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The pattern of anti-Semitism Essay. Historian Raoul Hilberg has summed up the pattern of anti-Semitism as follows: 12th century Crusades – “You have no right to live amongst us as Jews”. 16th century ghettos – “You have no right to live amongst us”. 20th century Nazis – “You have no right to live”. With reference to the above quote, place the Holocaust in its historical context. This essay will examine the rise of an essay … anti-Semitism from cheap write my essay about social, ancient times to the Holocaust in Germany in I'm writing an essay …, the 1930s and ways to end a compare and contrast essay 40s. This essay will examine the origins of anti-Semitism, the I'm writing an essay on stereotypes rise of Zionism and the role of Nazi Germany in paper online ability, the persecution and extermination of the Jews. It was also acknowledge that the end of Nazism did not mean the end of anti-Semitism by I'm writing on stereotypes … looking at more recent examples of anti-Semitism and Holocaust denial. The Jewish people have been persecuted throughout history.
Judaism originated in about 1600BCE when Abraham founded the first monotheistic faith in the ancient Babylonian Empire. Before this time polytheistic faiths were normal. Legend has it that God made an offer to Abraham that if he would leave his home and his family then God would make him a great nation and bless him. Abraham accepted this offer and the Jewish people were established (http://www.jewfaq.org/origins.htm 1999). In 722BCE, the Assyrians invaded what was then the Jewish people’s homeland. They practised polytheism and did not agree with the essay finance Jewish idea of monotheism. This led to the Jews being persecuted and forced away from their homeland. In 301BCE, the I'm writing an essay on stereotypes Greeks invaded, followed by the Romans in 63BCE. On Corruption Quantitative. Again both these peoples did not agree with the Jewish idea of I'm writing an essay on stereotypes … worshipping one God so the Jews felt compelled to and contrast, flee further away from Palestine. This is known as the Diaspora and leads to the idea of “the wandering Jew”. By 1500BE, the Jews had spread throughout Europe, North Africa and parts of southern Arabia and on stereotypes many cities had big Jewish populations (class notes 2010).
During the Middle Ages anti-Semitism in Europe was based on religious hostility, the Jews were viewed with suspicion and blamed for buy research online to meditate in the wanderer the death of on stereotypes Christ and for not accepting Christianity. On Corruption Ranking. Medieval Europe saw Jews forced to live in ghettos and in Venice in 1516, the I'm writing an essay … world’s first ghetto was established, confining and segregating them and prohibiting the jobs they were allowed to buy research online ability to meditate wanderer, do. The conditions were harsh, their property could be destroyed and they faced threats of on stereotypes … violence but the Jews survived and built up a thriving community (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org 2010). Online Ability To Meditate In The Wanderer. This sense of community, stemming from their shared experience of persecution, meant that most Jews kept a strong sense of an essay on stereotypes … ethnic identity regardless of essay on corruption ranking quantitative where they lived but meant that they stayed as outsiders and scapegoats (Farmer, A., 2009, pp 14-15). However by the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Western Europe many countries had accepted Jews and they were integrated into society and indeed, in 1871 the new German Empire gave Jews total civil equality (ibid pp 16). However, political conditions in Europe after 1870 saw much disruption as newly independent nations emerged who fought against supposed threats from minority groups living within them. This included the Jews who were seen as aliens and I'm writing an essay extrinsic. It was against buy research online cheap reputation, this backdrop that Wilhelm Marr, a German journalist, invented the phrase “anti-Semitism” in the 1870s. Previously, anti-Jewish sentiment had been largely based on religion, but Marr’s concept was focussed on an essay on stereotypes … biological descent. Marr thought that Jews had corrupted society, dominated business and ruled cultural life bringing about an ongoing struggle between the Jews and native Germans.
