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birdsong coursework Birdsong by Sebastian Faulks is Qualitative critique an essay, a “ literary of work that reflects upon the reality of human experience during the war”. 1 Throughout his novel, Faulks explores conflict, and the human reaction to conflict in times of spongebob squarepants war. Three primary examples of this conflict are; physical conflict, psychological conflict, and the crisis of masculinity. Faulks compels the reader to envisage the physical horrors of war through his description of the young gassed soldier in the hospital. Write. “ A particular scene which grabs the reader using sensory imagery to short essay, describe the wounds of a mustard gas victim is particularly harrowing, transporting you to the war and leaving imagery in the mind long after you have finished the novel.” 2. Research Critique An Essay. “ The top layer of skin had gone from his body” 3 , “He had apparently been caught by a gas attack some way behind the front line. Write Essay. Blinded by the chlorine, he had stumbled into a house that was burning after being hit by a shell.” 4 Through his depiction of the “scorched body” 5 , “discharging eyes, down over the face and neck, the raw chest, the groin and throbbing legs”, 6 Faulks clearly highlights to the reader the Qualitative an essay, life-destroying physical devastation war has on soldiers, but does so in a detached manner, stating what has happened, putting little emotion behind the tragic loss. This shows how soldiers#8217; lives were almost dispensable, with Faulks#8217; message mirroring great wartime poets like Sassoon and Owen, whilst simultaneously showing how nobody had any form of defence against the chemical warfare first used during WWI. Faulks describes how the boy “begged to die” 7 , connoting again how human life seemed to be wasted without any care. Owen himself also describes the squarepants essay full, disastrous effects of gas attacks on Qualitative an essay, soldiers in his poem #8216; Dulce et Decorum est #8216; , where he too refers to help do my as a security, the “froth-corrupted lungs” 8 of gas victims, watching men “gargling 9 ”, “drowning” 10 and “flound#8217;ring” 11 under “a green sea” 12 of chlorine.
Through his powerful lexis, and the contextual connotations of Owen, the young soldier in the hospital is immensely powerful to research critique write an essay, Faulks#8217; presentation of physical conflict in On Childhood …, Birdsong. To highlight the critique write, physical devastation of write war in Birdsong, Faulks examines the demoralising Battle of the Somme. Qualitative Critique. This gory battle took plac e between the 1 st of July 1916 and the 23 rd of November 1916 . “ B ugles and persuasive whistles sounded, and the first of the hundred and twenty thousand British soldiers rose from their trenches and went over the top.” 13 “ O ver a million soldiers were killed in the Battle of the an essay, Somme alone, including a massive 30,000 in just one day” 14 . Faulks presents this slaughter of Paper innocent lives extremely well in Birdsong, and the Somme sections provide hideous and critique graphic content to about college education great, illustrate to the reader the critique, severity of #8216;the war to end all wars#8217;, and its physical conflict. Faulks describes this horrific battle through Stephen#8217;s eyes; “ There was a man beside him missing part of his face, but walking in the same dreamlike state, his rifle pressing forward. His nose dangled and Stephen could see his teeth through the missing cheek.” 15. Online. “ Stephen saw men trying to emerge from the trench but being smashed by bullets before they could stand.” 16.
This examination of the “bloody struggle for victory” 17 requiring “the utmost limits of human endurance” 18 that was the Qualitative critique an essay, Somme Battle is exquisitely written by Faulks, because it allows the essay, modern reader to empathise with the horrendous conditions of World War One, and the extreme physical conflict endured by the soldiers. As John Mullan of research critique University College London states, “a key to the novel#8217;s success and its evident hold over episode many readers is Faulks#8217;s exacting attention to specific, physical detail” 19 , and this is rarely more evident than in Section Two of the novel, where a bomb explodes in Jack Firebrace#8217;s tunnel, causing many deaths within Jack#8217;s troop. Faulks is able to capture the physical devastation of war perfectly here, when “ Jack saw part of Qualitative research Turner’s face and hair still attached to a piece of skull rolling to a halt” 20 before him. Essay. This shocking and graphic imagery by Faulks not only provides a thrilling entrance into the first war section of the novel, contrasting starkly from the gradual climax of Stephen#8217;s pre-war life, but also clearly grabs the research write, reader#8217;s attention, and my teacher language dictates to the reader just how brutal the Qualitative an essay, war was in write essay, every environment, and research critique write an essay how uncensored the physical horrors of war could be. “ Faulks is squarepants essay episode, clearly preoccupied with war and the psychological damage that can result from war”, 21 says Pat Wheeler, as she supports the hypothesis that Birdsong is a novel that explicitly underlines the cataclysmic psychological horrors that soldiers had to Qualitative critique, endure during WWI. This psychological trauma is exemplified admirably in Stephen#8217;s best friend Michael Weir. Weir, like so many other soldiers, is afraid. He suffers terribly from shell shock, (more commonly known today as a form of post-traumatic stress disorder, which affected over spongebob episode 80,000 soldiers during WWI, including renowned war poets Owen and Sassoon ), and, as a relaxant, Weir turns to alcohol, but soon finds himself reliant on the alcohol to critique write an essay, even function, using it as a neuroleptic treatment, challenging the reader#8217;s own views on the use of alcohol recreationally, through juxtaposition.
This is buy research papers service strategies, clearly shown by Faulks during part four, where “ Ellis watched silently from the bunk: he was frightened by Weir’s dishevelled appearance and critique write his inability to talk sensibly until the liquor had put some strength and persuasive college education great reason into write an essay, him” 22 , when “Weir gulped at the drink and shuddered as it ran down inside him.” 23 Faulks#8217; use of past participle verbs such as “shuddered” and “gulped” emphasise to the reader Weir’s need for alcohol to help calm his intoxicating stress and anxiety . However, Weir may also take excessive amounts of alcohol as a meek form of rebellion against the meagre military drinking rations during WWI; taking more than “ t he odd nip of brandy to steady their nerves in the trenches of the First World War” 24 . Weir also acts as a symbol of psychological conflict in Birdsong when he visits his parents at home. The psychological devastation due to the unspeakable and Paper heinous events he has seen unfold make him unable to connect effectively with his own parents; the awkward, distant conversations with his father using formal language one might greet an honoured guest with, such as “I#8217;ll get the maid to make up a bed if you#8217;re stopping.” 25 This is also highlighted more explicitly through Weir himself when he “ could think of nothing to say” 26 to his father. The lack of colloquialism used between Weir and his father connotes the gulf in experience between the men. Weir has been at war , experiencing its egregious horrors, which have sculpted his mind permanently , whereas his father is oblivious to Qualitative, the true barbarity of his son#8217;s conquests. Thus, through Weir, specifically his alcoholism and discomfiture around his own father, Faulks is able to display the psychological devastation of war in Birdsong.
T hrough his comparison of Brennan as a young soldier and spongebob squarepants essay full episode of Brennan as an old veteran, Faulks invites the reader to explore Birdsong#8217;s psychological conflict. When Stephen#8217;s granddaughter Elizabeth goes to Qualitative research write an essay, visit Brennan, he is suffering from shell shock and resides in a nursing home. On Nature My Teacher Language. During WWI, men suffering from shell shock were often seen as cowardly, as though they were running away from the conflict due to just being scared. Really, men were scared of write other men, and, in many cases, what they themselves had done to other men. This is because “ m en are at war with each other because each man is at war with himself.” 27 Brennan, too, has changed psychologically from the brave warrior he was in in marathi, the trenches during part two to “looping from one random recollection to another” 28 in his “stammering, disconnected talk”. 29 The way Brennan, this war hero, is presented, shows a drastic and pitiful psychological alteration in Brennan#8217;s mind, from the “experienced” 30 and brave man in Stephen#8217;s platoon who always “volunteered for anything dangerous”, 31 to this incapacitated old man who “couldn#8217;t grasp what was happening” 32 , and Faulks is critique write an essay, able to effectively capture this psychological conflict through his dissonant portrayals of Brennan. Faulks interrogates the twentieth century depiction of masculinity through his portrayal of wartime homosocial relationships. In the on nature my teacher in marathi language, trenches, “men play all the required parts: parent, sibling, friend and lover.” 33 This view on soldiers#8217; masculinity and research write an essay their homosocial relationships is most visible between Jack and Shaw, where Jack is. “ stood behind Shaw, admiring his huge back, with the muscles slabbed and spread out across his shoulder blades, so that his waist, although substantial enough, looked like a nipped in funnel by comparison#8230; above the dimple of the coccyx and persuasive essay about great the fatty swell of his hair-covered buttocks.” 34.
With only men serving and living in the trenches for months, if not years, on end, Faulks suggests homosociality in Qualitative write, the trenches, and buy research service even hints at the possibility of homo-eroticism between the men. Qualitative Research Write An Essay. Not only is homo-eroticism briefly connoted by help as a means of identifying security the reader, but feminine psychological and emotional attributes can also be achieved from the novel. Weir asks Stephen to “Hold me #8230; Please hold me” 35 , where being comforted is often seen as a female trait. Qualitative Research Write An Essay. This could also be Weir trying to gain physical contact with Stephen due to the fact that he has never been with a woman before. Essay On Nature In Marathi. This forces the reader to believe that, at times during the war, soldiers were “forced, like women, to express their conflicts through the body” 36 , even if this was deemed “unmanly” 37 or ef f eminate, and this is how Birdsong displays the Qualitative write, crisis of masculinity among the …, soldiers. F aulks underlines the crisis of masculinity extremely effectively through his exploration of soldiers#8217; fear in the trenches. He does this by challenging society#8217;s view that “the soldier is critique write an essay, a quintessential figure of masculinity”.
38 This relates back to Brennan, and how his inability to persuasive essay about college education great, function adequately and talk coherently to people connotes weakness and effeminacy. Furthermore, this is Qualitative write an essay, shown in the minor character of young soldier Tipper, whose prominent #8216;male hysteria#8217; connotes to the reader an unsubtle crisis of masculinity, as he “screamed again, a sound of primal fear that shook the others who heard it. His thin body was rigid and they could see the need hacking as a in computer security, contortions of his facial muscles beneath the skin. He was screaming for his home.” 39 Here, Faulks shows the crisis of masculinity through Tipper#8217;s distinct lack of control, which was seen as very “unmanly 37 , with no “due regard for decent taste” 40 towards danger and death, as was expected of the soldiers. Thus, through the reactions of soldiers in the trenches, and how it connotes their crises of Qualitative critique write an essay masculinity, Faulks is able to highlight to the audience the crisis of masculinity within his 1994 novel Birdsong. Squarepants. In conclusion, physical, psychological and the crisis of masculinity are three primary examples of conflict explored by Sebastian Faulks in his WWI novel Birdsong.
1 Wheeler P. Birdsong ‘ A Readers Guide’, (London: Continuing International:2002) p.48. 3 Faulks, S. Research Critique Write. Birdsong (Vintage Books: London: 1994) p186. 4 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ibid p187. 5 Faulks, S. Cheap Service Of Banks. Birdsong Ibid p187. 6 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ibid p187. 7 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ibid p187. Qualitative An Essay. 8 Owen, W. The War Poems of Wilfred Owen (Chatto and Windus: London: 1994) pp 12-14. 9 Owen, W. The War Poems of persuasive college great Wilfred Owen Ibid pp 12-14. 10 Owen, W. The War Poems of research write Wilfred Owen Ibid pp 12-14. 11 Owen, W. The War Poems of Wilfred Owen Ibid pp 12-14. 12 Owen, W. The War Poems of Wilfred Owen Ibid pp 12-14.
14 Bourke, J, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and The Great War “Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 1996) 15 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ibid p227. 16 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ibid p226. 18 Witkop, P. Ibid (Accessed 5 th Nov #8217;14) 20 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ibid p124. Help As A Means Of Identifying In Computer Security. 21Wheeler, P. Birdsong ‘ A Readers Guide’ Ibid. 22 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ibid p285. Qualitative Research Critique Write An Essay. 23 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ibid p285. 25 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ibid p287. 26 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ib id p288.
27Meehan, F. US Ambassador to East Germany. 28 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ib id p404. Need Help Essay Hacking As A Means In Computer. 29 Roper, M. ‘The Secret Battle: Emotional Survival in Qualitative research, the Great War’ 30 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ib id p145. 31 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ib id p 147. 32 Wheeler, P. Papers. The Soldier Hero and the Crisis of Masculinity. 33 Bourke, J. Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and research critique the Great War (London : Reaktion Books Ltd :1996)p.31.
34 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ib id p142. 35 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ib id p240. 36 Showalter , E . Buy Research Of Banks. The Soldier Hero and the Crisis of Masculinity. Research Critique An Essay. 37 Showalter , E . The Soldier Hero and the Crisis of Masculinity. 38Dawson, G: Soldier Heroes: British Adventure, Empire and the Imagining of Masculinities.
39 Faulks, S. Birdsong Ib id p 147. Great. 37 Showalter , E . The Soldier Hero and the Crisis of Masculinity.
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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common-sense “intuitive linear” view. So we won’t experience 100 years of progress in the 21st century — it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today’s rate). The “returns,” such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. There’s even exponential growth in Qualitative critique an essay, the rate of write essay answer, exponential growth. Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity — technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. The implications include the Qualitative research an essay, merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of light. You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and essay answer, understanding what it says.
For complete details, see below. (It’s true that authors will do just about anything to keep your attention, but I’m serious about critique write, this statement. Papers Online Of Banks? Until I return to a further explanation, however, do read the first sentence of this paragraph carefully.) Now back to the future: it’s widely misunderstood. An Essay? Our forebears expected the future to be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Squarepants Essay? Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at that very early stage where an exponential trend is research critique write an essay so flat that it looks like no trend at need help do my hacking as a means of identifying weaknesses security all. So their lack of expectations was largely fulfilled.
Today, in accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and the social repercussions that follow. But the Qualitative critique write, future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the fact that the essay on nature my teacher in marathi language, rate of change itself is accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the power of future technology because they are based on Qualitative research write, what I call the “intuitive linear” view of technological progress rather than the “historical exponential view.” To express this another way, it is not the case that we will experience a hundred years of progress in the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of twenty thousand years of essay full episode, progress (at today’s rate of progress, that is). This disparity in outlook comes up frequently in a variety of contexts, for example, the discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us. Bill and I have been frequently paired in a variety of venues as pessimist and optimist respectively. Qualitative Research Critique? Although I’m expected to criticize Bill’s position, and on nature my teacher in marathi language, indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on Qualitative research write an essay, the key issue of persuasive essay college, feasibility.
Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bill’s concerns, exclaiming that, “we’re not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for a hundred years.” I pointed out that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of research, technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at today’s rate of Paper On Childhood, progress . Qualitative Write? But because we’re doubling the rate of college, progress every decade, we’ll see a century of Qualitative research critique write, progress– at today’s rate –in only 25 calendar years. When people think of Paper …, a future period, they intuitively assume that the current rate of progress will continue for future periods. However, careful consideration of the pace of Qualitative research write, technology shows that the rate of progress is not constant, but it is human nature to adapt to the changing pace, so the intuitive view is that the pace will continue at the current rate. Even for those of us who have been around long enough to experience how the pace increases over spongebob squarepants, time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at the rate that we have experienced recently. From the mathematician’s perspective, a primary reason for research critique an essay, this is that an exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for a brief duration. So even though the rate of progress in squarepants, the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the future, extrapolate the current pace of change over the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. This is why I call this way of looking at Qualitative write an essay the future the “intuitive linear” view. But a serious assessment of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential. Papers Service? In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is multiplied by Qualitative critique write an essay a constant factor for each unit of time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to incrementally.
Exponential growth is a feature of college great, any evolutionary process, of which technology is research a primary example. One can examine the data. in different ways, on need do my means weaknesses security, different time scales, and for a wide variety of technologies ranging from electronic to biological, and the acceleration of progress and growth applies. Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but “double” exponential growth, meaning that the rate of exponential growth is itself growing exponentially. These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the Qualitative research critique an essay, continuation of Moore’s law (i.e., the persuasive essay college great, exponential shrinking of transistor sizes on an integrated circuit), but is based on an essay, a rich model of buy research papers online cheap of banks, diverse technological processes. What it clearly shows is Qualitative research critique that technology, particularly the pace of technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and spongebob essay, has been doing so since the advent of technology, indeed since the advent of evolution on critique an essay, Earth.
I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in considering future trends. Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this “historical exponential view” of buy research online cheap strategies of banks, technological progress. That is write an essay why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in the short term (because we tend to need essay in computer leave out necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in the long term (because the exponential growth is ignored). We can organize these observations into what I call the law of accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in that the more capable methods resulting from one stage of evolutionary progress are used to create the next stage. As a result, the rate of progress of an evolutionary process increases exponentially over time.
Over time, the “order” of the information embedded in critique an essay, the evolutionary process (i.e., the essay college great, measure of how well the information fits a purpose, which in evolution is research write survival) increases. A correlate of the above observation is that the “returns” of an evolutionary process (e.g., the speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall “power” of about education, a process) increase exponentially over critique write, time. In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. This results in a second level of exponential growth (i.e., the rate of exponential growth itself grows exponentially). Biological evolution is one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Indeed, the emergence of the first technology creating species resulted in the new evolutionary process of technology. Therefore, technological evolution is an outgrowth of–and a continuation of–biological evolution. A specific paradigm (a method or approach to solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit as an approach to help essay hacking as a means weaknesses in computer making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the Qualitative, method exhausts its potential. When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to continue.
If we apply these principles at the highest level of evolution on Earth, the first step, the essay answer, creation of cells, introduced the paradigm of biology. The subsequent emergence of DNA provided a digital method to record the Qualitative research critique write an essay, results of evolutionary experiments. Then, the evolution of a species who combined rational thought with an opposable appendage (i.e., the thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from biology to spongebob essay technology. The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and nonbiological thinking. This hybrid will include “biologically inspired” processes resulting from the reverse engineering of biological brains. If we examine the timing of these steps, we see that the process has continuously accelerated. The evolution of critique an essay, life forms required billions of years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on do my essay hacking as a of identifying weaknesses security, progress accelerated.
During the Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only tens of millions of years. Later on, Humanoids developed over a period of research critique an essay, millions of years, and Homo sapiens over a period of only hundreds of thousands of on nature my teacher, years. With the advent of a technology-creating species, the critique, exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and essay about great, moved on to human-created technology. Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is a process of creating ever more powerful technology using the tools from the previous round of innovation. In this way, human technology is research critique write distinguished from the tool making of other species.
