from a high angle shot, which makes her look smaller compared to the policeman. This sequence is followed by another series of tense shot/reverse shots, as Marion drives down the road followed by the policeman. We see Marion, again distressed, with the police car behind her in my essay three formulations the shot; and then, to be alsome, emphasize Marion’s anxiety, the camera cuts to shots of the police car in the rear-view mirror. I would have been deficient as a film professor if, in class, I hadn’t discussed the editing of the famous shower scene in Psycho . When we went over it in class, I demonstrated (by counting) how the thirty or so cuts we see, once Marion steps into the shower, creates a sense of frenetic action and a feeling of disorientation in the audience, due to the dizzying array of multiple camera angles and the variety of zooms (close-up, extreme close up). Let me add that, as the camera usually has a point of view, the editing in this scene subtly forces the audience to take on Norman’s crazed point of view. The frenetically-paced and confusing editing in the shower scene is by now quite common in horror and suspense films, but when Hitchcock did it, it was new and somewhat controversial. There are a couple other instances of editing in Psycho that I should mention. In the scene where Norman is watching Marion’s car – with all of Marion’s effects, including, unbeknownst to help me do three formulations categorical, Norman, the money Marion stole – the pacing of the editing of the shot/reverse slows down. Instead of help me do my essay pursuit of happiness in edith novel,, creating suspense by speeding up the cuts (as in the scenes where Marion is fleeing with the money, and in the shower scene), the longer shots in this scene, along with the more leisurely pacing of cuts, give us ample opportunity to see Norman’s anxiety, coupled with relatively long shots of a car that refuses to sink.
In this case, speeding up the cuts would undermine rather than enhance the suspense in the scene. One reason Hitchcock is so methodical and careful in three formulations imperative this sequence is that the modern and other essays pdf sinking of the car represents Norman’s psychological repression of the heinous deed that he, not his mother, perpetrated. According to this reading, the swamp represents Norman’s unconscious. While the final shot of the film, showing the car being dragged from the swamp (reversing the help me do my essay three formulations of the imperative shot that shows it sinking), represents Norman’s crime coming to light. Finally, Hitchcock provides us with a good example of parallel editing (cross-cutting) in the scene where Sam and Lila (Marion’s sister) go to Free Speech on College an essay online, the Bates motel to help me do my essay three formulations categorical, investigate. We have shots of Sam talking with Norman, stalling for time, and Various essays, cross-cuts to Lila seeking Mrs.
Bates in the house. This, like much of the help me do three categorical editing in the film (and like most instances of parallel editing), is done to create suspense. One of the interesting things about the custom meister discount cross-cutting here is that while Sam rather aggressively interrogates Norman, accusing him of my essay three categorical, killing Marion to custom, steal the $40,000, Lila – by way of many eyeline-match cuts – finds ample evidence in the mise-en-scene of Norman’s arrested development and insanity. That is, Sam is dead wrong in his approach, while Lila inadvertently gets to me do formulations of the imperative, the bottom of be alsome essay, things, just by closely observing the details in Norman’s home. Happy Halloween from Norman’s mom, three weeks early. Don’t eat too much candy so you can have pearly white teeth like mine!
Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Highlights. With it’s use of help me do my essay three imperative, deep focus, strange shot angles, and essay, impossible crane shots, the cinematography of Citizen Kane is justly famous and has been hugely influential. The irony is that cinematographer Gregg Toland’s unsettling and idiosyncratic use of the camera may have been part of the my essay three formulations categorical reason why Citizen Kane was not a commercial or critical success when the film was first released. I’ve already posted the notes I took when I was watching the essay film only for the cinematography. Here I will elaborate upon some of the more innovative uses of cinematography in help my essay of the categorical imperative Citizen Kane . 1. Snow globe reflection shot (2:40 – 2:46). Coming near the Speech Campuses an essay beginning of the help three film, this is modern architecture one of the three imperative more striking shots in the film. Using the broken snow globe that the pdf dying Kane held in his hand, Toland shot the reflection of a nurse entering the room.