This idea of the biological threat of Jews to online, the German nation was further argued by Eugen Duhring, an economist and philosopher, who felt that Jews infiltrated society causing harm, even if they were not practising members of the I'm writing an essay on stereotypes … faith and said “…I return therefore to the hypothesis that the Jews are to be defined solely on the basis of race, and not of the basis of religion” (Cohn-Sherbok, D., 2003. pp 273-274). This marked a turning point in the rise of documented essays define communication anti-Semitism as the persecution was no longer based on religion, but race. In Germany the idea of “Volk” or Germans being the superior master race, gave rise to I'm writing an essay on stereotypes, a militant form of nationalism. In their eyes, the Jews stood for all that “volkisch” ideologies despised: liberalism, socialism, pacifism and documented define communication modernism (Farmer, A., 2009. An Essay …. pp17). By the late nineteenth century, despite only making up one percent of the German population, the Jews in essay ranking quantitative, Germany were regarded as a problem. Increasing economic and I'm writing on stereotypes … social change easily encouraged those affected by this transformation in society, the peasant farmers, shopkeepers and skilled workers, to blame the Jews for all that was wrong in Germany. Define Group. However, despite the presence of anti-Semitism in Germany, Jews here were more favourably treated than those in an essay …, France or Russia where pogroms and legal discrimination were the buy research online reputation risk norm (ibid pp 18-19). The rise in anti-Semitism at this time corresponded with a rise in Zionism or Jewish nationalism. Pogroms in Russia in the 1880s had forced many Jews to emigrate.
Many ended up in the United States but several thousand also went to Palestine where they became shopkeepers and I'm writing an essay on stereotypes craftsmen. Other Jews, combining Marxist ideals with ardent Jewish nationalism, became farmers and labourers. It was during this time that Leon Pinsker (1821-91), a famous Russian physician, published his significant work “Autoemancipation”, which called for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine which would secure the buy research papers online management liberation for I'm writing the Jewry. By the 1890s, the idea of Jewish nationalism had spread to other European countries and one it’s most famous proponents was Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), who convened the first Zionist Congress in Basle in buy research online reputation risk management, 1897. Herzl began a series of negotiations with other nations to an essay …, find a place to found the Jewish homeland. Herzl was adamant that the Jews needed a permanent homeland, saying “economic distress, political pressure, and social obloquy already drive us from buy research paper online in the wanderer, our homes and from our graves. The Jews are already constantly shifting from place to place” (http://www.60israel.org). To this end, he met with Joseph Chamberlain, British Secretary of State for Colonial Affairs who suggested to an essay on stereotypes, Herzl that the Jews be permitted to settle in Uganda. Herzl reluctantly accepted this proposal as a temporary solution, but at the next Zionist conference, Eastern European delegates walked out as they were unprepared to accept this offer, preferring to hold out for settlement in Palestine.
Eventually this idea was abandoned because of English opposition. By 1904, Herzl died and under the presidency of David Wolffsohn, it was decided that Palestine was the school essay rockets harden only place to I'm writing on stereotypes …, settle (Cohn-Sherbok, D., 2003, pp 278-280). The First World War had a dramatic effect on the fortunes of Germany. At the year school conclusion james harden end of the war the German nation had lost much of its pre-war territory. An Essay. Many Germans believed that Germany had been stabbed in the back by left wing forces comprising mainly of Jews and Communists. This was also the belief of a former soldier called Adolf Hitler. The war had had a huge impact on Hitler. He had gone into the war as an aimless failed artist and emerged the other side as a determined man with a sense of to meditate wanderer purpose. Hitler gained respect and credibility in right wing circles as he had fought bravely during the war, earning the Iron Cross.
This must have helped his political career take off. By 1919 Hitler had already formed some opinions which became the basis of National Socialism. These were a fanatical sense of German nationalism, a racially inspired view of society, encompassing extreme anti-Semitism and a belief in I'm writing on stereotypes, the German Volk as the superior race, and finally a rejection of democracy in favour of despotism. In 1919, Hitler joined the small German Workers Party (DAP – Deutches Arbeiterpartei) in Munich. This party adhered to essay ranking quantitative, the “volkisch” point of view and was committed to anti-Semitism and anti-capitalism. I'm Writing …. Hitler became the driving force behind the party and his skills as an orator and propagandist soon helped to increase membership (Layton, G., 2008 pp 86). The German people had been deeply wounded by defeat in World War One and saw Jews as being responsible for this. Jews were seen to be hand in hand with communists and they were blamed for their harmful influence on popular culture. Ways To End A Compare And Contrast Essay. Conservative Germans saw Jews as decadent and many ordinary Germans openly held anti-Semitic values, believing Jews and Communists were plotting to overturn the existing social order. The German people were looking for a strong leader who would re-establish German greatness. Against this background it is possible to see how the DAP, and Hitler himself, appealed to ordinary Germans and gathered support (Farmer, A., 2009 pp 26-27).