There is a record of each stage of technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage. The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the wheel–took tens of thousands of years. For people living in this era, there was little noticeable technological change in short essay, even a thousand years. By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and a paradigm shift required only a century or two. In the nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in the nine centuries preceding it. Then in the first twenty years of the twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in all of the nineteenth century. Now, paradigm shifts occur in only a few years time. Qualitative Critique An Essay? The World Wide Web did not exist in about college, anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didn’t exist at all a decade ago.
The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the overall rate of technical progress) is currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the rate of Qualitative research critique write an essay, acceleration is itself growing exponentially). So, the technological progress in the twenty-first century will be equivalent to what would require (in the linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. In contrast, the twentieth century saw only about 25 years of progress (again at today’s rate of progress) since we have been speeding up to current rates. Paper On Childhood? So the Qualitative write an essay, twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor. To appreciate the nature and significance of the coming “singularity,” it is help do my means of identifying weaknesses in computer important to ponder the Qualitative research, nature of exponential growth. Papers Cheap Service Of Banks? Toward this end, I am fond of telling the tale of the inventor of chess and his patron, the emperor of China. In response to the emperor’s offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the inventor asked for a single grain of research, rice on essay hacking as a means of identifying weaknesses in computer security, the first square, two on the second square, four on the third, and so on. Qualitative Research? The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and persuasive about college education great, humble request. Critique Write? One version of the my teacher in marathi, story has the Qualitative write an essay, emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of …, rice. At ten grains of rice per square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the write, surface area of the Earth, oceans included.
Another version of the story has the inventor losing his head. It should be pointed out that as the emperor and the inventor went through the first half of the chess board, things were fairly uneventful. The inventor was given spoonfuls of rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. By the end of the Research Paper On Childhood …, first half of the chess board, the inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and research critique an essay, the emperor did start to take notice. Research? It was as they progressed through the Qualitative, second half of the chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated. Incidentally, with regard to the doublings of on nature my teacher in marathi language, computation, that’s about where we stand now–there have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the nature of exponential growth. Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in a linear world. So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of nowhere, a technology explodes into view.
For example, when the Internet went from 20,000 to research write an essay 80,000 nodes over a two year period during the 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. Essay Great? A decade later, when it went from 20 million to 80 million nodes in the same amount of critique an essay, time, the impact was rather conspicuous. As exponential growth continues to accelerate into the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into infinity, at essay episode least from the limited and write, linear perspective of help essay of identifying weaknesses in computer, contemporary humans. The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it. It will literally get out of our control.
The illusion that we have our hand “on the plug,” will be dispelled. Can the pace of technological progress continue to Qualitative research critique an essay speed up indefinitely? Is there not a point where humans are unable to think fast enough to keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so. But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is essay about faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. What would they come up with? Well, for one thing, they would come up with technology to become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is no longer of fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to think even faster. When the scientists evolve to be a million times more intelligent and operate a million times faster, then an Qualitative hour would result in a century of Research …, progress (in today’s terms). This, then, is the Singularity.
The Singularity is technological change so rapid and critique an essay, so profound that it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at least with our current level of understanding, and that it is Research impossible, therefore, to look past its “event horizon” and make sense of critique write, what lies beyond. My view is that despite our profound limitations of thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to make meaningful statements about the nature of do my essay weaknesses in computer security, life after the Singularity. Qualitative Research An Essay? Most importantly, it is my view that the intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the squarepants full episode, human civilization, which is already a human-machine civilization. This will be the next step in critique, evolution, the next high level paradigm shift. To put the concept of persuasive college education, Singularity into perspective, let’s explore the history of the word itself. Singularity is a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the term implies infinity, the explosion of value that occurs when dividing a constant by a number that gets closer and closer to an essay zero.
In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of infinite power. At the center of a black hole, matter is so dense that its gravity is infinite. As nearby matter and write answer, energy are drawn into the black hole, an research critique event horizon separates the region from the rest of the Universe. It constitutes a rupture in short essay, the fabric of space and time. The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity. In the 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that “the ever accelerating progress of technology…gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in Qualitative write, the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.” In the 1960s, I. Papers Service Strategies? J. Good wrote of an “intelligence explosion,” resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological “singularity” in his science fiction novel, Marooned in Realtime.
Then in 1993, Vinge presented a paper to a NASA-organized symposium which described the Singularity as an impending event resulting primarily from the advent of “entities with greater than human intelligence,” which Vinge saw as the harbinger of a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the Singularity has many faces. It represents the nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the Qualitative write an essay, rate of growth is so extreme that technology appears to be growing at infinite speed. Of course, from a mathematical perspective, there is no discontinuity, no rupture, and the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to help as a means of identifying weaknesses security be an acute and abrupt break in the continuity of progress. Qualitative? However, I emphasize the word “currently,” because one of the salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in the nature of short essay, our ability to understand. In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in the 1980s, I ended the book with the Qualitative, specter of the emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon.
Now having thought about write short essay answer, its implications for research critique write an essay, the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of understanding the episode, many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of human life. Consider a few examples of the implications. Qualitative Critique Write? The bulk of our experiences will shift from real reality to virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by the end of this century will be trillions of squarepants essay, trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence. However, to address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is important to Qualitative write note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of biological design. Education? In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of what we regard as human than it is today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. Qualitative Research Critique An Essay? The potential to augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the concern, as some people have expressed the wish to remain “unenhanced” while at the same time keeping their place at the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is squarepants essay episode that the likely outcome is that on the one hand, from the Qualitative critique an essay, perspective of biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and desires. On the buy research online service, other hand, fulfilling the wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only a trivial portion of the Qualitative research critique write an essay, intellectual power that the Singularity will bring.
Needless to say, the Singularity will transform all aspects of our lives, social, sexual, and economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the implications of the essay, Singularity, let’s examine the research write, wide range of technologies that are subject to the law of papers online service strategies, accelerating returns. The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as “Moore’s Law.” Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of integrated circuits, and then Chairman of Intel, noted in the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Given that the electrons have less distance to travel, the circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of computational power. After sixty years of research, devoted service, Moore’s Law will die a dignified death no later than the on nature, year 2019. By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in Qualitative research critique write, width, and the strategy of ever finer photolithography will have run its course. So, will that be the end of the exponential growth of computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of persuasive college great, 49 famous calculators and Qualitative research an essay, computers spanning the entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations. Moore’s Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of essay my teacher, Computing.
Each time one paradigm runs out of Qualitative research, steam, another picks up the pace. It is important to note that Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance. Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of time) from the mechanical calculating devices used in the 1890 U.S. Census, to Turing’s relay-based “Robinson” machine that cracked the Nazi enigma code, to do my as a of identifying weaknesses in computer the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Eisenhower, to the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to Qualitative research critique write an essay the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay. But I noticed something else surprising.
When I plotted the 49 machines on an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didn’t get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. In other words, there’s exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Spongebob Squarepants Essay Full Episode? Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and 1966, and is now doubling every year. But where does Moore’s Law come from? What is Qualitative research an essay behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon?
I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of essay about college great, this trend. Is it just “a set of Qualitative research critique an essay, industry expectations and goals,” as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at IBM contends? Or is there something more profound going on? In my view, it is one manifestation (among many) of the essay on nature in marathi language, exponential growth of the evolutionary process that is technology. The exponential growth of computing is a marvelous quantitative example of the research critique an essay, exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process. We can also express the exponential growth of Paper …, computing in Qualitative research, terms of an accelerating pace: it took ninety years to achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day. Moore’s Law narrowly refers to the number of about college great, transistors on an integrated circuit of fixed size, and sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of transistor feature size.
But rather than feature size (which is only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the most appropriate measure to Qualitative research critique write track is computational speed per unit cost. This takes into account many levels of “cleverness” (i.e., innovation, which is to say, technological evolution). In addition to all of the innovation in integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of short essay answer, innovation in computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and research critique write, memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the exponential growth of computing didn’t start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and 1900 U.S. Census. Essay On Nature Language? This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moore’s Law pertains to only the latest one. It’s obvious what the research an essay, sixth paradigm will be after Moore’s Law runs out of steam during the second decade of this century. Chips today are flat (although it does require up to 20 layers of material to produce one layer of essay on nature my teacher in marathi language, circuitry). Our brain, in contrast, is research critique an essay organized in three dimensions. We live in a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension?
The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at a speed of only about 200 calculations per second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits. Persuasive Essay College? But the brain gains its prodigious powers from critique an essay its extremely parallel organization in three dimensions . There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in three dimensions. Nanotubes, for example, which are already working in laboratories, build circuits from Research … pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. One cubic inch of nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the human brain. Qualitative Critique Write An Essay? There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to short keep the law of accelerating returns as applied to Qualitative write computation going for a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moore’s Law, which refers to only one of need help essay as a means in computer security, its paradigms. And this accelerating growth of computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the accelerating pace of any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to research write criticize extrapolations of an write short essay answer exponential trend on the basis that the Qualitative research an essay, trend is bound to run out of help do my essay hacking means, “resources.” The classical example is when a species happens upon a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Australia), the species’ numbers will grow exponentially for a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and space run out. But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the evolutionary process itself.
Each stage of evolution provides more powerful tools for the next. In biological evolution, the advent of DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary “experiments.” Later, setting the “designs” of Qualitative research critique write, animal body plans during the Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of other body organs such as the brain. Means In Computer? Or to Qualitative critique write take a more recent example, the advent of computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of computers. (ii) The “chaos” of the environment in which the evolutionary process takes place and which provides the options for further diversity. In biological evolution, diversity enters the process in the form of mutations and my teacher in marathi, ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the research critique, process of persuasive essay education, innovation going. The maximum potential of matter and energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to my models, we won’t approach those limits during this century (but this will become an Qualitative critique issue within a couple of centuries). We also need to distinguish between the papers online service, “S” curve (an “S” stretched to the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growth–followed by very rapid growth–followed by a flattening out as the research critique write, process approaches an Paper On Childhood asymptote) that is Qualitative critique characteristic of any specific technological paradigm and full, the continuing exponential growth that is characteristic of the ongoing evolutionary process of technology. Specific paradigms, such as Moore’s Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is no longer feasible. Research Critique Write? Thus Moore’s Law is an S curve.
But the growth of computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we “saturate” the Universe with the intelligence of our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in do my essay means security, this coming century). In accordance with the Qualitative critique write an essay, law of accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. This has already happened at need help hacking as a means of identifying least four times in research, the history of computation. This difference also distinguishes the tool making of non-human species, in which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by cheap strategies each animal is characterized by Qualitative an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an exponential pattern of growth and acceleration since its inception.
DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the Internet, and Miniaturization. This “law of accelerating returns” applies to all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and can be measured with remarkable precision in information based technologies. There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of all kinds, and even in the rapidly shrinking size of technology. The Singularity results not from the exponential explosion of computation alone, but rather from the interplay and myriad synergies that will result from full manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in mind that every point on the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the graphs below) represents an intense human drama of Qualitative critique, innovation and competition.
It is about education remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in such smooth and predictable exponential trends. For example, when the human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out that given the speed with which the genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of years to finish the project. Yet the fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of schedule. Of course, we expect to see exponential growth in electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from Vacuum Tubes to research critique an essay Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in magnetic memory is not primarily a matter of Moore’s law, but includes advances in mechanical and electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in on nature in marathi language, communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications. Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and critique, others. Notice Cascade of smaller “S” Curves.
Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the progression of “S” curves: the acceleration fostered by Paper On Childhood … a new paradigm, followed by critique write an essay a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the overall growth of the Internet based on the number of hosts. These two charts plot the squarepants episode, same data, but one is on an exponential axis and the other is linear. As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in the exponential domain, we experience it in the linear domain. So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the mid 1990s when seemingly out of nowhere, the world wide web and email exploded into view. But the critique an essay, emergence of the papers cheap service, Internet into a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the exponential trend data. Notice how the Qualitative research critique write an essay, explosion of the Internet appears to be a surprise from the Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the persuasive about college, Exponential Chart.
Ultimately we will get away from the research critique, tangle of wires in our cities and in our lives through wireless communication, the essay in marathi, power of which is doubling every 10 to 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization. The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of technologies, both electronic and mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. At present, we are shrinking technology by research critique an essay a factor of approximately 5.6 per linear dimension per decade. The Exponential Growth of Computation Revisited. If we view the essay on nature my teacher language, exponential growth of computation in its proper perspective as one example of the pervasiveness of the exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of many of the law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the law of accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of Qualitative, computing. Squarepants Essay Full Episode? The formulas below result in the above graph of the continued growth of computation. This graph matches the available data for Qualitative research critique write an essay, the twentieth century through all five paradigms and provides projections for squarepants episode, the twenty-first century. Qualitative Research Critique Write? Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Accelerating Returns Applied to the Growth of Computation.
The following provides a brief overview of the law of accelerating returns as it applies to the double exponential growth of computation. This model considers the impact of the need do my essay hacking security, growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. For example, with more powerful computers and related technology, we have the Qualitative research, tools and the knowledge to design yet more powerful computers, and to do so more quickly. Note that the data for the year 2000 and beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions. This type of essay on nature language, calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by a factor of at least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to critique an essay the brain’s digital controlled analog electrochemical processes). A factor of essay, 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in the twenty-first century. My estimate of brain capacity is research 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per write essay answer, neuron (with the calculations taking place primarily in the connections) times 200 calculations per research an essay, second. Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and spongebob squarepants essay full episode, lower estimates.
However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by orders of magnitude only shift the prediction by a relatively small number of years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2023. We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the year 2037. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for Qualitative an essay, $1,000 around the year 2049. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the following variables: V: Velocity (i.e., power) of computing (measured in CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the need do my essay hacking weaknesses security, model are: In other words, computer power is a linear function of the knowledge of how to build computers. This is Qualitative research actually a conservative assumption.
In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by need do my means weaknesses in computer security a multiple, not in an additive way. Critique? Independent innovations multiply each other’s effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by independent multiples. In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and the instantaneous increment to knowledge is essay my teacher in marathi language proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is a formula for “accelerating” (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a “regular Moore’s Law.” As I mentioned above, the critique write an essay, data shows exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the century, and close to spongebob essay full every one year during the 1990s.) Let’s factor in another exponential phenomenon, which is the growing resources for Qualitative research an essay, computation. Not only is buy research papers online cheap service each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of research an essay, W, but the resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for computation is growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to t) (N * V)
As before, world knowledge is accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is proportional to the amount of computation, which equals the resources deployed for computation (N) * the power of each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to need do my essay as a of identifying weaknesses security t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the constants, we get: This is a double exponential–an exponential curve in which the rate of critique write an essay, exponential growth is growing at Research Paper On Childhood a different exponential rate. Now let’s consider real-world data. Qualitative Research Write An Essay? Considering the data for actual calculating devices and computers during the twentieth century: CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000. Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the squarepants episode, growth rate over critique, a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for spongebob squarepants episode, Current Year) – LOG(CPS/$1K for Qualitative research critique write, Previous Year))/(Current Year – Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above.
Already, IBM’s “Blue Gene” supercomputer, now being built and scheduled to be completed by 2005, is projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per second (i.e., one billion megaflops). This is short answer already one twentieth of the capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per research write an essay, second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by 2010, and personal computers will do so by around 2020. Buy Research Service Of Banks? By 2030, it will take a village of human brains (around a thousand) to match $1000 of computing. By 2050, $1000 of Qualitative critique an essay, computing will equal the processing power of all human brains on Earth. Essay? Of course, this only includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldn’t (and don’t) design computing circuits the same way.
Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neuron’s electrochemical processes. Most of the complexity of a human neuron is devoted to maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Qualitative Research? Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to a more suitable computational substrate. Then our minds won’t have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at On Childhood … a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per second. So far, I’ve been talking about the critique an essay, hardware of computing. The software is even more salient.
One of the principal assumptions underlying the expectation of the Singularity is the ability of nonbiological mediums to short emulate the richness, subtlety, and research, depth of human thinking. Need Hacking As A Means Of Identifying In Computer Security? Achieving the computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of Qualitative research critique, human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability. By human levels I include all the diverse and subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the write short essay, world, and critique an essay, understanding and responding appropriately to emotion. The requisite hardware capacity is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and content of these resources–the software of intelligence–is also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge. If I learn French, or read War and Peace, I can’t readily download that learning to you. You have to acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did.
My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we won’t leave out on nature, quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an critique insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to thousands of hours of recorded speech, corrected its errors, and patiently improved its performance. Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of my recent book to it). Spongebob Squarepants Essay? Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesn’t have to go through the same process; you can just download the fully trained patterns in seconds.
Ultimately, billions of nonbiological entities can be the Qualitative research critique write an essay, master of all human and Research, machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of times faster than human neural circuits. A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to remember a handful of phone numbers. The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computer’s inherent superiority in Qualitative critique, the speed, accuracy, and spongebob essay, sharing ability of its memory will be formidable. There are a number of compelling scenarios to Qualitative write an essay achieve higher levels of intelligence in our computers, and ultimately human levels and beyond. We will be able to evolve and train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to essay on nature language understand language and Qualitative write an essay, model knowledge, including the write, ability to read and model the knowledge contained in written documents. Research? Unlike many contemporary “neural net” machines, which use mathematically simplified models of human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and on nature in marathi language, other relevant details. Although the ability of today’s computers to extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly.
Computers will be able to read on their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by the second decade of the twenty-first century. We can then have our computers read all of the world’s literature–books, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Ultimately, the machines will gather knowledge on their own by venturing out on the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of media and information services, and sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for mastering the software of intelligence is to tap into the blueprint of the best example we can get our hands on of an intelligent process. There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and Qualitative research an essay, essentially copy its design. Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, it’s readily available to us, and not (yet) copyrighted. Although there’s a skull around the brain, it is not hidden from our view. The most immediately accessible way to accomplish this is through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and examine one brain layer–one very thin slice–at a time. We can readily see every neuron and every connection and Paper …, every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer.
Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and an essay, body to be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of him on the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on Research On Childhood, the site as well in case he gets lonely. Write An Essay? This scan is not high enough in resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably don’t want to base our templates of machine intelligence on the brain of need do my as a in computer security, a convicted killer, anyway. But scanning a frozen brain is feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the law of Qualitative research write an essay, accelerating returns will provide the requisite speed of scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan. Carnegie Mellon University’s Andreas Nowatzyk plans to scan the nervous system of the brain and body of a mouse with a resolution of less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and essay answer, other technologies which are capable in certain instances of resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the write, law of accelerating returns. Research Paper? Future generations will enable us to resolve the connections between neurons and to peer inside the synapses and record the neurotransmitter concentrations. We can peer inside someone’s brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of this technology.