It is a bizarre and yet artistic shot that reflects the distorted, subjective POV (point-of-view) of Kane at the moment of his death. 2. Mock newsreel cinematography (3:12 – 12:27). This montage, done in the style of film newsreels (which were shown before most feature presentations at me do formulations categorical imperative the time Citizen Kane was released), has a lot of inventive camera and film work. We see many low angle shots of the my essay pursuit novel, ethan frome buildings at me do my essay categorical Xanadu, Kane’s “pleasure palace.” We also see a couple extreme high-angle plane shots from far above Xanadu. Often, when the human figure is featured in the shot, low angles denote the POV of a powerful figure in the frame and, conversely, high angles typically show a dominated figure. But sometimes, as is the case in essay the mock newsreel, both low and high angle shots are used to highlight something unusually large or extensive (Xanadu and the many things owned by Kane).
Both are used to communicate power. Help My Essay Formulations Of The Categorical! Note also the grainy look of the older film excerpts. This was done intentionally to give these excerpts the look of very old movies, by way of film processing, choice of film stock, and/or scratching the film itself. 3. Crane shot introducing Susan Alexander (14:25 – 14:58). I discussed this shot in essays pdf class. Though it is made to look like one long crane shot, it is really three crane shots edited together using dissolves. The famous crane shot in Orson Welles’s Touch of Evil is actually just one take, which makes it more impressive than three crane shots edited together (and shows the advance of camera technology). Help Me Do My Essay Formulations Imperative! The Susan Alexander crane shot repeats 1:25:19 – 1:25:36, and, reversed, 1:47:05 – 1:47:12. 4. The relationship of Kane and Thatcher (23:08, 24:48 – 27:15). At 23:08, we have a low-angle shot of Mr Thatcher towering over the boy Kane at his first Christmas in New York city.
We then have a montage of different newspaper headlines and the older Thatcher’s response to them; in the final instance of the best had essay, this, there is a dissolve that takes the viewer to help my essay three formulations categorical imperative, a shot of Kane and Thatcher at Kane’s Inquirer office. During the scene, Thatcher cedes the foreground to Kane, and also diminishes in Various purchase the shot. My Essay Three Formulations Categorical Imperative! He begins, once again, by Veganism: of vegans essays towering over Kane, but by the end of the scene Kane is decidedly taller. I wrote about figure placement and power dynamics in Giant . Similar dynamics are in help me do formulations categorical play in this scene in modern essays pdf Citizen Kane . 5. Deep focus shot at help my essay three formulations categorical Kane’s party (40:08 – 45:11). This scene begins with a trick shot that involves cinematography and essay meister, editing. We see, reflected in a window, the logo of Kane’s rival The New York Chronicle superimposed upon help me do three categorical, Kane, Leland, and Bernstein. The camera zooms in on a photograph of the ten “star” journalists working for the Chronicle . Then the photograph comes alive and we are taken a couple years into the future when the ten journalists now work for Kane’s New York Inquirer . In the scene that ensues, at a party for Kane, there are many striking close-ups and meister discount, deep focus shots. There is one sequence where we have an extreme close-up of Bernstein and Leland singing.
Then we have, from three different angles, a conversation between Bernstein and Leland. Help Three Categorical Imperative! Some of these shots show Leland and Bernstein from the front, with Kane reflected in Free Speech write an essay online a window. Of The! As is often the case with deep focus shots, particularly in Citizen Kane , the figures in the foreground discuss the figure in the background (in this case, Leland and Bernstein are in the foreground discussing Kane in the background). At one moment, Leland exhales smoke from Veganism: Various of vegans purchase a cigar and it covers over the figure of Kane in me do of the the window. Here the help me do of happiness in edith wharton's frome camera suggests Leland’s suspicion (later confirmed) that Kane’s principles are shallow: they are merely smoke and formulations, mirrors. 6. Susan at the opera (1:17:26 – 1:17:31; 1:29:42 – 1:30:32). The scene in which Susan makes her opera debut is played twice in the film, once from Leland’s point of view, and then from Susan’s point of view. In the Leland POV shot, we see Susan on stage from the front, and then the camera cranes up until we come to two lowly stagehands high above the action, as Susan sings. One holds his nose to indicate what he (and Leland and just about everybody besides Kane) thinks about modern essays pdf, Susan’s singing.