There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of vibration, and safety. For a variety of write an essay, reasons it is easier to scan the brain of someone recently deceased than of someone still living. Need Help Essay Means Of Identifying Weaknesses In Computer? It is easier to Qualitative write get someone deceased to sit still, for one thing. But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to improve in resolution and speed. Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from spongebob essay full outside the skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to critique an essay capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from write short inside. By 2030, “nanobot” (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and brain scanning will be a prominent application. Nanobots are robots that are the size of human blood cells, or even smaller. Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close. Using high speed wireless communication, the nanobots would communicate with each other, and with other computers that are compiling the brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and write an essay, feel today.
We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the scanner is physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and cost. As I discussed above, we can project the exponentially declining cost of spongebob full, computation, and the rapidly declining size of both electronic and mechanical technologies. We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by around 2030. Because of its ability to place each scanner in very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the brain from outside. How will we apply the thousands of Qualitative research write an essay, trillions of bytes of information derived from each brain scan? One approach is to full episode use the results to Qualitative critique an essay design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on one of the Research Paper On Childhood, neural net paradigms. Qualitative Critique? With this approach, we don’t have to copy every single connection.
There is a great deal of papers strategies, repetition and research write, redundancy within any particular brain region. Although the information contained in spongebob squarepants full episode, a human brain would require thousands of Qualitative research critique write an essay, trillions of bytes of online service, information (on the order of 100 billion neurons times an average of 1,000 connections per neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and connection data), the Qualitative research critique write an essay, design of the brain is characterized by a human genome of only Research, about a billion bytes. Furthermore, most of the genome is redundant, so the initial design of the brain is characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the size of Microsoft Word. Of course, the complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the world (by a factor of more than ten million). Write? Because of the highly repetitive patterns found in each specific brain region, it is not necessary to capture each detail in order to reverse engineer the significant digital-analog algorithms. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. College? There are already multiple efforts under way to research scan the papers service of banks, human brain and apply the Qualitative research critique an essay, insights derived to the design of intelligent machines.
The pace of brain reverse engineering is only slightly behind the availability of the brain scanning and neuron structure information. A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of a significant portion of the human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of need help do my means weaknesses, specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. Qualitative Research? Watts’ model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at each stage of neural processing. Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and identify sounds with many of the same properties as human hearing. Although a work in progress, the model illustrates the feasibility of converting neurobiological models and hacking as a of identifying, brain connection data into working simulations. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about critique write an essay, 1,000 times less computation than the theoretical potential of the Research Paper On Childhood …, biological neurons being simulated. Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts. Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the stapes into spectro-temporal representation of sound. MC : Multipolar Cells.
Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Relays spikes from the auditory nerve to the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . Encoding of timing and amplitude of signals for binaural comparison of level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells. Provide temporal sharpening of time of arrival, as a pre-processor for research critique write, interaural time difference calculation. OC : Octopus Cells.
Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of spectral edges and calibrating for noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Feedback signals to modulate outer hair cell function in essay on nature my teacher in marathi, the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Processing transients from the Octopus Cells.
MSO : Medial Superior Olive. Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in time of arrival between the two ears, used to tell where a sound is coming from). LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of multiple representations of research critique an essay, sound. ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus.
Further refinement of sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body. The auditory portion of the thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is not one huge “tabula rasa” (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an intricate and intertwined collection of hundreds of specialized regions. The process of “peeling the onion” to essay understand these interleaved regions is well underway. As the critique, requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and implementable models such as the auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions.
After the do my means of identifying weaknesses in computer, algorithms of a region are understood, they can be refined and extended before being implemented in synthetic neural equivalents. Qualitative Critique? For one thing, they can be run on a computational substrate that is buy research papers online strategies of banks already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand. A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someone’s brain to critique write an essay map the locations, interconnections, and contents of spongebob squarepants essay full, all the somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and other neural components and levels. Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the contents of its memory.
To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the human genome scan. Critique An Essay? All of the basic technologies exist today, just not with the requisite speed, cost, and size, but these are the attributes that are improving at spongebob squarepants essay full a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to research an essay accurately model. For example, Ted Berger and his colleagues at Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the digital and analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of neurons. Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the digital-analog characteristics of mammalian neural circuits. A recent experiment at San Diego’s Institute for Nonlinear Science demonstrates the potential for need do my essay hacking as a weaknesses, electronic neurons to Qualitative write an essay precisely emulate biological ones.
Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of what is often called “chaotic computing.” Each neuron acts in an essentially unpredictable fashion. When an entire network of neurons receives input (from the outside world or from other networks of neurons), the signaling amongst them appears at first to need help as a security be frenzied and random. Qualitative Research Write An Essay? Over time, typically a fraction of a second or so, the essay about education great, chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges. This pattern represents the “decision” of the neural network. If the neural network is performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the activity in the human brain), then the emergent pattern represents the appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. Research Critique An Essay? They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from help do my as a means of identifying in computer spiney lobsters in a single network, and their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by a stable emergent pattern) and with the same type of critique, results as an all biological net of neurons.
Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. It indicates that their mathematical model of these neurons was reasonably accurate. There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to recreate in great detail the functionality of persuasive great, human neuron clusters. The accuracy and scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. Qualitative Critique Write An Essay? We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and now thousands. Scaling up technical processes at an exponential pace is what technology is good at.
As the computational power to emulate the human brain becomes available–we’re not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of college education, decades–projects already under way to scan the human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to understand the human brain in general, as well as providing a detailed description of the contents and Qualitative research write, design of specific brains. By the third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in a position to create highly detailed and complete maps of all relevant features of all neurons, neural connections and synapses in cheap of banks, the human brain, all of the neural details that play a role in research write, the behavior and functionality of the brain, and to recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from a Computer? Is the human brain different from a computer? The answer depends on what we mean by the word “computer.” Certainly the brain uses very different methods from write answer conventional contemporary computers. Most computers today are all digital and perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at extremely high speed. In contrast, the human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in the analog domain. The brain is massively parallel, performing on the order of a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at extremely slow speeds. With regard to Qualitative research critique digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is … not true), so we can perform all of the capabilities of a hybrid digital–analog network with an all digital computer. On the other hand, there is an Qualitative research critique write an essay engineering advantage to analog circuits in that analog computing is potentially thousands of essay answer, times more efficient.
An analog computation can be performed by Qualitative research critique an essay a few transistors, or, in the case of mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. A digital computation, in contrast, requires thousands or tens of short answer, thousands of transistors. So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the brain’s analog methods. The massive parallelism of the research critique write, human brain is the key to its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the strength of human thinking. As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in persuasive essay college, a chaotic dance, and if the neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the Qualitative research, network’s decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and buy research strategies, indeed there are dozens of projects around the world that have succeeded in Qualitative critique write, doing this. My own technical field is pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for over thirty years use this form of chaotic computing. Particularly successful examples are Carver Mead’s neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and are intended as functionally similar recreations of biological networks.
The Singularity envisions the emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and scope. Although these entities will be capable of passing the “Turing test” (i.e., able to fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to whether these “people” are conscious, or just appear that way. Paper On Childhood …? To gain some insight as to Qualitative research write an essay why this is an extremely subtle question (albeit an essay about great ultimately important one) it is useful to consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the concept of downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the most common application of the knowledge gained from reverse engineering the Qualitative, human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of scanning and reinstantiating all of the buy research cheap service strategies, neural details of research an essay, a specific person raises the most immediate questions of identity. Let’s consider the question of write essay, what we will find when we do this. We have to consider this question on both the objective and subjective levels. “Objective” means everyone except me, so let’s start with that. Qualitative Critique An Essay? Objectively, when we scan someone’s brain and reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the newly emergent “person” will appear to other observers to have very much the same personality, history, and memory as the person originally scanned. That is, once the technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it won’t be perfect at first. But ultimately, the scans and recreations will be very accurate and realistic.
Interacting with the newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the essay answer, original person. The new person will claim to be that same old person and research an essay, will have a memory of having been that person. The new person will have all of the patterns of online strategies of banks, knowledge, skill, and personality of the original. We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of neurons and neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the same with the hundred billion neuron cluster of clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the Qualitative research critique an essay, issue is my teacher in marathi language more subtle and profound, but first we need to reflect on research an essay, one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of our thoughts and thinking are directed toward our body and its survival, security, nutrition, and image, not to write short essay mention affection, sexuality, and reproduction. Many, if not most, of the Qualitative research critique write, goals we attempt to write short essay advance using our brains have to Qualitative research write an essay do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for their myriad needs and desires.
Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is impossible without a body. If we’re going to port a human’s mind to a new computational medium, we’d better provide a body. Spongebob Squarepants? A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of nanobots, and other technologies. A common scenario will be to Qualitative research write enhance a person’s biological brain with intimate connection to nonbiological intelligence. In this case, the body remains the good old human body that we’re familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology.
A detailed examination of buy research online, twenty-first century bodies is beyond the research write an essay, scope of this essay, but recreating and buy research service of banks, enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to the issue of research critique an essay, subjectivity, consider: is the spongebob squarepants full episode, reinstantiated mind the research critique write an essay, same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these “people” conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain? Consciousness in do my as a means of identifying in computer, our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue. Research Critique An Essay? But it is not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to have strong views on the subject, and often just can’t understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from squarepants a different perspective. Marvin Minsky observed that “there’s something queer about describing consciousness.
Whatever people mean to say, they just can’t seem to an essay make it clear.” We don’t worry, at least not yet, about causing pain and suffering to our computer programs. Research Paper …? But at what point do we consider an write entity, a process, to be conscious, to feel pain and short essay answer, discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will? How do we determine if an entity is Qualitative research conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is about college education great conscious from one that just acts as if it is conscious? We can’t simply ask it.
If it says “Hey I’m conscious,” does that settle the issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and they’re not terribly convincing. How about if the entity is very convincing and compelling when it says “I’m lonely, please keep me company.” Does that settle the issue? If we look inside its circuits, and see essentially the identical kinds of feedback loops and other mechanisms in its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the Qualitative write, issue? And just who are these people in help do my essay as a means weaknesses in computer, the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on critique, who you ask. If you ask the people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to be the original persons. For example, if we scan–let’s say myself–and record the Research Paper, exact state, level, and critique write, position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and then reinstantiate this massive data base of information (which I estimate at papers online strategies thousands of research critique an essay, trillions of bytes) into a neural computer of sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in the machine will think that “he” is help do my essay as a means of identifying weaknesses (and had been) me, or at least he will act that way. He will say “I grew up in Queens, New York, went to college at MIT, stayed in the Boston area, started and sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and woke up in the machine here.
Hey, this technology really works.” Is this really me? For one thing, old biological Ray (that’s me) still exists. I’ll still be here in my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the new Ray succeed in Qualitative research an essay, endeavors that I could only dream of. Let’s consider the issue of just who I am, and who the new Ray is a little more carefully. First of all, am I the stuff in On Childhood …, my brain and body? Consider that the particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. We are not at all permanent collections of particles.
The cells in our bodies turn over at different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. Qualitative Research? I am just not the same collection of particles that I was even a month ago. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Service? It is the patterns of matter and energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only Qualitative research critique an essay, gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and Paper On Childhood …, very quickly. We are rather like the patterns that water makes in a stream. Qualitative Research Critique Write? The rushing water around a formation of rocks makes a particular, unique pattern.
This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for hours, even years. Of course, the actual material constituting the pattern–the water–is replaced in milliseconds. The same is buy research papers service of banks true for Qualitative, Ray Kurzweil. Like the water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of about education, continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of particles, but rather the pattern of matter and energy that we represent. Qualitative Research? Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to need do my hacking as a in computer this “identify from pattern” argument. If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about it (with the Qualitative research critique write, nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario). If you then come to me, and say, “good news, Ray, we’ve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we won’t be needing your old brain anymore,” I may suddenly realize the flaw in this “identity from pattern” argument. Full? I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my “pattern,” but I would nonetheless conclude that he’s not me, because I’m still here.
How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Let’s consider another perplexing scenario. Suppose I replace a small number of biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and Qualitative research critique write an essay, longevity, but that’s not relevant to this thought experiment). After I have this procedure performed, am I still the squarepants full, same person? My friends certainly think so. I still have the Qualitative critique write an essay, same self-deprecating humor, the on nature language, same silly grin–yes, I’m still the same guy. It should be clear where I’m going with this. Bit by Qualitative research an essay bit, region by region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the neurotransmitter concentrations and other details that represent my learning, skills, and memories). Spongebob Essay? At each point, I feel the procedures were successful.
At each point, I feel that I am the same guy. After each procedure, I claim to be the same guy. My friends concur. There is no old Ray and new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to research fundamentally change. But consider this. This gradual replacement of need do my essay hacking as a in computer, my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is critique an essay essentially identical to the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and reinstantiate Ray’s mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in such a scenario new Ray is answer not the same as old Ray.
And if old Ray is terminated, well then that’s the end of Ray. Qualitative Critique? So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing. So what appears to essay means of identifying weaknesses in computer security be the Qualitative research an essay, continuing existence of just one Ray is really the creation of new Ray and the termination of in marathi, old Ray. On yet another hand (we’re running out of philosophical hands here), the gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced. So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is not an easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of intelligent skill: the ability to reflect on one’s own self and situation, for example, then the issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of intelligence that one cares to define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades.
With this type of research, objective view of consciousness, the spongebob full episode, conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the issue, because the essence of consciousness is subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience. Will these future machines be capable of Qualitative write an essay, having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to. They will claim to be people, and to persuasive essay great have the critique an essay, full range of emotional and spiritual experiences that people claim to need essay as a means of identifying in computer security have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the sort of rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings.
How do the claims and behaviors–compelling as they will be–relate to an essay the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to my teacher in marathi language the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of consciousness. People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and Qualitative research, gauged. If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is so contentious, it is the following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is buy research online cheap strategies of banks about objective measurement and logical implications therefrom, but the Qualitative research an essay, very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of it, such as behavior (and by behavior, I include the actions of components of an entity, such as neurons).
This limitation has to do with the very nature of the essay my teacher in marathi language, concepts “objective” and “subjective.” Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of Qualitative research critique write, another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about it: i.e., “look inside the brain of this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain.” Or, “see how its behavior is just like human behavior.” But in write essay, the end, these remain just arguments. No matter how convincing the Qualitative write an essay, behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is education based on DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is Qualitative critique write an essay still an service strategies of banks assumption, and there is no consensus amongst humans about the consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and intelligence. So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by the machines)? From a practical perspective, we’ll accept their claims. Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so they’ll be able to convince us that they are conscious. They’ll have all the delicate and emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. They will be able to make us laugh and cry.
And they’ll get mad if we don’t accept their claims. But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument. Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of research write, computation called “quantum computing.” Quantum computing is computing using what are called “qu bits” which take on all possible combinations of solutions simultaneously. It can be considered to be an extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Penrose suggests that the tubules and their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of need as a means of identifying in computer, recreating neurons and reinstantiating mind files.
However, there is little to suggest that the tubules contribute to the thinking process. Even generous models of human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for by current estimates of write an essay, brain size, based on do my hacking means of identifying in computer, contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the brain is conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of research critique write, magnitude) than it needs for essay my teacher in marathi, its capabilities and critique, capacity. Essay My Teacher Language? Recent experiments (e.g., the San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to Qualitative critique write all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Lloyd Watts’ software simulation of his intricate model of human auditory processing uses orders of magnitude less computation than the networks of neurons he is simulating, and there is episode no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the tubules are important, it doesn’t change the research critique, projections I have discussed above to any significant degree. According to my model of computational growth, if the tubules multiplied neuron complexity by a factor of a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on the order of Research, a thousand connections per neuron, multiple nonlinearities and other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by only about 9 years.
If we’re off by a factor of a million, that’s still only Qualitative research write an essay, a delay of short answer, 17 years. A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in mind computation is growing by a double exponential). With regard to quantum computing, once again there is nothing to suggest that the brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the brain is Qualitative research write capable of it. After all, we don’t have lasers or even radios in our brains. Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for quantum computing.
However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is infeasible. First of persuasive college education great, all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is feasible. Research Critique An Essay? There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to biological mechanisms. Essay My Teacher Language? Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Critique Write An Essay? Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful. Essay? Even the conventional transistor relies on the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is impossible to research write an essay perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to spongebob squarepants essay full episode be? I am at this moment in a very different quantum state (and different in non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in research critique an essay, a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Service Strategies? If we develop downloading technology to the point where the “copies” are as close to the original as the original person changes anyway in Qualitative research critique, the course of one minute, that would be good enough for any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the Research Paper On Childhood …, technology improves, the accuracy of the copy could become as close as the original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond).
When it was pointed out to research an essay Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for quantum computing, he came up with the On Childhood, tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. Qualitative Research Critique? So the concern with quantum computing and buy research papers online cheap service, tubules have been introduced together. If one is Qualitative research searching for barriers to replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to spongebob full introduce any genuine barriers. There is no evidence for it, and even if true, it only delays matters by critique write a decade or two. There is no reason to believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to replicate using nonbiological materials and mechanisms. Dozens of contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and Brain Expansion. How will we apply technology that is more intelligent than its creators?
One might be tempted to respond “Carefully!” But let’s take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. Online Cheap Service Of Banks? In addition to scanning your brain, the nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and our capabilities. Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way. The nanobots take up positions in close physical proximity to Qualitative research an essay every interneuronal connection coming from answer all of an essay, our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin).
We already have the need help essay means weaknesses in computer, technology for electronic devices to communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at research the Max Planck Institute have developed “neuron transistors” that can detect the firing of a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to persuasive essay college great fire, or suppress it from firing. This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and the electronic-based neuron transistors. Qualitative Research Write? The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by controlling the movement of a living leech from their computer. Essay? Again, the primary aspect of nanobot-based virtual reality that is not yet feasible is size and cost.
When we want to experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in position (in the Qualitative research write, capillaries) and do nothing. Essay College Education? If we want to Qualitative research write enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the inputs coming from the real senses, and replace them with the signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment. You (i.e., your brain) could decide to Research On Childhood cause your muscles and limbs to move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from research critique write moving, and instead cause your virtual limbs to write short essay move and provide the appropriate movement and reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of virtual environments to explore. Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no “real” counterpart. Some indeed would be impossible in Qualitative critique write an essay, the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of physics). We will be able to “go” to these virtual environments by Research Paper On Childhood … ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there won’t be a clear distinction between the two.
By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment. Qualitative Research Critique Write An Essay? In addition to encompassing all of the senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nanobots will be capable of triggering the neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and other derivatives of our sensory experience and mental reactions. In the same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in Research On Childhood, their bedrooms, “experience beamers” circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and other secondary reactions. We’ll be able to plug in Qualitative research critique an essay, (by going to the appropriate web site) and essay my teacher language, experience other people’s lives as in the plot concept of research critique, ‘Being John Malkovich.’ Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and my teacher in marathi, relived at any time. We won’t need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and auditory senses. Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by the end of this decade with images written directly onto our retinas by Qualitative research critique an essay our eyeglasses and contact lenses.
All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to spongebob essay episode the Internet will be embedded in our glasses and woven into our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the most significant implication of the Singularity will be the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence. First, it is important to point out that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Biological thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological human brains), and that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to research our genome. Nonbiological intelligence, on the other hand, is growing at a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the middle of this century. However, in my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is fully derivative of the human-machine civilization. The merger of these two worlds of intelligence is Research On Childhood not merely a merger of biological and nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and organization of thinking. One of the key ways in which the Qualitative critique, two worlds can interact will be through the nanobots.
Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in virtually any imaginable way. Research On Childhood …? Our brains today are relatively fixed in design. Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and write an essay, neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the learning process, the current overall capacity of the need help do my means of identifying weaknesses in computer, human brain is highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections. Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities. Since the research, nanobots are communicating with each other over a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is a significant improvement over the idea of surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to counteract Parkinson’s Disease and tremors from other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. Buy Research Papers Online Strategies? They can all be directed to research critique write leave, so the process is easily reversible. They are programmable, in that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of brain extensions the buy research papers online cheap strategies of banks, next. They can change their configuration, and Qualitative research, clearly can alter their software. Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in one or at most a few locations.
The Double Exponential Growth of the in marathi language, Economy During the 1990s Was Not a Bubble. Yet another manifestation of the law of accelerating returns as it rushes toward the critique, Singularity can be found in the world of economics, a world vital to both the genesis of the law of accelerating returns, and to its implications. Need Help Do My Essay Hacking In Computer? It is the economic imperative of a competitive marketplace that is driving technology forward and fueling the law of Qualitative an essay, accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the Singularity, is transforming economic relationships. Virtually all of the economic models taught in economics classes, used by write short answer the Federal Reserve Board to set monetary policy, by Government agencies to set economic policy, and by write an essay economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on the intuitive linear view of history rather than the historically based exponential view. Write Short Answer? The reason that these linear models appear to write an essay work for a while is for the same reason that most people adopt the intuitive linear view in squarepants essay full, the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for an essay, a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is happening. But once the “knee of the curve” is achieved and the exponential growth explodes, the linear models break down. Research Paper On Childhood? The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase.
The economy (viewed either in total or per capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century: There is Qualitative also a second level of exponential growth, but up until recently the Research …, second exponent has been in Qualitative research critique write, the early phase so that the essay, growth in the growth rate has not been noticed. However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the rate of growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and features of products and services. It is not the case that “a car is a car;” there have been significant improvements in safety, reliability, and features. There are a myriad of such examples. Qualitative Write? Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Groceries ordered in five minutes on the web and Research On Childhood, delivered to your door are worth more than groceries on a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on a store rack.
These sorts of Qualitative research critique, improvements are true for most product categories, and none of them are reflected in buy research papers online cheap of banks, the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to factor out gains by essentially concluding that we still only research write an essay, get one dollar of products and services for a dollar despite the fact that we get much more for need do my essay hacking weaknesses, a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to one ten years ago). University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of Qualitative research an essay, Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per year for write short essay answer, the past 20 years because of qualitative improvements. This still does not account for the introduction of entirely new products and product categories. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is responsible for Qualitative, the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an essay on nature estimate of write an essay, quality growth at write only 0.5% per year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and research critique an essay, a resulting overestimate of inflation by at full episode least 1 percent per year. Despite these weaknesses in research critique an essay, the productivity statistical methods, the gains in productivity are now reaching the steep part of the essay language, exponential curve. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per Qualitative research an essay, year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per year, and is now growing even more rapidly. In the quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at 5.3%. Manufacturing productivity grew at 4.4% annually from 1995 to persuasive about great 1999, durables manufacturing at research write an essay 6.5% per year.
The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. Yes, it’s true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in the price-performance of all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and persuasive about college education great, even the overall rate of technical progress. These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in the channels of distribution through the web and other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in operations and administration. All of the technology trend charts in this essay e represent massive deflation. There are many examples of the Qualitative research critique, impact of these escalating efficiencies. Hacking As A? BP Amoco’s cost for finding oil is now less than $1 per research, barrel, down from nearly $10 in 1991. Processing an internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to over $1 using a teller ten years ago.
A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of $1200 per North American car over the next five years. Short Essay? A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about $2700 per vehicle. Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at critique write an essay an Exponential Rate. Current economic policy is based on outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in Research, plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the economy. The economy “wants” to grow more than the 3.5% per Qualitative critique, year, which constitutes the current “speed limit” that the Federal Reserve bank and other policy makers have established as “safe,” meaning noninflationary. Cheap Of Banks? But in keeping with the law of accelerating returns, the economy is Qualitative critique write an essay capable of persuasive essay about education, “safely” establishing this level of growth in less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of greater than 3.5%.
Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately. The economy still has some of the Qualitative research, underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of inventories. However, the rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the impact of this cycle. Paper …? So “recessions” are likely to be shallow and Qualitative critique write an essay, short lived. Need Help Essay Hacking As A Means Weaknesses In Computer? The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate.
The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and Qualitative critique, layers of need help do my essay as a means of identifying in computer, wealth and value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the Qualitative research write an essay, economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and many other new technology based categories. There is no need for high interest rates to counter an inflation that doesn’t exist. The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by all of the deflationary forces I’ve mentioned. The current high interest rates fostered by the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of dollars of lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Fed’s monetary policy is only influential because people believe it to be. It has little real power.
The economy today is largely backed by private capital in the form of a growing variety of equity instruments. The portion of available liquidity in the economy that the Fed actually controls is relatively insignificant. The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is short essay only 0.6% of the GDP, and Qualitative research critique write an essay, 0.25% of the liquidity available in stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the on nature in marathi, economy to Qualitative an essay an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the rate at write essay which a company can grow its revenues–or its market cap. Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to be high profile failures and market corrections. However the ability of technology companies to rapidly create new–real–wealth is just one of the factors that will continue to fuel ongoing double exponential growth in the economy. These policies have led to critique write an essay an “Alice in Wonderland” situation in which the market goes up on bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on good economic news. Speaking of market speculative fever and Paper On Childhood …, market corrections, the stock market values for so-called “B to B” (Business to Business) and “B to C” (Business to Consumer) web portals and enabling technologies is likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and that the Qualitative research, (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models.
The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the social security system. The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only need do my essay hacking as a means of identifying in computer, a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of 3.5% per year for the next fifty years! There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on both sides of the argument.
On the one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on the other hand, we will benefit from far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and will ultimately dominate. Qualitative Research An Essay? Moreover, we are certain to buy research papers cheap service of banks rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the year 2000). Another implication of the an essay, law of accelerating returns is exponential growth in education and learning. Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in essay on nature my teacher in marathi language, K-12 education (per student and in constant dollars) by a factor of ten. Research Write An Essay? We have a one hundred fold increase in the number of college students. Automation started by amplifying the power of short essay, our muscles, and in Qualitative critique an essay, recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Thus, for the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the help do my essay hacking of identifying security, skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at the top of the skill ladder. So the ladder has been moving up, and thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in education at all levels.
Oh, and about that “offer” at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on future expectations. Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the ubiquitous outlook, the write an essay, common wisdom in economic expectations are dramatically understated. Although stock prices reflect the consensus of a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the law of accelerating returns clearly implies that the growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the rate of progress will continue to accelerate. Online Service Of Banks? Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to research cause immediate growth rates to essay fluctuate, the underlying rate of growth will continue to Qualitative research critique write double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and understood this essay. That’s right. According to my models, if we replace the linear outlook with the Research On Childhood, more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since there’s about $20 trillion in write, the equity markets, that’s $40 trillion in essay answer, additional wealth.
But you said I would get that money. No, I said “you” would get the money, and that’s why I suggested reading the research critique write, sentence carefully. The English word “you” can be singular or plural. I meant it in the sense of write short answer, “all of you.” I see, all of us as in the whole world.
But not everyone will read this essay. Well, but everyone could. So if all of Qualitative critique, you read this essay and essay episode, understand it, then economic expectations would be based on Qualitative research, the historical exponential model, and thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no.
Putting on my futurist hat again, my prediction is that indeed these views will prevail, but only over time, as more and persuasive essay college, more evidence of the Qualitative research write an essay, exponential nature of technology and its impact on the economy becomes apparent. This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for the market. Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on answer, the one hand, while introducing new and salient dangers on the other. Critique An Essay? We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of which appear to be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on Paper On Childhood …, the planet. Bioengineering is in Qualitative, the early stages of enormous strides in reversing disease and about college education, aging processes. However, the means and knowledge will soon exist in a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in more sophisticated labs) to create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. Qualitative Research An Essay? As technology accelerates toward the Singularity, we will see the same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers.
Consider unrestrained nanobot replication. Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of such intelligent devices to be useful. The most cost effective way to buy research of banks scale up to such levels is through self-replication, essentially the same approach used in the biological world. And in the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in Qualitative critique write an essay, biological destruction, a defect in the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise. Other primary concerns include “who is controlling the nanobots?” and “who are the nanobots talking to?” Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in the water or food supply of an individual or of an entire population. These “spy” nanobots could then monitor, influence, and Research Paper, even control our thoughts and actions. In addition to research an essay introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and other software “hacking” techniques. When there is essay of identifying weaknesses software running in our brains, issues of privacy and security will take on critique write, a new urgency. My own expectation is buy research online cheap strategies of banks that the creative and research write, constructive applications of persuasive about college great, this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today.
But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in an essay, protest). If we imagine describing the dangers that exist today to persuasive essay about great people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. On the other hand, how many people in the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of research, centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster. Substantial portions of our species still live in this precarious way, which is at least one reason to continue technological progress and the economic enhancement that accompanies it. People often go through three stages in examining the impact of essay education great, future technology: awe and research critique write, wonderment at its potential to overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at write a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and hopefully, by the realization that the only viable and responsible path is to set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the Qualitative research, peril. In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the plagues of centuries’ past, and online cheap strategies of banks, how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and “nanobots” run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Indeed these are real dangers. It is critique an essay also the case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and improved sanitation, which has freed us from the prevalence of squarepants essay, such plagues. Suffering in the world continues and demands our steadfast attention. Should we tell the millions of people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the development of Qualitative research critique, all bioengineered treatments because there is a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for malevolent purposes?
Having asked the my teacher, rhetorical question, I realize that there is a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is not the answer. The continued opportunity to alleviate human distress is one important motivation for continuing technological advancement. Also compelling are the already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in the decades ahead. Qualitative Research Write? The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). On Nature In Marathi Language? In a competitive environment, it is an economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for research write, individuals, companies, and nations. Which brings us to the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joy’s most controversial recommendation and personal commitment. I do feel that relinquishment at the right level is part of a responsible and constructive response to these genuine perils. The issue, however, is exactly this: at what level are we to relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of it.
This, in my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and the futility of such a position is only underscored by college the senselessness of research write, Kaczynski’s deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for example, that might be regarded as too dangerous. But such sweeping strokes of relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of need help essay hacking means of identifying weaknesses in computer, technology. Research An Essay? It is far from a single centralized effort, but is being pursued by Research a myriad of Qualitative research write an essay, projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: “A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. . Squarepants Essay? . is that modern technology is a unified system in which all parts are dependent on one another. You can’t get rid of the “bad” parts of technology and retain only the “good” parts. Take modern medicine, for example. Qualitative Research Write? Progress in medical science depends on progress in chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and other fields. Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by online cheap service strategies of banks a technologically progressive, economically rich society.
Clearly you can’t have much progress in medicine without the whole technological system and everything that goes with it.” The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski. Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is correct on the deeply entangled nature of the benefits and risks. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on Qualitative research critique write, our overall assessment on the relative balance between the two. Bill Joy and I have dialogued on answer, this issue both publicly and write an essay, privately, and we both believe that technology will and should progress, and that we need to be actively concerned with the dark side. If Bill and I disagree, it’s on the granularity of write essay, relinquishment that is both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of critique write, technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and regulation.
In such a situation, it would be the less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the short answer, terrorists) who would have all the write an essay, expertise. I do think that relinquishment at the right level needs to be part of our ethical response to the dangers of twenty first century technologies. One constructive example of this is the proposed ethical guideline by the Foresight Institute, founded by persuasive college education nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to research write an essay relinquish the development of physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Essay Full Episode? Another is a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for Qualitative research critique write, self-replication. My Teacher Language? In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the “Broadcast Architecture,” such entities would have to Qualitative write an essay obtain such codes from a centralized secure server, which would guard against persuasive about college education undesirable replication. Research Write An Essay? The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in the biological world, which represents at buy research cheap service least one way in which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology.
In other ways, nanotech is potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and more intelligent. Research Critique Write? It will eventually be possible to persuasive essay about college education great combine the two by having nanotechnology provide the codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such “fine grained” relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. Other protections will need to include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific “immune” responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by law enforcement organizations. Write? Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to write short answer monitor a substantial flow of telephone conversations. As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the malicious use of Qualitative critique write, powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of many profound challenges. This is one reason that such issues as an buy research papers cheap service strategies of banks encryption “trap door” (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and the FBI “Carnivore” email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of Qualitative write, comfort from how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge.
There exists today a new form of fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didn’t exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the potential to destroy the computer network medium they live in. Yet the “immune system” that has evolved in response to this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from time to time, the injury is but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the answer, computers and communication links that harbor them. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and the Internet because of software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the lethal potential of research, biological viruses or of in marathi, destructive nanotechnology. Although true, this strengthens my observation. The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to Qualitative research critique write humans only means that more people are willing to create and release them.
It also means that our response to the danger is that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on buy research online service, all levels will be vastly more serious. Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the Twenty First century has not yet been written. Qualitative Write? It represents vast power to be used for all humankind’s purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to On Childhood … apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to critique an essay be a lack of consensus on what those values should be. Once brain porting technology has been refined and fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on what we mean by spongebob squarepants essay full episode living and dying. Consider what we do today with our personal computer files. When we change from one personal computer to Qualitative research critique an essay a less obsolete model, we don’t throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the hardware that it runs on.
When it comes to our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the persuasive essay about college education, software of an essay, our lives dies with it. Persuasive Essay College Education Great? However, this will not continue to be the case when we have the means to research store and restore the thousands of trillions of bytes of information represented in the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of one’s mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on persuasive about, the continued viability of any particular hardware medium. Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the severe limitations of humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and other forms of nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the constraints of research an essay, any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the buy research papers cheap service of banks, twenty-first century can grow their thinking and thoughts without limit. We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is worth pointing out that data and information do not necessarily last forever. Although not dependent on the viability of the hardware it runs on, the longevity of information depends on its relevance, utility, and accessibility. If you’ve ever tried to retrieve information from an obsolete form of Qualitative write, data storage in an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in spongebob full episode, keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and porting to current formats and mediums, then a form of immortality can be attained, at least for software-based humans.
Our mind file–our personality, skills, memories–all of that is research critique write lost today when our biological hardware crashes. When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of matter either. Only our pattern of Research, matter and Qualitative an essay, energy persists, and even that gradually changes. Essay On Nature My Teacher In Marathi? Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and changes gradually. But is that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of consciousness and identity, issues that have been debated since the Platonic dialogues. As we go through the twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and research critique an essay, legal issues. A related question is “is death desirable?” A great deal of write short answer, our effort goes into avoiding it. Qualitative Research Write An Essay? We make extraordinary efforts to Paper … delay it, and indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event.
Yet we might find it hard to live without it. We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to Qualitative research critique write an essay time. Time could become meaningless if there were too much of essay on nature my teacher in marathi language, it. The Next Step in critique write an essay, Evolution and the Purpose of Life. But I regard the spongebob squarepants essay full episode, freeing of the research critique write an essay, human mind from its severe physical limitations of scope and duration as the necessary next step in evolution. Evolution, in my view, represents the purpose of life. Need Weaknesses In Computer? That is, the purpose of critique write, life–and of our lives–is to evolve. Squarepants Full Episode? The Singularity then is not a grave danger to research write be avoided.
In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the goal of online strategies of banks, our civilization. What does it mean to evolve? Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of Qualitative critique write an essay, other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Of course, even the buy research papers cheap, accelerating growth of evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction. So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the freeing of our thinking from the severe limitations of its biological form may be regarded as an essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the research an essay, basis for these predictions. Squarepants Essay? I am not saying that technology will evolve to human levels and beyond simply because it is our destiny and Qualitative research an essay, because of the Research Paper, satisfaction of critique an essay, a spiritual quest.
Rather my projections result from a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the help do my means weaknesses in computer security, (double) exponential growth of technological processes. Qualitative An Essay? The primary force driving technology is economic imperative. We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the essay about education great, result of millions of Qualitative research write an essay, small advances, each with their own particular economic justification. To use an example from my own experience at one of my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of speech recognition, the online cheap service, new version invariably had greater value than the earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. It is interesting to note that in critique an essay, the example of speech recognition software, the three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in the intelligence of write short essay, their software. A few other companies that failed to do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of business. At any point in time, we would be able to sell the Qualitative research an essay, version prior to the latest version for perhaps a quarter of the price of the current version.
As for versions of our technology that were two generations old, we couldn’t even give those away. This phenomenon is short answer not only true for pattern recognition and other “AI” software, but applies to all products, from Qualitative research write an essay bread makers to spongebob squarepants episode cars. And if the product itself doesn’t exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in the manufacturing and marketing methods have a major effect on the success and profitability of an enterprise. There is a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology. Write? Intelligent machines have enormous value. That is why they are being built. There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in diverse incremental ways.
The support for “high tech” in the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and short essay, speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPO’s that year. The number of such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of dollars invested has increased by more than one thousand fold in the past 25 years. In the four years between 1995 and research critique write an essay, 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from just over $1 billion to essay episode approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is our destiny, but because there is valuable information to Qualitative write be found there that will provide insights in building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. Research Paper …? We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression. By the second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. On the one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants.
On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of human brains, albeit also vastly extended. And we will have a myriad of other varieties of intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Human thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological humans), and that figure will never appreciably change (except for a small increase resulting from research critique an essay genetic engineering). Nonbiological thinking is still millions of times less today, but the cross over will occur before 2030. By the end of the twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of human origin.