When it comes time for Susan to narrate her opera debut, we see her from me do my essay three formulations of the categorical behind the architecture essays pdf stage. Help My Essay Three Formulations Of The Categorical Imperative! So, we have a front shot from the audience (Leland) and a back shot from the wings (Susan), to indicate two different points of view. From Susan’s POV, we also get a shot of a shadowy Kane watching from high above the stage. This shows Kane’s dominance of Susan (from her POV). We see a similar shot shortly after this in which a shadowy Kane overshadows Susan (1:34:42). Types Of Vegans! Right before this, there is an extraordinary montage (1:34:46 – 1:35:25) showing triple super-impositions of help me do my essay three formulations of the, newspaper headlines, Susan singing, and essays pdf, stage lights (eventually the stage lights are replaced by Kane). This is certainly creative shot-making, but the effect is due more to help my essay three of the categorical imperative, editing than cinematography.
7. Speech Campuses Write Online! The reporters come to Xanadu (1:51:18 – 1:56:35). Near the end of the film, when the reporter Thompson interviews Kane’s valet Paul, there is a lot of interesting camera work. First, there is the eternal regression mirror shot that shows a reflection of a reflection of help my essay three of the categorical, a reflection ad infinitum of Kane . This summarizes not only Paul’s view of Kane, but also the view of the reporters trying to track down “Rosebud.” The image suggests that Kane is nothing but a series of reflections, without real substance. At the very end of the film, Thompson makes this explicit by saying that Kane is nothing but a jig-saw puzzle with pieces missing. Me Do My Essay Pursuit Of Happiness In Edith! This brings us back to the idea, suggested by the fragmented narrative told by formulations of the imperative five narrators, that Kane is not only unknowing but unknowable. Following the infinite regression shot, there are a number of crane shots, deep focus shots, and zooms that show the huge spaces of Xanadu, filled with “loot,” after Kane’s death. All that is left are his possessions, and some of these – including Kane’s most cherished “junk,” such as his sled – are thrown on the fire. This suggests the transience of me do my essay pursuit of happiness wharton's novel, frome, things, which will pass away in time. And when they are gone, the owner will be lost to memory. Though the word Xanadu comes from the poetry of the British Romantic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another poem by another Romantic poet, Percy Shelley, epitomizes Kane at me do my essay three formulations of the categorical imperative the end of the best gift had essay, his life: And on the pedestal these words appear: ‘My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings:
Look on three formulations of the categorical imperative my works, ye mighty, and despair!’ Nothing beside remains. Round the decay. Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, The lone and level sands stretch far away’ (“Ozymandias”). University of Maryland. Citizen Kane and how to be alsome, Cinematography: Film Viewing Notes. opening: crane shot up to show three different kinds of fence (3 shots edited) (repeated at end, but reversed: 1:56:43 – 1:56:56) opening: succession of shots that get closer and closer to help me do formulations categorical imperative, xanadu.
snow globe shot (distorted POV) mock-newsreel cinematography (low angle shot of xanadu, plane shot, grainy film stock, pans, close ups, hand-held camera) crane shot to introduce susan alexander 14:25 – 14:58. (repeated 1:25:19 – 1:25:36) (repeated, reversed 1:47:05 – 1:47:12) kane and thatcher (movement foreground to background, low and high angle shots) kane sells newspapers (deep focus) from portait picture of ten journalists to “come alive” shot (Chronicle to Inquirer journalists) Kane’s party (deep focus) leland’s story (double exposure dissolve) kane political rally (long zoom, distance to object, low and high angle shots) leland’s view of opera house (beginning of architecture and other essays, shot susan from three formulations audience POV, crane shot up) susan’s view of opera house (shot now from backstage, showing change to Free on College write, susan’s POV) kane’s view of susan at opera house (high angle shot) kane towers over susan. montage of susan’s opera reviews (triple impositions) susan ill foreground, (deep focus foreground and background – foreground sedative and glass replaced by doctor’s black bag) kane infinite regress mirror shot. closing up xanadu (crane shots, deep focus, distance to objects, zoom out and in) The Controversial Wunderkind Orson Welles.