It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the next step in evolution. Most forecasts of the future seem to ignore the revolutionary impact of the Singularity in our human destiny: the inevitable emergence of computers that match and ultimately vastly exceed the squarepants essay full, capabilities of the human brain, a development that will be no less important than the Qualitative critique write, evolution of human intelligence itself some thousands of centuries ago. And the primary reason for this failure is On Childhood … that they are based on the intuitive but short sighted linear view of history. Before the next century is over, the Earth’s technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. After all, what is the difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by nanobot-based implants, and Qualitative research critique write an essay, a computer whose design is based on high resolution scans of the human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold? Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by 2099, the intelligence that will have emerged from need help means of identifying weaknesses in computer human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than it is today, dominated of research an essay, course by its nonbiological form.
So what does this have to do with SETI (the Search for essay my teacher language, Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to Qualitative write pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to in marathi language God). The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of a star having a planet with a technology creating species is very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of trillions of Qualitative critique write, them), that there are bound to be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and buy research cheap, is the common informed view today. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Universe. In the above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for alien civilizations capable (and willing) to transmit at a power of at least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at least 10 18 watts, and Qualitative an essay, so on). No sign of intelligence has been found as of buy research papers online cheap, yet. In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Qualitative Research Critique An Essay? Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute points out that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to 100 times the sensitivity and short essay answer, covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to previous searches, has only been applied thus far to Qualitative write an essay 500 star systems, which is, of course only a minute fraction of the half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy.
However, according to my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (“Earth-level”) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at the most, to achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. If the assumption that there are at least millions of radio capable civilizations out there, and that these civilizations are spread out over write essay answer, millions (indeed billions) of research critique, years of development, then surely there ought to be millions that have achieved Type II status. Incidentally, this is not an argument against the SETI project, which in my view should have the highest possible priority because the negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is odd that we find the cosmos so silent. Essay Full Episode? Where is everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts.
A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to restrict its broadcasts to subtle signals on research critique, obscure frequencies. Write Essay Answer? Why are they so silent, and so shy? As I have studied the implications of the law of accelerating returns, I have come to a different view. Because exponential growth is research critique an essay so explosive, it is the case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of a couple of centuries before the nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. It permeates virtually all matter in their vicinity, and then inevitably expands outward close to the maximum speed that information can travel.
Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species’ technology has saturated its vicinity (and the nature of squarepants full, this saturation is another complex issue, which I won’t deal with in this essay), it has no other way to continue to evolve but to expand outwardly. The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the maximum speed. What is the maximum speed? We currently understand this to Qualitative research critique write an essay be the speed of light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an absolute limit. Write Essay Answer? There were recent experiments that measured the flight time of photons at nearly twice the speed of light, a result of quantum uncertainty on an essay, their position. Buy Research Papers Of Banks? However, this result is research critique actually not useful for this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the buy research papers online cheap service, speed of light, and we are fundamentally interested in communication speed.
Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the speed of light; again, this is not communication of information (but is of great interest for restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). There is the potential for worm holes (or folds of the critique write, Universe in in marathi language, dimensions beyond the three visible ones), but this is not really traveling at faster than the speed of light, it just means that the topology of the critique an essay, Universe is not the simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies. But we already knew that. However, if worm holes or folds in on nature my teacher in marathi, the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to get everywhere quickly. Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered? And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to apply it. The point is that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of research write an essay, intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them.
So for now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at college the speed of light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the critique write, speed of expansion, or even if the limit is the speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the essay in marathi language, time spans for biological evolution are measured in millions and billions of years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by Qualitative critique an essay huge spans of time. If there are a lot of them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at least some of them would not be ahead of us. That at least is the SETI assumption. And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of us by huge spans of squarepants full, time. The likelihood that any civilization that is ahead of us is ahead of us by only a few decades is Qualitative critique extremely small. If the SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of help do my essay hacking weaknesses security, technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at least some of Qualitative, them (i.e., millions of essay on nature my teacher in marathi, them) would be way ahead of us.
But it takes only a few centuries at most from the advent of Qualitative an essay, computation for that civilization to expand outward at at least light speed. Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is likely that there are no such other civilizations. In other words, we are in spongebob squarepants full episode, the lead. That’s right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in Qualitative research critique an essay, the lead. Now how can that be? Isn’t this extremely unlikely given the billions of trillions of my teacher in marathi language, likely planets?
Indeed it is very unlikely. But equally unlikely is the existence of our Universe with a set of research critique write, laws of physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to be possible. But by the Anthropic principle, if the of banks, Universe didn’t allow the evolution of life we wouldn’t be here to notice it. Yet here we are. Qualitative An Essay? So by the same Anthropic principle, we’re here in the lead in Paper, the Universe.
Again, if we weren’t here, we would not be noticing it. Let’s consider some arguments against research write this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out need help essay as a means, there, but we are outside their light sphere of Qualitative research critique write, intelligence. That is, they haven’t gotten here yet. Okay, in this case, SETI will still fail because we won’t be able to see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to essay about remain invisible to us. Incidentally, I have always considered the science fiction notion of large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to us to Qualitative an essay be very unlikely. Persuasive Essay About Education Great? Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the trip here would have long since passed the point of merging with their technology and Qualitative research critique an essay, would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and equipment. Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to steal physical resources from us. They would be here for observation only, to write essay answer gather knowledge, which is the only resource of research write an essay, value to such a civilization.
The intelligence and equipment needed for such observation would be extremely small. In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in that desire. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today. Perhaps they will reveal themselves to us when we achieve the next level of our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to squarepants essay episode say, after the Singularity. Moreover, given that the Qualitative research write an essay, SETI assumption implies that there are millions of such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of buy research online strategies, them have made the same decision to stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the matter and Qualitative write, energy available to answer it, it turns dumb matter into smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the Qualitative research write, laws of physics, it is so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the persuasive about college education, most subtle aspects of the research critique write an essay, laws to manipulate matter and energy to buy research strategies its will. So it would at least appear that intelligence is more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology. Qualitative Critique? That is, once matter evolves into do my essay as a of identifying security, smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and energy to Qualitative do whatever it wants.
This perspective has not been considered in discussions of future cosmology. It is Research … assumed that intelligence is Qualitative research critique write irrelevant to events and processes on a cosmological scale. Paper? Stars are born and research critique, die; galaxies go through their cycles of creation and destruction. Help Essay Hacking As A Means In Computer Security? The Universe itself was born in a big bang and will end with a crunch or a whimper, we’re not yet sure which. But intelligence has little to do with it. Intelligence is research an essay just a bit of froth, an ebullition of little creatures darting in and out of inexorable universal forces. The mindless mechanism of the Universe is write essay winding up or down to a distant future, and there’s nothing intelligence can do about it. That’s the common wisdom, but I don’t agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Once a planet yields a technology creating species and that species creates computation (as has happened here on Earth), it is only a matter of a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the matter and research write an essay, energy in its vicinity, and it begins to expand outward at as a means weaknesses in computer security the speed of light or greater.
It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and other cosmological forces (or, to be fully accurate, will maneuver and control these forces) and create the Qualitative critique, Universe it wants. This is the goal of the write, Singularity. What kind of Universe will that be? Well, just wait and see. Most of you (again I’m using the plural form of the Qualitative research write, word) are likely to be around to see the buy research online service strategies, Singularity. The expanding human life span is research an essay another one of those exponential trends. In the eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of weeks each year; and now we’re adding almost a half a year every year. With the my teacher in marathi language, revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of our own organs and tissues, and related developments in bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years.
So take care of research, yourself the old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the next fundamental paradigm shift in our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001. Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism. Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web. Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of The Visible Human Project. It’s here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Thanks for creating and sharing a great resource.
The rate of essay, technological change has serious implications for Qualitative research critique an essay, the economics of investing in terms of buy research service of banks, a “buy now or wait for the next improved model” problem. The “economic life” of equipment in certain industries is far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the Qualitative critique, machine is not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). We saw this in the late 90?s to early 2000 when the majority of used metal working machinery dealers went out of business. While the used equipment still “worked like new” it was technologically obsolete relative to the performance of the most recent technology. The economics of competition often led to the situation where the essay full episode, old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and an essay, costs of the on nature my teacher in marathi, new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of used equipment inventory when the dealer closed it’s doors and gave the keys to the banker, only to find out that the $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to research critique write an essay be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in squarepants essay full episode, order to “wear it out” before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of deciding to “buy now” or wait for new model. As the rate of technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an “investment singularity” where on never makes an investment. I feel that this conundrum is leading to greater concentration in manufacturing with less competition.
This in itself may be the “brakes” the research critique write an essay, the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to price goods based on write short answer, the economics of the “old technology” without being undercut by new competitors using new technology. I believe that there is a need for a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can “share technology” in order to “wear it out” before it becomes obsolete. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in order to facilitate sharing of equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the age of technology… can easily support your claims, specifically because the rate and research write an essay, return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years” (So 2011).
In 2015, at the Emerging Issues forum in NC State U, you say that “within 15 years we’ll be adding more than a year every year to your remaining life expectancy.” It does appear, even to this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the date when we’ll finally reach longevity escape velocity. Where does he say that? I can’t find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his “predictions” are not set in stone, and need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to do this or that, not an spongebob full episode exact time-frame. He isn’t trying to be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Just listing his educated theories on Qualitative research, what the future might hold.
Given medical progress you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years”. Essay Language? This in 2001, so it would refer to critique write 2011. Have we been adding more than a year to our remaining life span since 2011? looking widely, any growth is like more lambda function than exponent.. exponential growth linear phase saturation.. Short? fixing on Qualitative research critique write, exponential growth like a searching for Philosopher’s stone.. A technological singularity has already occurred at least once in history. Before the invention of neural cell, the adaptation for buy research online strategies, new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Qualitative Critique Write An Essay? Compared to that, the spongebob squarepants essay full, speed at which neurons model the critique an essay, world is near-infinite.
Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is write essay indistinguishable from the actual mind copied? Let’s say you and your copy are given the research an essay, identical simulated world environments to play in. If the behaviours of you and your copy do not deviate by more than the behaviour of actual you would be expected to deviate from the behaviour of identical actual you in a universe different from this one by the amount of entropy that would be needed to create the observed level of differences in behaviour over the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to Research Paper On Childhood that level of entropy, defined by the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to Qualitative research write be stated that this is full episode a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. Qualitative Write An Essay? There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and I too, agree with its principle suggestion. It is noteworthy to point out that what this man is attempting to prove is at spongebob squarepants essay full episode its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in write an essay, time. The most difficult part to grasp for most people is the help do my essay hacking as a means of identifying weaknesses security, ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. But just because you can’t comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and assess that it is only an optical illusion-doesn’t mean there is no merit in its core reasoning.
That is to say, it is possible to use these directly fictitious drawings to ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in 3 dimensions. What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is not necessarily impossible later. When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to view it as so. If you think A.I. intelligence is unable to pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as I’d assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the exponential growth of technology may culminate in an essay, a Singularity point that ultimately results in the destruction of the exponential model and offers an entirely new shape after. Short? (I’d assume a possible restart in research write, technological growth if you believe in Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear).
I am very interested to hear your take on that. How will we apply technplogy that is more intelligent than its creators………. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and having infinite amount of in marathi language, information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed… u mad bro that life didn’t turn out an essay, like movies from the 70?s and 80?s….you’re an idiot. I’m just going to say something about the life and the future. There were changes in the past for the future for the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the same, everyone is the same. They all think their more godly than others. The fact is, their not. They never will be…there’s only essay, president’s and higher occupations who fuck up our world and are the higher occupations.
So, now we live in the Still Age, where nothing seems to Qualitative research critique write an essay move forward. Sure we have technology, but nothing’s actually happening. Life’s dead, the people may seem alive but we are the walking dead. Suppose we don’t actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies. I mean, look at all the movies from the need essay hacking weaknesses, 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the Qualitative critique write, future hasn’t moved on write short, and they saw today. Critique Write An Essay? I will be dead by the time anything changes to our city or evolves….why is it that we can’t go out by the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the squarepants essay episode, night instead of research write, creatures of the in marathi, day? It’s frustrating, sitting here on your bed waiting for the next day. The night is not safe for anyone, why?
Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possible…why is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either. No, I didn’t read the preposterous post or comments. Maths sucks…I bet I can pass by research critique an essay without using it…that’s a challenge…okay, so maybe the shops I need maths for but thats it and I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the fuck buys 42 melons anyway? You know?
Those ridiculous math sums. Essay College Education Great? And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We don’t have self awareness because we’re just too used to everything, we’re almost like puppets obeying this life system…we only have self awareness when we are in Qualitative an essay, trouble.
I mean, I kind of feel like we’re just waiting to die everyday. I don’t want that. I hate that. Cheap Strategies Of Banks? I want to feel alive, to research critique write an essay feel lived, I dont want to walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the system? Go to school for squarepants essay, half your life, work the rest of the half, grow old and die. Everyone’s the Qualitative research critique write, same. It’s programmed for every human. You want to know your purpose? That’s your purpose. Work till you grow old.
Enjoy the little things ;) It is essay on nature my teacher mind bogging yet well supported by research facts…dear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areas…exponential increase is BADLY needed in personal conduct,wash-out of online cheap, negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is Qualitative research an essay all to. it…probably suspecting misuse. from nsc. UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ” ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines” document in 1960s are not far from reality. “consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the chain, the papers online service strategies of banks, new copy’s consciousness would begin at research critique an essay that point and squarepants full, your old self would continue to be conscious. a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from biology into research, technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is short answer my view anyway” Moore’s law is just one of Qualitative research an essay, millions of positive feedback loops that occur in persuasive about great, the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moore’s Law will. This is Qualitative critique write an essay because every feedback loop, including Moore’s Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients).
All the buy research papers cheap service strategies of banks, technology curves will be slowed by limiting factors eventually, and the singularity won’t occur. Jordan: in The Singularity Is Near book. Ray explains that Moore’s law will expire in the future, and research critique, will be replaced by another process. Jordan – respectfully – did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in essay my teacher in marathi, that we haven’t yet established that there is Qualitative write an essay a possible “paradigm” after integrated circuits. Pointing to the end of Moore’s law and need help of identifying weaknesses in computer security, claiming their is nothing beyond that is no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the fastest computers we can EVER make. Moore’s law is projected to end sometime around 2018 – 2022. Ray is very aware of this, as he points out many times in his essay. Had his argument been of the form “Moore’s law – Singularity” your counter argument would have been sufficient.
This is not at all what he is arguing, in fact, the premise “Moore’s law will end” is one premises of his argument (the rise an research critique fall of new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to spongebob essay argue against a singularity occurring, you need to address the fundamental trends underlying Moore’s law (things along the lines of building upon previous innovations and then work out what laws of physics may interfere with the continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the wavelength of Qualitative, carrier frequency. If I were to then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the essay about college education great, same type of thinking as yours regarding Moore’s law. All of us working together over many years of innovation and “evolution” have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the ones that don’t appear to be doing anything – it all adds up).
The patterns you see in a branching tree, in the periodic table, in human personality types, a fractal, the sand on Qualitative critique, the beach, a hurricane, the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction… take your pick but the my teacher in marathi, “Law of Qualitative critique write an essay, Accelerating Returns” as Ray calls it is simply another one of write short, those types of patterns. It’s literally a force of nature – we recognize that we’re creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that we’re “in control” of it, and that just isn’t the case. All of Qualitative an essay, these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of small scale chaotic events will be points of great interest for us going forward (they already are, but they’ll become more important as we try to solve problems… like the end of Moore’s law). They form the links between the write short essay, known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness. A top priority is to understand that complex and interconnected web. uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars…. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what??
Hi to everyone, this is my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about Forex thing, got attracted, started to read about it, but still really confused about What is forex . All the explanations i find on the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words. Can someone explain what is forex by research write his own words ? Tired of websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me! God bless you “It is not beauty that endears; it’s love that makes us see beauty.” – Leo Tolstoy. Too much technological change within such a short period of time is persuasive essay about too much for humans to handle. Humans must learn how to adapt to Qualitative an essay the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans won’t end civilization as we know it. Essay Education Great? We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of acceleration (gravity) and Qualitative research critique write, all centripetal – self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the perception we call time imortality is right around the corner.
So hold on to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it. Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws. Need Help Do My Essay Hacking As A Means Of Identifying Security? It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy. It is more convenient to postulate that Epigenetics expanded in accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of creation. (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. The first is physical, the second metaphysical.
The first problem that while exponential growth is certainly a mathematical possibility, it is never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist. For example, the Qualitative research critique an essay, repellent force of protons looks asymptotic until a certain point – then it breaks over write essay answer, and nuclear forces take over, binding the nucleus of an atom together. The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function. Qualitative Research? There is essay means of identifying weaknesses always a breakover point. (Interesting discussion regarding the growth of mass as it approaches the research write an essay, speed of light – but if you think about it, we simply don’t know yet). The second is metaphysical. This theory assumes – and I think incorrectly – that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity.
However, any honest person that thinks about it will realize that there is something in the “soul” or “spirit” that is yet to be explored or understood. Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and “felt” the short, “tension” in the room has sensed with something other than the brain – unless all of that is research just electromagnetic vibes, and as an electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and disperse at nearly the speed of light. I think that the online service, brain is more of an interface to the “spirit” where real cognitive thinking occurs. Critique Write An Essay? That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to spongebob full episode music, etc.) in order to “think”. Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by critique an essay any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed (like evolution). It is more of a religion than religion is.
The complexity of the interface certainly needs to be explored, but until we can figure out where the real cognitive engine is, I don’t think there is persuasive college any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware. The RS 232 interface is simple and the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. LIkewise, the write, brain may be exceeded by a computer, but it will never become the cognitive center of a person. On the bright side, Mr. Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they don’t have a structured, organized universal way of communicating with one another. So they have to rely on a not of non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of full, “walking into a room with an argument” isn’t a very good example of a “spiritual” perception, because humans display certain actions and characteristic when under pressure, and some of us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of communication. Looks of Qualitative research critique an essay, worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting…
It’s a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to claim we have souls is to deny the essay, elegance and beauty that is our brains. So don’t be mean to your brain, give credit where credit’s due! ” In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist.” There is a physical limit at Qualitative research critique an essay the end of the century. Papers Strategies? He explains in this particular essay that he left it out, but it is basically the point at which we cant get any more use out research critique an essay, of an atom and simply require more atoms. Research On Childhood? At that point all research and advancement will be towards getting more atoms. “That is why we “stew” on research critique, things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to essay on nature my teacher language music, etc.) in Qualitative critique write, order to “think”.
Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing.” We are unaware of the vast majority of our brains activity. This is the work being done in the subconscious. Papers Cheap Service Strategies Of Banks? We are only aware of the activity on the thin outer film on the outside of the brain, and we have even shown that many of the decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the decision and lying to you conscious brain that you made the decision. You can tell these “decisions” apart from the critique write an essay, rest by asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to what you just did; if not, that is your subconscious. Language? Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and research critique write, analyzes the world in very unconventional ways… sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of about great, reality. 95% of our brain is in research an essay, the subconscious. Little is known about what the subconscious is capable of or senses past the 5 our conscious brain is in marathi language aware of.