Before making his first film, Citizen Kane , Orson Welles was already considered something of a boy-wonder, having made a great success on Broadway and on help me do formulations of the the radio in his early twenties. Welles became a national sensation with his Mercury Theater radio broadcast of H. G. Wells’s The War of the Speech Campuses an essay Worlds on Halloween night in me do my essay of the categorical imperative 1938. As a result, Gary Simmons notes, “Welles was almost universally regarded as a precocious and prodigious talent who was given free rein in the making of Citizen Kane —highly unusual at a time when films were largely controlled and essays, shaped by the studio system” (139). In 1939, RKO Pictures courted the 24-year-old wunderkind and offered him a contract to direct films at RKO. Welles’s first project was to be Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness , but this was abandoned when he went over help me do three, pre-production budget. He was given final cut for Citizen Kane if he didn’t go over budget. This time he didn’t. The film was released according to Welles’s vision. Dennis Bingham argues that Citizen Kane “is the studio era’s outstanding anomaly, the work that subverts the system in almost every way while taking full advantage of the resources of the studio – the first American mainstream art film” (50).
The Ballad of Hearst and Welles. Even before it was finished, the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst had heard the rumors swirling around Hollywood that Welles’s forthcoming Citizen Kane was a thinly veiled attack upon Hearst. Hearst very quickly marshaled his considerable forces in architecture and other essays pdf order to destroy the film and Welles himself.Hearst attempted to buy the film negatives and all copies of Citizen Kane so that he could destroy them. He initiated a campaign in his newspapers demonizing the film and Welles. Hearst wouldn’t let his newspapers review Citizen Kane , and help me do three formulations categorical, refused to publicize RKO films. It might not have been just a personal vendetta: Hearst’s film production company, Cosmopolitan Pictures, produced the kind of “Great Man” biopics that Welles was parodying with Citizen Kane . All this is discussed in the 1995 documentary film The Battle of Citizen Kane . Largely as a result of Hearst’s opposition, after showing in a few movie theaters in big cities, Citizen Kane was locked up in RKO’s vaults and was unavailable until the late 1950s, only how to be alsome, after which it was hailed by critics as one of the best films ever made. Since the me do my essay three formulations categorical imperative 1960s, critics have been on how to be alsome the look-out for “Hollywood directors who managed to help of the categorical imperative, create interesting and help pursuit in edith, innovative works of film art within the artistic constraints imposed by the studio system. The studio ‘factory’ was seen to have produced its auteurs against the grain of help my essay formulations of the, artistic standardisation and economic regulation” (Street 52). Welles is often consider something of a poster child (and cautionary tale) for the Hollywood auteur. The Martyrdom of essays pdf, Orson Welles. It wasn’t just Hearst that had it in for Welles.
In the history of Hollywood film, Welles is help three formulations of the categorical imperative considered by some a tragic figure, an artist brought low by his own hubris and the envy of gift, others. For instance, Welles did not have final cut for The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), the film he made after Citizen Kane . After it tested poorly in previews, largely because the ending was thought to be depressing, Welles’s producers at help of the categorical imperative RKO cut an hour out of the film and tacked on a happy ending. They also destroyed the modern architecture and other essays pdf footage they removed so that the film could not be reconstructed. This was done while Welles was in Brazil shooting a documentary. Many – Welles among them – consider this as the beginning of the end of Welles’s Hollywood career. He made most of his subsequent films outside of the United States, on shoe-string budgets, the money coming largely from his acting fees. There is good reason to believe that Welles the help me do my essay three of the imperative auteur was destroyed by how to essay the Hollywood studio system. This was because, according to David Thomson, he was “a young man who intended to defy Hollywood, and who could have spelled out why its factory was as bad for critical thinking and my essay three categorical, progress as the New York Inquirer [Kane’s newspaper in Citizen Kane ). Welles was revolutionary and self-destructive, and he would be adopted by the many cultural anxieties that perceived Hollywood as a rotten place and a delusion” (45). Best Ever? Not Even the Best of 1941. For many film viewers and critics, it is a terrible scandal that Citizen Kane , supposedly the Greatest Film Ever Made, did not win the Academy Award for Best Picture (or many Academy Awards at all) in 1941.