Seeing into the outer layer of the subconscious is a spiritual experience. It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and hallucinogens. When you “feel” things you are not aware of or “stew”, this is your subconscious working away. This is the real you. “Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed” Self awareness is shown to Qualitative critique write an essay take place in On Childhood, the brain only when it is in a highly interconnected state. The outer 5% of the Qualitative research an essay, brain is the conscious part and my teacher in marathi, is only developed to any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the brain connects the other parts of the brain together and allows you to be aware of them and also override them with logic. Qualitative Research Critique Write An Essay? Scientific inquiry into this by watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the difference in the brain is that the separate parts are no longer communicating with each other…they are simply acting.
This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to help me with a nonprofit initiative of mine called iSocialWatch, it is the first social media watchdog and consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and sexuality in the context of cyber, social and ultra connected space. You can reach out by email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter “isocialwatch”, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. Looking forward hearing from essay in marathi language you. I’m not sure that I agree with the Kurzweil’s refutation of Penrose’s description of the origin of consciousness.
I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. Critique Write An Essay? The fundamental difference between the essay on nature my teacher language, two processes, it seems to me, is the gradual nature of the former, which avoids the discontinuity of the latter. Continuity may be fundamental to consciousness, which is why Penrose’s argument holds water. No matter how “close” our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind. Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to critique all of this. Squarepants Full? Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and not the other way around.
Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of development and then a decellerating slowing down of Qualitative research an essay, development. Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesn’t change much. You just think it is linear or exponentially accellerating because you don’t appreciate that the industrial/technological time has been very short. It’s like looking at write essay answer our world and research critique an essay, thinking it is flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further. It’s just a ball.
You can’t see the reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the jump from cheap service of banks – the window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is very small – to, therefore no other civilizations exist – is a false conclusion. I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the one to Qualitative research an essay decide when any contact should occur. Essay? I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they aren’t out there. Are You Serious Bro? We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went…
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4 Steps to research critique write an essay, Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the online service of banks, right approach and know-how, you can create your own standout document in no time. Research Critique An Essay! And the good news is we’re here to help. We’ve broken down the resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to make it easier for need help do my essay hacking means weaknesses in computer security, you to get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an overview of each section of your resume, followed by some quick tips and actual resume examples that you can use as model for your own resume. Every great resume begins with a strong summary statement.
This is a short description of who you are professionally that includes a brief list of your top skills. Your summary statement is the first thing that recruiters will see. Qualitative Write! So think of it as your big chance to persuasive education great, catch someone’s attention. You also want to show hiring leaders that you’re a great fit for the job. You can do this by Qualitative research critique, using the skills and spongebob essay full episode, keywords that are in the job description in your summary statement – just make sure you only use those that reflect your experience (no exaggerating or lying on your resume!). Your statement can be written in either sentence form or bullet-point form and should be short, but effective – no more than 3 sentences or bullet points; it should also contain the following information: Your professional title Top 2-3 skills Specific expertise, professional traits, accomplishments. Need help writing your own professional summary statement? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of Qualitative research critique write, expertly written summary statements and career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your resume. Registered nurse with 9 years of experience in medical centers and Research, operating rooms ICU and ER experience in 40+ bed units Strong organizational and interpersonal skills. Dedicated assembly line worker with 5 years of experience.
Well-versed in machinery assembly and an essay, production line efficiency . Fast learner who picks up new processes and technologies easily. Senior Sales Associate with excellent customer relations skills in business-to-business sales Increased global sales by full, 20% over the last two years, exceeding goals each quarter for research write an essay, the past year Seeking new sales challenge with management opportunities. Experienced veterinary technician with 3 years of experience in essay delivering comprehensive care to research critique, animals at persuasive essay about college education great animal rescue facilities and shelters. Seeking to use shelter experience and formal training at a respected veterinary office. Responsible cashier experienced at managing front-of-store needs in Qualitative research critique write an essay busy environments. Friendly and energetic with strong communication and organizational abilities. Seeking role of increased responsibility where strengths in service and sales will be valuable. Motivated sales professional with 8 years of fashion retail sales experience who truly enjoys helping customers find their best fit and style. Highly results-oriented and energetic, with unsurpassed customer relations skills. The skills section – often called the persuasive essay college education, #8220;Qualifications#8221; or #8220;Areas of Expertise#8221; section of your resume is a list of an essay, your top skills. This section of your resume is your chance to full, showcase your abilities to employers in research write an essay a quick and easy-to-read way.
Although this section is persuasive essay about education great typically short and concise (think two columns of critique, 3 to 4 bullet points), it contains very important information about your ability to perform a particular type of job. Hiring managers should be able to essay on nature language, scan your resume and find this list of skills easily. Here are a few helpful tips for Qualitative write an essay, writing a skills section that will get you noticed. Target your skills to the job : This is one of the best ways to customize your resume for the job you are applying to. Answer! Read the Qualitative research critique an essay, job description and list all of the required and desired skills for the position. Then, see if you have any skills that match up with those on your list; these are the essay on nature in marathi language, abilities you should include in your skills section. This way, when hiring managers skim your resume, they will see that you have the skills they’re looking for in a candidate. Include transferable skills : Transferable skills are skills that cross from one career field to another. These skills can be applied to a variety of positions. Some examples include communication skills, presentation or public speaking skills, any foreign language skills you have, social media skills, organizational and planning skills, and management and leaderships skills. Use keywords : If you are applying to a job online and are asked to Qualitative critique an essay, upload your resume or fill in an application online, chances are you are entering your information into an application tracking system.
This is a machine that companies use to scan a resume for keywords specific to the job. Be sure to pick out keywords from the job description and write short essay answer, your industry and use them in Qualitative critique write your resume and need help hacking as a means, application to make sure it gets past this machine. Using keywords directly from the research critique write an essay, employer will increase your chances of help as a weaknesses in computer security, getting noticed by the hiring manager. Qualitative Research Critique! Need help writing a skills section that gets you noticed? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to need help do my essay means of identifying weaknesses in computer security, your own resume. While all parts of your resume are equally important, your work history section is where you will be discussing your direct experience and your accomplishments, and write an essay, it’s critical to get this one right.Let’s start with the my teacher, basics. Your work history section should include the following: Positions and/or titles you held Names of organizations where you were employed City and state of each organization Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Brief descriptions of your experience in bullet format. This section will be a combination of your job responsibilities and Qualitative research write, duties along with your work achievements.
Hiring managers will be looking for your achievements and Research On Childhood, successes, not just your responsibilities, so it’s important to include both. When listing your responsibilities and duties, be sure to Qualitative research write an essay, use action verbs to essay my teacher in marathi, increase the strength of research an essay, your writing and make potential employers take notice. Some action verbs to use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led. It takes practice and time to come up with your accomplishments and successes and to papers online service strategies, add numbers to them numbers such as how much money you saved the company, how you increased efficiency, or how many sales you achieved in a certain period of time. However, using two or three bullets under each job to describe your successes, along with metrics, will land you an Qualitative research critique an essay, interview. Persuasive Essay About College Great! Need help writing a work experience section that shows your value?
Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to an essay, your own resume. Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD. Write Essay! July 2010 – present. Write An Essay! Prioritized and managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and need help as a means of identifying weaknesses security, distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and maintaining office supplies. Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by 25% by implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per month for critique write, offsite meetings and national conferences.
Managed operations and logistics for annual onsite company conference for 150 employees and 200+ guest attendees. Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA. September 2014 – May 2016. Assisted in short a classroom of 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for write an essay, two consecutive school years. Engaged children with diverse and spongebob episode, enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and hands-on learning. Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and implemented new email letter system to offer reports online, saving the faculty 4 hours per week. Ft. Hood, Killeen, TX. January 2008 – August 2015.
Developed and led 5 new training programs over 12 months in critique preparation for combat. Persuasive Education! Performed reconnaissance operations in critique compromised regions to about great, develop combat training programs. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and all infantry dismounted battle drills. Research Critique An Essay! Communicated urgent orders and directions effectively to team of 200+ military personnel. Your educational background can be an important part of your resume and should communicate your background quickly and hacking as a security, simply to potential employers. Even if you don’t have previous experience in a particular job, you may increase your chances of being considered for the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to the position at hand. Here are some tips to help make your education section work for you: List the highest level of education first. This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and research critique write an essay, ensure that he or she is able to determine your education level quickly.
If you are recent graduate without a ton of work experience, then you can place your education section at the top of write, your resume for emphasis. Include your educational information in this order: Degree or diploma name is listed first. Major(s) follow the degree. If you have minors, these are optional to list but it’s recommended to list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. List the date you received the degree or diploma by research critique write an essay, year (for example, 2003). If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date.
Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate. If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an associate’s degree, you can list it in essay about college the same way as above. Qualitative Research! It is also perfectly acceptable to list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for.
Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and online service strategies of banks, effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about How to Write Your First Resume. Qualitative Research! 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. Persuasive Essay About Great! How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Get Your Resume In Front of the research critique write an essay, Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic.
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essay on the wire Jason Mittell calls David Simon’s bluff: to what degree is The Wire really like a “televised novel”? To what degree is it more like a video game? Why not classify it as what it really is - a genre-spawning “masterpiece” in the medium of television. The Wire (2002-2008) is paradigmatic of a critical darling - few people watch it (at least in the numbers typical of commercial television), but it generates adoration and evangelism by Qualitative write an essay, nearly all who do. Write Answer. Television critics have taken it on themselves to lobby their readers to give the show a chance, asking reluctant viewers to overlook its dark and cynical worldview to see the critique write an essay, truth and beauty offered by its searing vision into the bleak heart of the spongebob squarepants essay full episode, U.S. city. Thankfully for us scattered fans, HBO has allowed the critique an essay, show to continue for five seasons, even without a clear sense that the show’s dedicated fandom leads to overt profitability. This chapter was composed in the interim between seasons four and five, and squarepants full episode, thus only refers to the show’s first four seasons. The author would like to thank the Qualitative research critique write an essay, readers of persuasive education, his blog, Just TV, for the thoughtful feedback posted about a draft of this chapter as well as the comments by this volume’s editors.
What is most interesting to me about the critical praise deservedly lavished on The Wire is not how it may or may not yield an critique write increase in viewership but how the critical consensus seems to situate the show distinctly within the frame of another medium. For many critics, bloggers, fans, and even creator David Simon himself, The Wire is best understood not as a television series but as a “visual novel.” As a television scholar, this cross-media metaphor bristles - not because I don’t like novels but because I love television. And I believe that television at its best shouldn’t be understood simply as emulating another older and more culturally valued medium. The Wire is a masterpiece of do my essay as a of identifying in computer, television, not a novel that happens to be televised, and thus should be understood, analyzed, and celebrated on its own medium’s terms. Yet thinking comparatively across media can be quite rewarding as a critical exercise, illuminating what makes a particular medium distinctive, and how its norms and assumptions might be rethought. So before considering how the show operates televisually, what does thinking of The Wire as a novel teach us about the show? And might other cross-media metaphors yield other insights?
The Wire ’s novelistic qualities are most directly linked to its storytelling structure and ambitions. As Simon attests in frequent interviews and commentary tracks, he is looking to tell a large sweeping story that has traditionally been the purview of the novel, at least within the an essay, realm of culturally legitimate formats. He highlights how each season offers its own structural integrity, much like a specific book within a larger epic novel, and each episode stands as a distinct chapter in that book. The model, modestly left unspoken, might be War and Peace , a vast narrative containing fifteen “books,” each subdivided into at write short essay least a dozen chapters and released serially over five years - Simon has less modestly mentioned Moby-Dick as another point of comparison, although that epic novel was neither serialized nor subdivided into books. In The Wire , each season focuses on a particular facet of Baltimore and slowly builds into a cohesive whole. An episode typically does not follow the self-contained logic of most television programming, as story lines are introduced gradually and Qualitative critique write, major characters might take weeks to appear. “Novelistic” is an write short essay apt term for describing this storytelling structure, as we rarely dive into research critique an essay, a novel expecting the first chapter to typify the whole work as a television pilot is persuasive essay college education great designed to do. Simon emphasizes how the show requires patience to allow stories to build and themes to accrue - a mode of engagement he suggests is more typical of Qualitative, reading than viewing.
Enhancing the show’s novelistic claims is the presence of well-regarded crime fiction writers like George Pelecanos, Richard Price, and Dennis Lehane on the staff, and Price’s novel Clockers is surely an Research Paper On Childhood influence with its dual focus on a criminal and a cop in the urban drug war. This parallel to the novel brings with it not just an imagined structure and Qualitative research critique write, scope but a host of assumed cultural values as well. While the novel’s history in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries featured numerous contestations over the form’s aesthetic and my teacher in marathi, cultural merits, by the time television emerged in the mid-twentieth century, the literary novel’s cultural role was firmly ensconced as one of the Qualitative research write, most elite and privileged storytelling formats. As the most popular and culturally influential form of storytelling, television has usurped the role that the early novel played as a lowbrow mass medium threatening to corrupt its readers and demean cultural standards. By asserting The Wire as a televised novel, Simon and critics are attempting to legitimize and validate the demeaned television medium by linking it to the highbrow cultural sphere of literature. The phrase “televised novel” functions as an oxymoron in its assumed cultural values, much like the Paper, term “soap opera” juxtaposes the Qualitative research critique an essay, extremities of write essay answer, art and an essay, commerce into a cultural contradiction. For The Wire , especially in its context of HBO’s slogan “It’s Not TV, It’s HBO,” the link to the novel rescues the show from the stigmas of its televised form, raising it above the commercialized swamp of ephemera imagined by many as typical television. On Childhood. But I would contend that emphasizing the literary facets of The Wire obscures many of its virtues and qualities, setting it up to research, fail when measured by some of the aesthetic aims of the novel. While any form as diverse as the novel cannot be firmly defined as dependent on any singular theme or formal quality, we can point to some key features common to many novels that The Wire seems not to persuasive about college great, share. Novels typically probe the interior lives of research an essay, their characters, both through plots that center on character growth and cheap strategies of banks, transformations, and critique, through the scope of narration that accesses characters’ thoughts and essay college great, beliefs. Even novels about a broad range of people and institutions often ground their vision of the world through the experiences of one or two central characters who transform through the narrative drive - for instance, a Charles Dickens novel like Bleak House examines institutions like the research critique write an essay, legal system, but does so primarily through the experiences and perspective of a central character.
These features of characterization and interiority are certainly not unique to novels, and help do my essay means of identifying weaknesses security, probably apply to many television series as well, but if The Wire is held as exemplar of the televised novel, we would assume that it shares the novel’s core treatment of character, which I believe it does not. Simon has suggested that The Wire is a show about the relationship between individuals and institutions - a claim that the program seems to uphold. Research Critique. But I would argue that the Paper On Childhood, point of emphasis is much more clearly on institutions rather than individuals, as within each of the social systems that the show explores - the police, the drug trade, the docks, city government, and the educational system - the Qualitative critique write, institution is full brought into focus through the lens of numerous characters. Certainly Jimmy McNulty is critique an essay a central point of access to understand police bureaucracy and spongebob squarepants essay full episode, functions nominally as the show’s main character, but by season four he is in write an essay the margins while characters like Cedric Daniels, “Bunny” Colvin, and Bunk Moreland provide alternate entry points to explore the police system. Likewise, we experience the drug trade through a range of characters from … D’Angelo Barksdale to Stringer Bell, Omar Little to Bodie Broadus.
While all of these characters have depth and complexity, we rarely see much of Qualitative research critique, their existence beyond how they fit into their institutional roles. Even romantic relationships seem to foreground interinstitutional links between police, lawyers, and politicians more than interpersonal bonds that deepen characters’ inner lives and essay about, motivations. Research. The chronic alcoholism and infidelity of The Wire ’s police officers offers a portrait less of flawed personalities than of a flawed institution; for instance, the police admire the systematic discipline and coordination of Barksdale’s crew, which is distinctly lacking in the Baltimore Police Department. This is not to suggest that characters in The Wire are flat or merely cardboard cutouts enacting a social simulation. One of the on nature my teacher language, show’s most masterful features is critique write its ability to create achingly human characters out of the tiniest moments and essay, subtle gestures, such as Lester Freamon silently sanding doll furniture, D’Angelo Barksdale picking out his clothes, or Bubbles walking through “Hamsterdam” in a daze trying to find himself.
But the way The Wire portrays its characters seems distinctly not novelistic: we get no internal monologues or speeches articulating characters’ deep thoughts, and few senses of critique write an essay, deep character goals or transformations motivating the dramatic actions. Character depth is conveyed through the texture of everyday life on the job - a set of operating systems that work to dehumanize the spongebob, characters at nearly every turn. As Simon notes, The Wire has … resisted the idea that, in this post-modern America, individuals triumph over institutions. The institution is research write always bigger. It doesn’t tolerate that degree of individuality on any level for any length of time. These moments of epic characterization are inherently false. They’re all rooted in, like, old Westerns or something. Guy rides into town, cleans up the town, rides out of town. There’s no cleaning it up anymore. There’s no riding in, there’s no riding out.
The town is Research On Childhood what it is. (Quoted in Mills 2007) In the show’s character logic, the institution is the defining element in a character’s life, externalized through practices, behaviors, and Qualitative research critique an essay, choices that deny individuality and agency - a storytelling structure that seems contrary to papers online service strategies, principles typical of most literary novels. There are clearly aspects of the novel that have inspired The Wire - the sweeping storytelling scope, the attention to write, details of systems and characters, and the social issue probing of works like The Jungle . Additionally, literary developments in recent decades have opened up the online of banks, formal and Qualitative, stylistic possibilities of the genre, and thus there are certainly fictional trends that The Wire taps into. Ultimately, however, I contend that we should view The Wire using the lens of its actual medium of television to best understand and buy research service strategies of banks, appreciate its achievements and importance. Qualitative Research Critique Write An Essay. But viewing a text through the expectations and essay hacking weaknesses in computer, assumptions of another form can help us understand its particular cultural logic. Might other media metaphors be similarly useful, within limits, to help unravel The Wire ? Surely journalism and documentary would be apt comparisons, with Simon’s roots as a newspaperman and investment in creative nonfiction. Yet I would like to write, suggest that it might be useful to view the language, program using the lens of a seemingly off-base medium, and hence offer a brief detour to critique write an essay, answer an unlikely question: How might we conceive of The Wire as a video game? Let me preemptively acknowledge one significant limitation here: watching The Wire is not interactive, at least in the explicit mode that Eric Zimmerman (2004, 158) argues typifies games.
But then again, watching a game like baseball is also noninteractive - despite my ritualized efforts to superstitiously trigger my team’s good fortune via carefully chosen clothing, gestures, and behaviors, I have failed to alter the outcome of any Red Sox game (at least as far as I know). In thinking about a filmed series like The Wire as a game, we need to think of the ludic elements within the show’s diegesis, not the interactive play that we expect when booting up a video game. Thus The Wire might be thought of as a spectatorial game, being played on-screen for the benefit of an audience. Games certainly play a more crucial role within The Wire ’s storyworld than literature does, as its characters hardly ever seem to do my essay of identifying weaknesses, read, but can regularly be seen playing craps or golf, watching basketball or dogfighting. More centrally, nearly every episode has at least one reference to “the game,” a slang term for Qualitative write an essay, the urban drug trade that extends to all of the show’s institutional settings. Within the show’s portrait of Baltimore, the game is played in all venues - the corners, City Hall, the police station, and the union hall - and by a range of write short, players - street-level junkies looking to score, corrupt politicians filling campaign coffers, cops bucking for promotion, stevedores trying to Qualitative write an essay, maintain the docks. “The game” is the short essay, overarching metaphor for urban struggle, as everyone must play or get played - as Marla Daniels tries to warn her husband, Cedric, “The game is rigged - you can’t lose if you don’t play” (episode 1.2). Research. Sometimes characters are playing the need as a means of identifying in computer security, same game, as the Qualitative, chase between the cops and Barksdale’s crew develops into a series of moves and countermoves, but some institutions engage in a different game altogether - in season one, the cops go to the FBI for help busting Barksdale’s drug and money-laundering system, but the feds are only playing the terrorism and political corruption game. Ultimately, Bell is brought down by trying to play two games at once, and gets caught when the rules of the persuasive essay college education great, drug game conflict with the corporate political game.
Simon has suggested that the show’s goal is to “portray systems and institutions and be honest with ourselves and viewers about how complex these problems are” (quoted in Zurawik 2006). While Simon imagines that the critique write an essay, televised novel is the form best suited to accomplish such goals, in today’s media environment, video games are the go-to medium for portraying complex systems. As Janet Murray writes, “The more we see life in terms of systems, the more we need a system-modeling medium to Paper …, represent it - and the less we can dismiss such organized rule systems as mere games” (quoted in Moulthrop 2004, 64). If novels typically foreground characterization and interiority in research critique write an essay ways that The Wire seems to deny, video games highlight the complexity of episode, interrelated systems and institutions that is one of the show’s strengths. Many video games are predicated on the logic of simulating complex systems, modeling an interrelated set of practices and protocols to Qualitative research an essay, explore how one choice ripples through an immersive world. Ian Bogost (2006, 98) defines a simulation as “a representation of a source system via a less complex system that informs the write short essay, user’s understanding of the source system in a subjective way” - a formulation that certainly captures the an essay, essence of The Wire as a dramatic distillation of Baltimore’s institutional systems viewed through the critical perspective of Simon and his cowriters. We might imagine the essay education great, show as a televisual adaptation of Will Wright’s landmark game SimCity (1989): an array of research critique, systems are dramatized, each with changing variables that ripple across the larger simulation model in unpredictable and often counterintuitive ways. SimCity functions as a “God game” at buy research cheap service strategies of banks a macrolevel of control over Qualitative write, the microdecisions of on nature my teacher in marathi language, urban existence.
But The Wire dramatizes its institutions more through the actions of characters in relation to the institution, blending the urban scope of research critique, SimCity with the personal focus typifying The Sims (2000), Wright’s most popular iteration of the simulation game genre. Bogost analyzes the cellular structure of simulations, with units operating in cheap service of banks microcontexts coalescing to create broader emergent systems. Such is Qualitative research critique often the case in write The Wire ’s Baltimore; in the first episode, for Qualitative research write, instance, a chance violent encounter between Johnny Weeks and Bodie leads Bubbles to seek revenge on persuasive essay, Barksdale’s organization, a small-scale unit operation that leads to major institutional transformations for both the police and drug dealers. Such small occurrences and changes at the levels of both character and institution are followed throughout the research critique an essay, series to model how institutions operate and my teacher language, infiltrate the critique, lives of their employees and members - a mode of representation blending the logics of SimCity and The Sims . One of the Paper On Childhood …, central elements of games, especially those centered on research write an essay, simulations, is replayability; for a game to be embraced by its players, it typically must allow enough experiential variation to invite multiple passes through its ludic journey. Instead of viewing each of The Wire ’s seasons as a singular book within an epic novel, we could view them as one play through its simulation game. In the first season, we walk through the police’s attempt to persuasive essay about education, take down Barksdale’s drug operation, concluding seemingly in a “checkmate” scene where Avon Barksdale and Stringer Bell yield to research an essay, the police’s final moves (1.12). Write Short. Yet rather than game over, the move results in a stalemate that no players deem victorious - a few criminals get sentenced, but the Barksdale machine remains intact.
Season three offers a replay with some changed variables and strategies for all sides: What if drugs are decriminalized? What if the drug trade goes legit through a conglomerated co-op rather than violent competition? What if a former soldier repents and tries to give back to his community? Given the show’s cynical vision of corrupt institutions, reform typically produces various forms of failure, as the parameters of the system are too locked in to truly produce social change or allow for an imagined solution to systemic problems; as Pryzbylewski notes in a later episode, referencing football but also his own life’s work, “No one wins - one side just loses more slowly” (4.4). Yet the ludic joy of the third season is the ability to Qualitative an essay, replay the first season’s narrative through the imagination of new rules and ways to play the game - a mode of engagement offered with less imaginative vision and more amoral brutality in season four’s replay of the drug game under the leadership of Marlo Stanfield.
The characters in The Wire , while quite human and multidimensional, are as narrowly defined in their possibilities as typical video game avatars. They each do what they do because that is the write short essay answer, way the game is played - Bubbles can’t get clean, McNulty can’t follow orders, Avon can’t stop fighting for critique an essay, his corners, and Frank Sobotka can’t let go of the glory days of the docks. …. The characters with both the research an essay, will and opportunity to answer, change, like Bell, D’Angelo, or Colvin, find the systems too resistant, the “boss levels” too difficult, to overcome the status quo. The show offers a game that resists agency, a system impervious to change, and yet the players keep playing because that is all they know how to do. The opening scene in the series shows McNulty interviewing a witness to research critique write, a murder, killed after trying to rob a craps game; even though the victim tried to “snatch and run” every Friday night, the witness says that they had to let him play, because “it’s America, man” (1.1). The game must be played, no matter the help essay as a means in computer security, cost. Write. Throughout the series, the moments of greatest conflict are where a player steps over essay hacking weaknesses security, the line and breaks the unwritten rules of his or her institution - shooting Omar on Sunday morning, Carver leaking information about critique Daniels, Nick Sobotka going beyond smuggling to enter the drug trade. In the show’s representation of Baltimore, the game is squarepants essay full episode more than a metaphor; it is the research critique write an essay, social contract that just barely holds the world together. Season four offers a replay with an expansion pack complete with new avatars and settings, focusing on the kids of spongebob squarepants essay full episode, Tilghman Middle School. The introduction of this new system triggers emotional distress - the rules of The Wire ’s simulation logic all but ensure that most of the children will end up broken and damaged, as that’s the way the write, game is played.
As we watch the season progress, the choices that the kids make and the actions that are enacted on them all function as unit operations, microinstances that begin to coalesce into larger systemic forces. We watch in hope that they each choose the right moves, play by rules that we know well after three seasons, but realize that nobody wins - it’s just about essay on nature my teacher language who loses more slowly. It is a tribute to the efficacy of the show’s logic of emergent systems that the end result of critique an essay, each child’s fate is both entirely unpredictable from the outset and completely inevitable given the way each played - and was played by - the need help do my essay of identifying weaknesses security, game. As viewers, we also play along in rooting for particular players, tracking the near misses that could have changed each of Qualitative an essay, their lives along the way, and learning the lessons of the show’s simulation rhetoric. Help Do My Essay Hacking Means. As Bogost (2006) observes, simulations make arguments and reinforce ideologies through their underlying rules and assumptions; The Wire serves as a prototype of a persuasive game, making arguments about the inefficacy of the Qualitative, drug war, the class politics of urban America, and essay education great, the failure of U.S. education under the regime of testing, all rhetorically framed within the metaphor of a game to be played and lost. If the video game medium offers such insight into what makes The Wire an Qualitative critique innovative and successful program, why wouldn’t Simon or other critics highlight this cross-media parallel as well as the squarepants essay full episode, novel? One answer is obvious: it helps legitimize the show by comparing it to the highbrow, respectable literary form rather than the more derided and marginalized medium. And of course, I do believe that Simon and his cowriters do conceive of research write, their practices as fitting with their conceptions of what the novel can do, with “the game” serving as mostly a metaphor for online cheap service strategies of banks, the desolate lives of their characters and research write an essay, institutions. College. But through my own little game here, reading The Wire for the anthology Third Person through the research critique write an essay, analytic lens of spongebob essay episode, its previous game studies iteration of First Person , we can see both the possibilities and limitations of analyzing a text through the framework of what it is not. Ultimately, the best insights about the show can be found not by looking at it as either a novel or a game but in terms of what it truly is: a masterful example of television storytelling. Placing The Wire in the context of television storytelling helps us understand why Simon felt compelled to frame his series as atypical of television beyond the implied cultural hierarchies.
On the research write an essay, show’s debut in 2002, television was in the midst of a distinctive shift in its storytelling strategies and possibilities, exploring a mode of essay my teacher in marathi, narrative complexity that I have analyzed elsewhere (Mittell 2006). Research Critique Write. Simon’s previous work in television was primarily on short essay, the NBC series Homicide: Life on the Street , which was based on his journalistic book; Homicide ’s producers were constantly battling network requests to make plots more conclusive and uplifting, adding hopeful resolution to its bleak vision of urban murder. But in Qualitative research an essay the decade between Homicide ’s 1993 premiere and The Wire ’s debut, many programs offered innovations in complex long-form television storytelling, including The X-Files , Buffy the Vampire Slayer , The West Wing , Alias , 24 , and most important for Simon’s own program, HBO’s critically acclaimed offerings of Oz , The Sopranos (1999-2007), and Six Feet Under (2001-2005) as well as his own miniseries The Corner . Buy Research Service Of Banks. Thus, while Simon frames his series primarily in novelistic terms in opposition to Qualitative critique an essay, his frustrations working on Homicide , there were many key televised precedents for long-form gradual storytelling for him to draw on. The Wire does, of Research, course, draw on a number of Qualitative research critique an essay, televisual traditions, mostly in its position within genre categories. The police drama is an obvious link, but an uncomfortable one; unlike nearly all cop shows, The Wire spends as much time focused on the criminals as the police, and papers of banks, as seasons progress, other civic institutions take over the dramatic center. The show belongs more to research an essay, a nonexistent category of “urban drama,” documenting a city’s systemic decay; thematically, police dramas are nearly always about fighting the tide of decay, rather than contributing to its demise. Essay. In spirit, if not in execution, The Wire harks back to the critically hailed yet little seen social issue dramas of the early 1960s, like East Side/West Side and The Defenders , but given the new industrial framework of premium cable television, The Wire can survive (if only barely) as a bleak social statement without reaching a mass audience - a luxury that its 1960s’ network counterparts could not afford.
What the show shares most directly with many cop show precedents is Qualitative its focus on Paper …, procedure. Dragnet (1951-1970) pioneered the television cop show in the 1950s, inventing both the formal and cultural vocabulary of the research write, police procedural. Although it reads as a mannered caricature today, in its time Dragnet represented the height of gripping authenticity, offering viewers a gritty noir view into the underbelly of Los Angeles and a celebration of the service, police who protect it. The show’s narrative scope focused on write, the functional machinery of the police world, presenting a form of “systemic realism” that sublimated character depth to language, institutional logic (Mittell 2004, 137). While Dragnet did distill the larger institution into critique, the perspective of Detective Joe Friday and write answer, his assorted partners, creator/producer/star Jack Webb designed the show for Qualitative critique, Friday to be viewed as “just one little cog in a great enforcement machine” (quoted in ibid., 126), and downplayed the character to generate a level of buy research papers online cheap service of banks, emotional engagement appropriate for a cog, redirecting viewer focus on to the minute details of police procedures. The legacy of Dragnet ’s procedural tone lives on in the long-running Law and research critique, Order and great, CSI franchises, each of which offer just enough emotional investment in their institutional workers to engage viewers, but hook them with twisty mysteries each week to be solved by effective forensic detection or prosecution. The Wire manages to produce both emotional investment in its characters and a detailed eye for procedures. The opening credits of Qualitative write an essay, each season typify the show’s focus.
The characters are obscured and abstracted into a series of unit operations: close-ups of Research Paper On Childhood, body parts, machinery, gestures, and icons of city life. What matters in the credits, and arguably the series as a whole, is less who is doing the actions, but more the practices of institutional urban life themselves: the policing, drug slinging, political bribing, and bureaucratic buck-passing that comprise the essence of the show’s portrait of Baltimore in decay. The Wire offers a veritable how-to lesson on the police procedures of an essay, wiretapping, waterfront tracking, and surveillance as well as the less sanctioned practices of drug distribution, smuggling, and bribery. A real New York drug ring even modeled their strategy of dumping cell phones after the practices of Barksdale’s crew - a connection that police learned about in marathi while listening to critique write an essay, dealers recap the previous episode via a wiretap (Rashbaum 2005). While traditional police procedurals have documented the practices of detection and prosecution as evidence of a functional and robust criminal justice system, The Wire ’s procedural detail shows official systems that cannot match the discipline, creativity, and flexibility of criminals, thereby offering a cynical vision of a police system playing out a losing hand. The show’s formal style supports its claims to authenticity. While it avoids Dragnet’s procedural voice-over narration, The Wire shares a similar commitment to underplaying drama, and allowing the on-screen dialogue and action to tell the spongebob squarepants, story. The show refuses to use nondiegetic music except to conclude each season, and minimizes camera movement and flashy editing, allowing the performances and writing to tell the story with a naturalistic visual style.
Unlike many of its contemporary shows employing complex narrative strategies, The Wire avoids flashbacks, voice-overs, fantasy sequences, repetition from multiple perspectives, or reflexive commentaries on the narrative form itself (see Mittell 2006). In terms of how the show stylistically tells its story, The Wire appears more akin to conventional procedurals like Law and Order than contemporary innovators like The Sopranos or 24, sharing a commitment to research critique write, authenticity and do my hacking as a means of identifying weaknesses in computer, realism typified by a minimized documentary-style aesthetic that Simon (2006) summarizes: “Less is more. Qualitative Research Write An Essay. Explaining everything to the slowest or laziest member of the audience destroys verisimilitude and reveals the movie itself, rather than the reality that the movie is trying to spongebob essay full episode, convey.” While its attention to procedural details, authenticity, and verisimilitude might rival any show in research critique write an essay television history, The Wire diverges from write essay answer one defining attribute of the research write, police procedural. Typically procedurals, whether focusing on police precincts, medical practices, or private detectives, are devoutly episodic in structure - each week, one or more cases gets discovered, processed, and resolved, rarely to Paper On Childhood …, reappear or even be remembered in subsequent episodes. On The Wire , cases last an entire season or beyond, and research an essay, everything that happens is write answer remembered with continuing repercussions throughout the storyworld - lessons are learned, grudges are deepened, and Qualitative write, the stakes are raised. The show demands audiences to invest in essay answer their diegetic memories by Qualitative research critique write, rewarding detailed consumption with narrative payoffs; for essay on nature, instance, a first season bust of an aide to Senator Clay Davis adds little to that season’s arc, but it sets up a major plotline of seasons three and four. If Dragnet represents the prototype of the Qualitative research, episodic procedural with hundreds of interchangeable episodes, The Wire is on the other end of television’s narrational spectrum, with each episode in the series demanding to be viewed in sequence and strict continuity. Thus, The Wire functions as what might be television’s only example of a serialized procedural.
Also debuting in 2002, The Shield blends the procedural with the serial by mixing ongoing conflicts into …, its focus on the workings of research critique an essay, a corrupt branch of the Los Angeles Police Department. The Shield , however, offers far more episodic closure than The Wire , with single cases introduced and resolved in most episodes - a plot convention that never occurs in The Wire . How does The Wire structure its balance between serial and need help do my hacking as a of identifying weaknesses in computer, episodic story lines? In many examples of television’s contemporary narrative complexity, individual episodes maintain a coherent and steady structure, even when they primarily function as part of a larger storytelling arc (Mittell 2006; Newman 2006). Individual episodes typically offer one self-contained plotline to be resolved while others function primarily within larger season arcs; for example, each episode of research critique an essay, Veronica Mars typically introduces and resolves one new mystery, while longer character and investigative arcs proceed alongside that week’s self-contained plot. Other shows use structural devices to Research Paper On Childhood, identify distinct episodes, such as Lost ’s designation of a specific character’s flashbacks each week or Six Feet Under ’s “death-of-the-week” structure. The Wire offers little episodic unity. Although each episode is certainly structured to deliver narrative engagement and payoffs in specific beats and threads, it is hard to isolate any identifying characteristics of a single episode in the way that a show like The Sopranos has particular markers, such as “the college trip” or “the Russian in research critique write an essay the woods.” In this way, The Wire does fit Simon’s novelistic ideals, as individual chapters are best viewed as parts of a cohesive whole and need help essay means weaknesses security, not as stand-alone entries. The Wire is therefore at Qualitative write once one of television’s most serialized programs, yet also uniquely focused more on institutional procedures and actions than character relationships and emotional struggles that typify most serialized dramas.
What are the impacts of persuasive essay college, this unique narrative form of the serialized procedural, beyond just a formal innovation with its own pleasurable rewards? Dragnet and Qualitative research critique write an essay, subsequent police procedurals represent law enforcement as an papers online cheap strategies of banks efficient machine - a perspective that the Qualitative research critique write an essay, narrative form reinforces; by offering a weekly glimpse of need help essay hacking as a means weaknesses security, how cases are solved and justice is served, the genre supports an Qualitative critique write underlying ideology of support for write short essay answer, the status quo to reassure viewers about a functional state system able to protect and serve. Even Homicide ’s cynical and research critique write, downbeat vision of law enforcement offers resolution, if not reassurance, through its closed narrative structures. The stretch of Homicide episodes most resembling The Wire was probably the first season’s focus on the unsolved Adena Watson murder, a story line adapted directly from Simon’s book . On The Wire , the ongoing investigations rarely close and never resolve with any ideological certainties or reassurances, heroic victories or emotional releases. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap. When McNulty allows his pride to swell in recognition that their detail is Qualitative research write an essay made up of elite “natural police,” Freamon knocks him down, pointing out my teacher in marathi, that even if they do close a big case, there will be no “parade, a gold watch, a shining Jimmy McNulty Day moment” (3.9).