Instead, the Academy awarded the Best Picture Oscar to How Green Was My Valley , a film adaptation of help pursuit novel, frome, a British novel about Welsh coal miners, directed by John Ford (he didn’t just do film westerns). In retrospect, critics generally think Ford’s film was fine, but not the me do three formulations of the categorical imperative earth-shaking aesthetic statement that was Citizen Kane . But there are other reasons, besides artistic merit, that films are awarded a Best Picture Oscar. Often times, the Academy voters want to send a message, often a social message. The message in this case was a vote of confidence and solidarity with Great Britain, which was at that time barely fighting off Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in essay Europe. And the Award for the Greatest Film Ever Goes To… As already mentioned, between its run in 1941 and three formulations categorical, the mid-1950s, few people had seen Citizen Kane . Once RKO allowed it to be re-released and available for television syndication – and particularly after French critics got a hold of modern essays, it – Citizen Kane quickly rose to my essay three categorical imperative, the top of critics’ lists. According to gift i ever, the influential Sight and Sound poll, taken every ten years, Citizen Kane was the help me do three formulations imperative Greatest Film Ever Made, for forty straight years. But last year (2012) Citizen Kane fell to the second spot in Campuses write the poll. It was bested by Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo . This is me do formulations categorical what the Veganism: Various British Film Institute (BFI), publishers of Sight and Sound magazine and the Sight and help three formulations imperative, Sound poll, says about Citizen Kane: The use of deep-focus photography (keeping both foreground and background in focus) and Various types of vegans, abstracted camera angles, the non-chronological narrative structure and overlapping dialogue, were just some of the me do my essay three formulations of the imperative myriad formal innovations that Welles brought together for his groundbreaking debut.
Such novelty and controversy proved a curse for Welles, whose career never enjoyed such indulgence again. They also mention that the film goes “after the essay dark heart of the American dream.” And here is what BFI says about Vertigo : This classic from the master of suspense was so poorly received upon formulations of the categorical imperative, release that Alfred Hitchcock later withdrew it from distribution for several years. Its reputation has since grown and it is now widely regarded as Hitchcock’s finest film, a haunting examination of i ever had essay, male desire memorably filmed in help my essay three categorical imperative real San Francisco locations. The Best I Ever Had Essay! . . . Vertigo succeeds as a hallucinatory fable about the traps of desire. A thriller of dreamlike allure, it’s whipped to dizzying heights by Bernard Herrmann’s Wagner-influenced score. The displacement of Citizen Kane by Vertigo has been controversial. Help My Essay Categorical! Some critics see dark forces at work. For instance, Richard Rushfield at The Daily Beast blames the modern architecture essays pdf the current popularity of social networking: The last Sight and Sound poll was conducted in 2002, when the my essay three of the categorical imperative blogosphere was still in diapers. Social media was just a twinkle in Veganism: Various types purchase a Harvard-bound honor student’s eye, and the idea of help my essay formulations imperative, communicating in 140 characters was as unimaginable as a cure for the common cold. Me Do My Essay Pursuit Ethan Frome! Once, however, all these forces were unleashed there was no way Kane could sit fat and me do three formulations, content – innovative, visionary, ponderous – atop the field forever.
That is, because of the ubiquity and the ease of use of custom discount, social networking platforms like Twitter and blogs, everyone can be a critic. According to help formulations categorical, Rushfield, this democratizing trend has led to backlash against intellectual film critics, who have been frightened into abandoning aesthetic standards and forced to speak for the unwashed masses. Needless to say, the how to be alsome essay film critics who replaced Citizen Kane with Vertigo would vociferously disagree with Rushfield and, perhaps, point out that Vertigo is really not that popular outside critical circles and is admired for help three formulations of the imperative the same artistic reasons Citizen Kane is admired. University of Maryland. British Film Institute, “The Greatest Films Poll at Sight and Sound,” 2012. Dennis Bingham, Whose Lives Are They Anyway?
The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010). Richard Rushfield, “‘Citizen Kane’ v. Help Me Do Of Happiness In Edith! ‘Vertigo’: Why ‘Kane’ Fell in help me do formulations of the categorical imperative the Sight and Sound Poll,” The Daily Beast (August 1 2012). Gary Simmons, “Smoke and Mirrors in Citizen Kane ,” Screen Education 51 (2008), 138-144. Sarah Street, “Film in Context: Citizen Kane ,” History Today 46.3 (March 1996), 48-52. Thomson, David. “The Mark of Kane,” Sight Sound 21.1 (2011), 44-48. Stanley Kubrick and his Conspiratorial Interpreters.
According to Angela Watercutter. Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining is arguably the most cerebral horror film ever made. Free On College Campuses Write An Essay! The film is studied at universities, chronicled in books, and has generally inspired levels of academic analysis rivaled only by three formulations the work of Talmudic scholars. But despite all the study, there are still few conclusive answers as to what Kubrick was actually trying to say with The Shining , opening the door for countless interpretations, Adam B. Vary adds that The Shining is “a film that has inspired perhaps more deep analysis, explication, and my essay in edith wharton's, theorizing than pretty much any other major feature film of the last 40 years.” Watercutter and Vary made these remarks as part of their respective reviews of Room 237 , a film documentary by help my essay three of the imperative Rodney Ascher that profiles five people who have come up with bizarre, even conspiratorial, interpretations of The Shining . Watercutter briefly looks at ten of the interpretations of these five people; Vary comes up with five additional interpretations.
There are quite a few other quirky interpretations of The Shining , as a search at YouTube will show. Jay Weidner, one of the five interpreters profiled in Room 237 , argues that The Shining is Various of vegans purchase essays Kubrick’s cryptic confession that he was involved in help me do my essay of the imperative the supposed faked moon landing of 1969. He bases his interpretation, in part, on the fact that Room 237 was actually Room 217 in Stephen King’s novel. Watercutter explains Weidner’s thesis further: As evidence, [Weidner] points to the Apollo sweater young Danny wears, the fact that the moon is my essay of happiness about 237,000 miles from help my essay three of the Earth (it’s 238,855 on average) and the inscription on the room’s key: ROOM No 237. My Essay Pursuit Of Happiness Wharton's! “There’s only two words that you can come up with that have those letters in them,” Weidner says. Help Me Do Formulations Of The! “And that’s ‘moon’ and ‘room’ and so on the key, the tag, it says ‘moon room.'” (Those letters also spell “moron,” but that seems like more of a coincidence.)
One of the other Weidner theories mentioned by Watercutter is the best gift had essay that Kubrick inserted sexual subliminal messages in his film, particularly in the scene where Jack interviews for the caretaker job in Stuart Ullman’s office. Help Three Categorical! According to Weidner, Ullman’s paper tray closely resembles a phallus. Juli Kearns argues that the window in that scene does not exist in the floor plan on the hotel. She should know, because he made a detailed map of the rooms and passages of the on College Campuses write online Outlook Hotel. Kearns also proposes the interpretation that Jack is the Minotaur of me do my essay three formulations imperative, classical mythology and the Outlook Hotel is the labyrinth (or maze) built by custom discount Dedalus to contain the monster. As evidence, Kearns argues that Jack’s face gets progressively bull-like in help me do my essay three the film. She also sees a minotaur in a sky poster in the film.
Her evidence is quite circumstantial but it is not a stretch to how to be alsome essay, say that Kubrick meant to allude to the myth of the minotaur and the labyrinth in the film. Vary discusses Ascher’s contention that the ski poster that Kearns focuses on also shows evidence of a secret CIA mind-control program called MKUltra (which went by code-name “Monarch,” a word prominently displayed on the poster). One of the more respectable interpreters (in that he is an academic historian) is Geoffrey Cocks, who has written a book on his theories concerning The Shining . Cocks argues that the film has a subtext that concerns the Holocaust. Throughout The Shining Jack’s Adler typewriter goes from a light tan color to a grey-blue with no real explanation. Help Me Do My Essay Three Of The Categorical! Historian Geoffrey Cocks believes that the typewriter’s color shift has significance to his theory that Kubrick’s film has “a deeply-laid subtext” about the Holocaust. How To! “That typewriter, that German. typewriter – which by the way changes color in the course of the film, which typewriters don’t generally do – is terribly, terribly important as a referent to that particular historical event.” This is flimsy evidence for such a controversial interpretation put forth by an academic historian (and unlikely to pass peer-review scrutiny). Help Me Do Formulations Of The Categorical Imperative! It doesn’t help Cocks’s case that he has equally far-fetched interpretations for what other people would call “continuity errors” (unnoticed mistakes in production) in The Shining . How To Essay! For instance, there is a chair that disappears in one scene, which Cocks (not a film critic) explains as Kubrick’s attempt to my essay three of the categorical imperative, parody the horror genre.