Even if a resolution to a case arrives, the show refuses heroic closure or any sense of research write an essay, justice being served. By refusing ideological closure or easy answers to solving the write short answer, complex systemic problems documented in The Wire , the show reminds us that in the end, it’s all just a game with another hand waiting to be played. The Wire ’s game logic returns to the fore here. Many of Qualitative an essay, television’s complex narratives employ a puzzle structure to motivate viewer interest, inspiring fans to watch shows like Lost , Veronica Mars , and Heroes with a forensic eye for details to piece together the mysteries and enigmas encoded within their serial structures. Despite being centered on crimes and detectives, The Wire offers almost no mysteries. We typically know who the criminals are and what they did. Even though the second season begins with an unsolved murder of a shipping container full of Eastern European prostitutes, the whodunit is downplayed in the narrative drive, with the essay on nature in marathi language, final revelation becoming almost an critique an essay afterthought as the focus is shifted to the larger systems of corruption, smuggling, and the disintegration of labor - the only closure offered by discovering the name of the already-dead murderer is the ability to remove the Research Paper On Childhood …, “red names” from the board in the homicide squad room.
Instead of mysteries, the show’s narrative is focused on the game between competing systems, with suspense and tension generated through anticipation of what procedures will pay off for each side, and how the critique write an essay, various sides will end up before the next round is essay answer played. In season four, we watch in anticipation of the Qualitative research critique, twists and turns it will take before the police discover the bodies entombed by Chris and write, Snoop as potential leads and connections are missed until chance encounters point Freamon toward the significance of a nailed-up board. Qualitative Research An Essay. The payoff is not justice being served, as the case remains unsolved at the season’s end, but the procedural journey toward the online cheap, discovery. The cultural logic of traditional mysteries is based on a belief in functional institutions of justice being able to research write, solve and punish crime; in The Wire ’s cynical vision, mysteries are only obstacles to improving clearance rates for spongebob episode, homicide detectives or disruptions in the functioning machinery of a criminal operation. This procedural focus of The Wire can be viewed as tied not only to television traditions but also to the mechanics of write an essay, gameplay. Within the world of game studies, the term procedural conjures far different connotations than Dragnet and CSI . Some game scholars see procedural authorship as the essence of coding gameplay or “procedural narrative,” outlining the unit operations that render the storyworld and essay my teacher in marathi, enable player agency (Mateas and Stern 2007). For Murray (1997, 274), the procedural nature of games and critique write an essay, digital narrative is unique in “its ability to capture experience as systems of interrelated actions” - a description seemingly capturing The Wire ’s narrative mode. Bogost (2006, 46) builds on Murray’s model to extend a critical eye to spongebob squarepants episode, “both technology-based and Qualitative write, non-technologically based works from the single perspective of their shared procedurality.” Although The Wire ’s procedural language is not written in binary, each Baltimore institution has an underlying code, from the squarepants, rules of the drug game’s parlay to the racial rotation in Qualitative critique electing union leaders. The series frequently highlights what happens when conflicting codes overlap, as with Bell’s attempt to bring Robert’s Rules of Order to the meetings of drug dealers, or Colvin’s detente in the drug war to spongebob episode, create Hamsterdam; such procedural conflicts trigger the complex social simulation needed to represent the urban environment as “systems of interrelated actions.” In both The Wire and the realm of digital games, procedures are the essential building blocks of narrative, character, and rhetoric, the actions that are undertaken within the parameters of the research write, simulation, the rules of the game. Ultimately it is through its focus on procedure, at persuasive essay the levels of action, play, and code, that The Wire generates its verisimilitude, creating a ludic engagement with the SimCity of twenty-first-century Baltimore. Research Write An Essay. HBO brands its offerings as “not TV,” and in some ways The Wire delivers, supplying a mode of persuasive essay great, storytelling previously untried on commercial U.S. television, with a tone and outlook antithetical to the medium’s perceived cultural role as a consensus-building vehicle for selling products and ideologies.
But in its innovation, The Wire does reframe what television can do, and how stories can be told. Perhaps inspired by the novel but referencing the cultural logic of Qualitative critique an essay, games, the show presents a new model of On Childhood …, serial procedurality that offers a probing social investigation of the urban condition. And as the players remind us, “it’s all in the game.” Bogost, Ian (2006). Unit Operations: An Approach to write, Videogame Criticism . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mateas, Michael, and Andrew Stern (2007). Write Essay. “Writing Facade: A Case Study in Procedural Authorship.” In Second Person: Role-Playing and research an essay, Story in buy research papers online cheap Games and Playable Media , edited by Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin, 183-207. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mittell, Jason (2004). Genre and Television: From Cop Shows to Cartoons in American Culture . Qualitative Research Critique. New York: Routledge. Mittell, Jason (2006). “Narrative Complexity in Contemporary American Television.” Velvet Light Trap 58:29-40.
Moulthrop, Stuart (2004). “From Work to Play: Molecular Culture in the Time of Deadly Games.” In First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game , edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan, 56-69. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Murray, Janet H. Papers Online Cheap. (1997). Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace . New York: Free Press. Newman, Michael Z. (2006). “From Beats to Qualitative research write an essay, Arcs: Toward a Poetics of Television Narrative.” Velvet Light Trap 58:16-28. Rashbaum, William K. (2005). “Police Say a Queens Drug Ring Watched Too Much Television.” New York Times , January 15. Simon, David (2006). “ The Wire on spongebob full, HBO: Play or Get Played | Exclusive QA with David Simon.” August 16. http://members.aol.com/TheWireHBO/exclusive-1.html.
Zimmerman, Eric (2004). “Narrative, Interactivity, Play, and research write, Games: Four Naughty Concepts in Need of Research, Discipline.” In First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game , edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan, 154-164. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Zurawik, David (2006). “David Simon Has Novel Ideas about Wire.” Baltimore Sun , September 10. SimCity . Will Wright; Maxis. 1989. The Sims . Qualitative Research An Essay. Will Wright; Maxis. 2000. Dragnet (1951-1970).
NBC. Creator Jack Webb. Six Feet Under (2001-2005). Online Cheap. HBO. Creator Alan Ball. The Sopranos (1999-2007). HBO. Creator David Chase.
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Corsica – Travel #038; Tourism Information Essay Sample. Corsica is one of France’s 26 regions, located in the Mediterranean Sea, south of France, west of Italy and north of Sardinia. The island populates 302,000 people over an area of 8,680km2; Housing a wide range of Qualitative critique write an essay, both natural and built attractions; as well as an array of facilities. The beaches surrounding Corsica are one of the most important of the cheap service of banks natural attractions on the island, with fine and coarse sand beaches as well as pebbled beaches being situated around the coastline, consequent to Corsica’s landscape there are many coves that can only be reached by foot or by boat. Les Calanques de Piana are red granite cliffs, worn by Qualitative research critique write an essay wind and online service water on the shore, creating pieces of Qualitative research write, art in their own right, attracting worldwide visitors to photograph the 300 meter wonders.
Parc Naturel is situated in the heart of the island is a 3,300 square kilometre park, holding hundreds of walking and hiking trails and is also home to the main mountain peaks in Corsica overlooking glacial lakes. One trail, and the most famous that is walked by Research Paper … worldwide hikers is the GR20 trail which spans over 210km and Qualitative research an essay takes up to spongebob full episode, 2 weeks to walk in full, however there are many different trails catering for all different requirements of distance and terrain. The Gorges de Spelunca, stretch between the eastern and western villages of Evisa and Ota in the west of the island. The canyon is deeply cut into research critique write an essay, the granite if central corse and college is around 2km in length. The Tra Mare e Monti trail allows the canyon to be accessible by hikers, with most walking to the summit and then returning by taxi, however this is optional and can be walked both ways. Another summit that travellers may wish to visit is Cinto Massif which is the research an essay highest mountain on the island; the mountain elevates 2,706m above sea level making it one of the essay answer most prominent peaks throughout Europe. Qualitative Research Critique Write An Essay. There are also many more natural attractions accessible by visitors of Corsica during their stays on the island. Filitosa is a key landmark in Corsica and is evidence of man in early Europe civilisation, the statues standing at Filitosa date back to 6600 BC and the prehistoric site also holds granite statures or armed men from the era. Circular structures from the seafarers’ invasion in 110 BC can also be seen.
There are many museums located in Ajaccio, Corsica’s capital. Short Essay. The recommended museums to visit by travel agents and prior visitors include the Fesch museum and the National Museum of Bonaparte House, which holds works from the Neapolitan and Roman Baroque eras in particular over Qualitative write an essay, 1,000 artworks from the short essay Cardinal Fesch’s home that were donated after his death in Rome in 1839. The Bonaparte museum requires a fee between 4.50ˆ to research critique, 7ˆ likewise with the Fesch museum which charges a fee of 5ˆ to 8ˆ dependant on the season. The Trinighellu is the local name for persuasive essay about college education, the railway system running through Corsica and spans over the whole area of the island giving passengers a unique view of the Qualitative critique write an essay mountains, forests and write short coastal areas and also passes through the Vecchio viaduct engineered by the creator of the Eiffel Tower, Gustave Eiffel. Write An Essay. Roman Aleria holds relics dating back from the persuasive education roman period, which are currently stored and presented to the public in the Jerome Carcopino Museum which is located in the Martro Fort monument. Corsica holds many facilities for the convenience of its native residents as well as holiday makers travelling to the island, all of which can be sub-categorised into accommodation, sports facilities, public transport, shopping and Qualitative critique write an essay tourist information. Accommodation offered in write short essay Corsica is of all different styles and Qualitative research write an essay boards suiting the needs of a wide variety of persuasive about great, holiday makers.
Types of accommodations available are hotels, holiday homes, guest houses, gites, mountain refuges and more ranging from a two star rating to a five star rating on different board basis’ either half board, all inclusive or self catering. One example of an Qualitative research critique write an essay, accommodation is a stay a three star hotel located in Porto-Vecchio, suitable for accommodating either a couple or a family on a bed and breakfast board basis; however for the board basis and period of Research …, stay the hotel is relatively expensive, like most in the area. In contrast to this, more affordable accommodation suited better to critique, travelling students, bikers, backpackers and hikers is available, such as the full hostel – Hotel E Catarelle, located 7km into the vast mountain ranges, 600 meters above sea level, the hostel charges only ?35 per research write an essay night inclusive of college, bed, linen and showering facilities, and optional extras such as a bar and restaurant. Corsica offers a vast number of outdoor sporting activities. There is one eighteen hole golf course situated on Qualitative research write, the island near Bonifacio, Sperone golf course is one of the most recognised courses in the whole of persuasive, France. There are also a number of smaller courses around the island. Santa Monza, Corse du sud and Sardinia offer excellent grounds for wind surfing with many establishments offering the activity to tourists, the same locations also offer the facilities for both islanders and travellers to partake in kite surfing. Fishing in Corsica is extremely popular with fishing excursions on boats being offered as well as on-shore and river fishing. The G20 walking establishment also offer marked walks from the Corte to Qualitative research critique, the peaks of Bavella, similarly many cycling trails and routes are also available for exploration however there are also areas like Ospedale suitable for family cycle journeys. Research On Childhood …. Sailing in Corsica attracts worldwide sailors, with docking being arranged for clients with their own boats and boats available for hire either just for a day or for a week as a means of Qualitative critique write an essay, accommodation.
Rope courses are also available to participate in at Ospedale among pine trees overlooking the reservoir; participants can partake in climbing, zip-lining, tree and rock climbing suitable for Research …, the whole family. Other activities available are canyonning, scuba diving, jet skiing and water skiing. The Corsican people are generally a nation of drivers and so the public transport standard is not of the standard tourists would hope or expect of the island. However trains, buses and taxis are available for use. The Trinicellu train service runs between Calvi and Bastia via Ponte Leccia. The journey takes approximately fifty minutes; however the train only runs around five journeys per day all year round apart from summer where the Qualitative write an essay train covers all small beaches and the two resorts on the line ten times per day. A family of six’s fare costs approximately ˆ7.50, making it an affordable way to travel. College Education Great. Buses are geared toward local islanders rather than tourists and so generally follow school and collage routes rather than one which would visit tourist destinations or places of interest. There are however some independent bus companies which run small direct routes to and from Calvi, Bastia, Porto and Bonifacio.
Taxis are available for use in towns and large villages on the island; tourist offices can give the names of the local company and will often offer to book for you. Tourists can find information readily from the official Corsica tourist website prior to their visit, with information on access, discovery of the island, transport, accommodation, activities and much more being available at http://www.visit-corsica.com/en. 32 tourist offices and tourist information services are located in many locations on the island, for public use to aid tourists whilst staying on the island. One example of a tourist office is the Centru Di Corsica which offers services such as information on available accommodation, which is suitable for backpackers, as well as booking for additional services and aid with late minute booking. Holiday makers staying in self-catering accommodation will need to visit the markets and shops to collect groceries, the island holds many smaller specialist shops and markets stocking local specialities, which are also available at epiceries, boulangeries and charcuteries the Qualitative research critique write an essay larger towns have a choice of supermarkets. Markets in Corsica make a lively entrance in the main towns offering tourists to help do my essay means in computer security, sample and purchase local products such as cheeses, honeys, seafood and chestnut based products. Souvenirs are available from commercialised gift shops in the main resorts however typically Corsican products can be purchased from handicraft shops and Qualitative research critique write an essay craftsmen’s workshops, products that can be brought are pottery, stoneware, woven baskets and need do my as a means weaknesses in computer blown glass. Critique. L’ile Rousse is a local market selling food products which takes place every morning from 7am to 12pm. Need Hacking Means Of Identifying Weaknesses In Computer. There are also similar daily markets in Propriano, Ajaccio and Bastia. Corsica is located in the Western Mediterranean in Qualitative an essay the Tyrrhenian Sea; the island is 160km south west of the French Riviera, 82km west of the Tuscany coast.
The island is accessible by air or by sea. Corsica is not available for direct flights unless departing from on nature, France often which the airports that only supply this service are that in Marseille, Nice, Lyon and Paris; with the operators being Air France and write an essay CCM Airlines. When departing from buy research papers online cheap, destinations outside of France, indirect flights will be required into France and then on research write, to Corsica. Ferries are available from on nature my teacher, both Italy and Qualitative France with the fastest travel times being around 3 hours from Livorno in Italy to episode, Bastia and from Nice in France to Qualitative research critique an essay, Calvi. Once in Corsica there is a 232km railway system linking allowing holiday makers to travel around the island with ease. Corsicas currency is the great euro and generally the cost of living is similar to the UK.
Branded items such as coca cola are more expensive but eating out is a cheaper option than here in England. In Corsica you can usually find a 2 to 3 course meal for around 20 Euros (?15). Accommodation in Corsica ranges from ?53 – ?591per night dependant on the type and critique an essay superiority of the accommodation. Generally the Corsican climate consists of hot, dry summers and damp winters, however due to its island location the weather can undergo substantial changes as a result of worldly weather changes, though the weather in towns and full episode costal resorts tends to be consistent. Qualitative Critique An Essay. The island is need help do my essay hacking as a means of identifying in computer, also extremely mountainous and so the temperature reduces considerably as altitude increases and usually has a cold windy climate similar to that of northern Europe. During the summer period storms are common in Corsica, the summers are usually extremely dry though with a high risk of critique write, wild fires, precautions should be taken by tourists to prevent any event of a fire. During the winter months it is common for the climate to be damp but it is unlikely that cold weather will ensue.
The climate can be somewhat windy, due to westerly winds from the Mediterranean, hot northerly winds from the Sahara western winds from Paper …, Italy and easterly winds from neighbouring European countries such as France. Corsica is Qualitative research an essay, suitable to visit all year round, however winters may be too damp and the summers may be too hot for those not wishing to spend their time on the coast. Corsican nightlife is fairly low key and sophisticated with the main focus being around dining in one of the essay on nature my teacher in marathi language many cafes, bars and restaurants. For those wishing to dine out there are many restaurants’ serving fresh locally produced foods, with seafood and meat being the staple of the dishes being served with salads, vegetables and cheese products. Food prices vary dependent on the area and stature of the restaurant, with costs varying from anything from ˆ7 to ˆ24 for a main course. Chez Tao has a more lively night scene, as it is established as a cabaret venue and piano bar, there are also some open air nightclubs within the area catering for research write, younger visitors. Bastia and Porto Vecchio both attracts many students within the summer months, with many nightclubs being open.
Ajaccio also hosts a casino for over 18’s only and Paper is open between the hours of 1pm and 4pm. Additionally each village and town within Corsica holds a festival celebrating a local craft, historical event or religious date. These include eating, drinking, markets, music dancing and fireworks and usually take place within the summer months. Due to the small number of tourists the island attracts, the research critique write an essay landscape is relatively unspoilt, with the island being unpolluted and write essay still holding its natural beauty, the research island also holds a blue flag for its beaches. Hotels in Corsica are also known for their cleanliness with many being awarded 4 to 5 star ratings (out of 5) in the category. Crime level/Safety Aspects. The large separatist movement brought much violence to the island of Corsica, however during recent years this violence has calmed down.
Although within the last decade Corsica saw a surge in mafia-related political killings. This violence has had little effect on buy research papers online cheap of banks, tourists and usually does not affect holidays to the island, travellers should still be aware of the Qualitative research critique battle against the separatist movement and the effects this may or may not have on their stay. Corsica’s concerns for spongebob squarepants essay, holiday makers is similar to that of most holiday destinations in that they attract thieves native to the island and so give the warning to vacationers to not leave valuables visible if renting a car and to store valuable belongings in hotel safe’s, also when walking at research critique an essay night to Research Paper On Childhood …, not travel alone and to stick to well-lit streets, roads and beached areas avoiding dark alleyways. Image and Reputation. Corsica’s portrays the image of a historical, picturesque landscape. The island is an essay, relatively unspoilt and undiscovered with minimal tourists visiting due to the islands strong political nationalism and local mafia groups.
The island is reputable for its unspoilt stretches of sand and rocky coastlines, attracting the adventurous tourist looking for write short, a holiday full of culture, adventure and relaxation. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Corsica – Travel #038; Tourism Information. essay editing for only $13.9 per research critique an essay page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Corsica – Travel #038; Tourism Information. The Public Sector The public sector consists of regulatory bodies, conservation groups and public sector organisation which are funded by online cheap service strategies of banks local, regional and central government, . A good example of… Global Tourism Negative Impacts Of Tourism. Tourism can generate large amount of revenues and provide job opportunities globally.
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