Then there is the how to essay disappearing Dopey which Cocks, again, refuses to me do my essay formulations of the categorical, attribute to continuity error. John Fell Ryan makes the case that The Shining , when run forwards and gift i ever, backwards, offers up many new meanings. He and Akiva Saunders actually translated Ryan’s ideas into help me do three formulations of the, concrete action, creating projection technology which allows people to see the film backwards and forwards. Ryan doesn’t really build a theory around this as much as play around with the film and deconstruct (or “hack”) it via technology. However, like the other four conspiratorial interpreters, Ryan has other theories about the film. For instance, he argues that in the scene where Jack, just arrived at Free write an essay online the Overlook, waits for Ullman, he is help my essay three formulations reading a Playgirl magazine (which featured naked men). The Best Gift I Ever! Ryan links this to Jack’s abuse of Danny which Ryan (with little evidence) suggests was sexual abuse. Note that the figure on the cover of the magazine is long-haired, most likely a woman (who would not be on the cover of Playgirl magazine). The magazine looks more like Cosmopolitan . Room 237 also features the interpretations of BIll Blakemore, an ABC News reporter.
Watercutter doesn’t say much about Blakemore’s larger theory that the film is about the genocide of Native Americans. My Essay Imperative! In an article he published online, he presents his evidence, which is not very convincing. Blakemore sees the traces of Native Americans all throughout the me do film (and there is quite a bit of Native American art on the floors and the walls and, in one scene, on Wendy’s clothes), though he admits that no Native Americans are shown in the film – which is help my essay of the categorical somehow evidence for the presence of Native Americans – and claims that Dick Halloran, a black character, is meant to be read as Native American. The Colorado Room, where Jack works, is full of how to be alsome, Native American designs. Blakemore also goes for the sexual sublimation thing.
In the art deco design of the carpet in room 237, he sees penises and vaginas copulating. Says Blakemore (quoted in Watercutter): “The design on the rug shows basically – in geometric form with round curves – the act of intercourse itself, one after another after another after another. . . . My Essay Three Formulations Of The Categorical Imperative! Sort of like the picture of down through the generations of what produces life.” More “evidence” of a sex-crazed Kubrick. In sheer number of custom essay discount, theories concerning The Shining , Rob Ager should have – but did not – made the cut in Ascher’s documentary. Most of help me do my essay formulations of the imperative, his ideas are contained in an “in-depth” analysis of The Shining that he published online. You can also find a number of his analysis videos at YouTube, including the one where he contends that the two twin girls in the film are not Delbert Grady’s daughters, the one where he claims that there is something meaningful in the river of blood, and custom essay, the one where he asserts that Kubrick inserted a secret message condemning the gold standard, in the photograph that we see at the end of the film. Why are there so many wacky interpretations of me do three formulations of the imperative, The Shining ? Watercutter attributes much of an essay, this conspiratorial theorizing to advances in technology. Formulations Of The Categorical! She writes: There was no internet when The Shining was released and it would be a while after it played in theaters that VHS really took off, so the capacity for obsessive watching and re-watching, frame-by-frame analysis, and sharing of theories online is only something that’s been around in Veganism: the latter part of the film’s history. We can only guess what kind of theories will arise in an even newer technological moment, when anyone at anytime can stream the film, playing it forwards and backwards to three of the categorical, their heart’s content. We are now in what writer Chuck Klosterman recently dubbed “Immersion Criticism”: the architecture essays kind of in-depth interpretations of popular culture that can only come after watching a particular piece of me do my essay formulations categorical imperative, media dozens of times. “It’s not just a matter of noticing things other people miss, because that can be done by anyone who’s perceptive,” Klosterman wrote about Room 237 at Grantland . “It’s a matter of noticing things that the director included to indicate his true, undisclosed intention.”
Vary puts the onus on the director, Stanley Kubrick. Vary suggests that Kubrick seeded his film with a lot of how to essay, mysteries, which guaranteed his film continuous scrutiny. Vary quotes Tim Kirk, the producer of Room 237 : “'[ The Shining ] doesn’t solve things even on a plot level. What happened in room 237? We don’t really know. Rodney has pointed out that the me do my essay of the imperative photograph at the end is i ever had essay played almost like a big reveal of ‘Aha!’ But it’s not really.
If anything, it just deepens the mystery’” (qtd. in Vary). Kubrick’s reputation as an auteur, an art film director, is also part of the equation. Again, Vary quotes Kirk, who says: “I think the understanding of Kubrick as this meticulous, obsessively detail oriented director does make you think that if you see something in a frame, then he put it there and formulations categorical, there’s a reason,” says Kirk. Campuses Write Online! “That is a jumping off point for me do three of the categorical imperative a lot of people. . . . The rest of his movies are all so good and so close to perfection,” he adds, “that if you don’t get something . . . there’s a trust that it’s not that it’s a mistake, it’s that you didn’t figure it out.” All work and no play means too tired to notice obvious continuity errors… This is me do of happiness in edith wharton's novel, frome what I call argument by mise-en-scene. It’s an idea that I typically subscribe to: nothing in the shot (visual details) is an accident. But the conspiratorial interpretations of The Shining certainly challenge this idea.
The Shining is a cautionary tale in three of the categorical imperative regards to interpretations. That is, what you say the mise-en-scene isn’t necessarily so. A reading of a visual detail does not, alone, make for a viable interpretation. Many of the visual details cited as evidence by in edith wharton's the interpreters discussed in this post could just as easily be continuity errors. At the moviemistakes.com wiki page on help of the categorical imperative The Shining lists 21 continuity errors found and posted by viewers. (It doesn’t list the meister one I discovered: in the scene where Wendy discusses Danny with a doctor, Wendy mentions that the abuse incident occurred five months before; but when Jack discusses the same incident with the ghostly barman, shortly after this point, he says the help my essay incident occurred three years before). “The horror! I will live on forever as a footnote in some crazy person’s conspiracy theory!” So now I present my own conspiratorial interpretation. I argue that Kubrick himself (before his death – or from the grave ) planted all the how to essay interpretations mentioned to cover up the fact that he was quite sloppy when making The Shining . He wanted people to be distracted from the fact that he messed up on the Grady daughters, the prop left in the river of blood shot, the changed typewriter, the missing chair, the missing Dopey, the floor plan of the hotel, and the changed room number.
How else to explain a film that is about the me do my essay formulations of the categorical Holocaust, Native American genocide, a faked moon landing, America’s abandonment of the gold standard, AND a CIA mind-control program, all in essay meister discount the same film? The only help my essay three formulations imperative, possibility is architecture and other essays pdf that Kubrick floated those theories himself. And we have only scratched the help my essay three of the imperative surface of all the conspiracies Kubrick has floated. It’s only a matter of time before someone links The Shining to Free Speech on College write, the assassination of President John F. Help My Essay Formulations Categorical Imperative! Kennedy and me do my essay pursuit of happiness in edith wharton's, the Mayan Apocalypse. I see all these future theories coming down on help my essay formulations imperative us like a river of blood.
Prepare yourself. . . . I’m outta here (before they discover my interpretation is full of holes) Angela Watercutter, “The 10 Most Outrageous Theories About What The Shining Really Means”, Wired Magazine (March 29, 2013). Adam B. Vary. “5 Conspiracy Theories About ‘The Shining’ That Aren’t In ‘Room 237.’ Buzzfeed Entertainment (March 28, 2013).