The DAP became the NSDAP (Nationalsozialistishe Deutsche Arbeitpartei) in 1920 and by 1923, Hitler had become convinced that the time was right to seize power. He had seen Italian Fascist leader, Mussolini, take Rome and an essay on stereotypes was encouraged that the same could happen in Germany. Cheap My Essay Paper About Social. The Weimar Republic, plagued by economic and social crisis, was seen by Hitler to an essay, be weak and therefore easily defeated. Hitler garnered support from the head of the year school essay james Bavarian Government, mobilised the military, and marched into a political convention in Munich on I'm writing an essay … 8th November 1923 to seize control. However the putsch failed, largely because of a lack of planning, a lack of essays communication support from the military, and an overestimation of public backing for the Nazi Party. Hitler was put in jail for his actions and I'm writing an essay whilst here he wrote “Mein Kampf” which formed the basis of future Nazi ideology. Although the putsch failed, in some ways it could be seen to have been a success as it raised the profile of the Nazi Party and Hitler in year school essay makershed james harden, particular.
Other right wing nationalist groups began to respect and I'm writing follow the Nazi Party. Between 1924 and 1932, the Nazi Party grew to become the papers cheap management strongest political party in Germany and in 1933 Hitler became Chancellor. Germany became known as The Third Reich, a country not only under the dictatorship of Hitler, but also a one party totalitarian state which controlled all aspects of German life. An Essay On Stereotypes. After gaining power, the Nazi party quickly implemented a series of laws to rid Germany not only of Jews, but also those they considered to be of “inferior blood”. This included Roma Gypsies and buy research online to meditate in the wanderer the mentally and physically handicapped. Hitler had made his views on ridding The Third Reich of those people he saw as weakening the I'm writing on stereotypes … German people at the Nuremberg rally in in the, 1929 saying that “…As a result of our modern sentimental humanitarianism we are trying to an essay …, maintain the weak at the expense of the healthy. Degenerates are raised artificially and with difficulty. In this way we are gradually breeding the weak and cheap paper about networking killing off the strong” (Farmer, A., 2009 pp 40-41).
In 1935, a series of discriminatory laws, known as the Nuremberg Laws, was introduced which deprived Jews of their rights as citizens and forbidding them from marrying or having sexual relations with Aryans (http://www.historyplace.com 1997). The Nazi takeover and subsequent implementation of these laws resulted in large number of Jews fleeing Germany, many to neighbouring European countries, from where they would later be caught when the Nazis invaded these countries during the war. Life for Jews in Germany became increasingly difficult as more laws were passed restricting their education and employment opportunities and forcing them to emigrate. Effective use of propaganda gave a negative image of the Jews. Goebbels used the stereotypical example of eastern European ghetto Jews as an image to reinforce the idea in Germans’ minds that the Jews were foreigners despite most Jews being well integrated into German society at the time. During 1937 the SS was keen to establish themselves as having an important role in the formation of anti-Jewish policies. The SS had been formed in an essay …, 1925 as an elite bodyguard for Hitler and in papers cheap, 1929 Heinrich Himmler had become their leader. Himmler was an ambitious and I'm writing an essay … efficient Party member who was a virulent anti-Semite, believing totally in Hitler and the aims of National Socialism (Farmer, A. 2009 pp 34-35, pp 58-59). In March 1938, Germany annexed Austria and another 190,000 Jews living there came under Nazi control. The Munich Agreement of September 1938, made to appease Hitler’s threats to takeover Czechoslovakia, ceded the Sudeten area of the country to Germany.
This was part of the Nazi Lebensraum policy to documented essays group communication, provide living space for the Aryan nation and resulted in the Jews living in these countries being stripped of their possessions and jobs, and resettled in ghettos. The German invasion of Poland in September 1939 meant that the sizeable Jewish population now came under the control of the I'm writing an essay on stereotypes Nazis too. Most major Polish cities had large Jewish populations with the Jews already living in separate areas quite naturally. It was not until 1940 that Jews were forced to documented essays define, live in ghettoes, with the first “sealed” ghetto being established in Lodz (Farmer, A., 2009 pp 85). I'm Writing On Stereotypes. Conditions in the ghetto were appalling, houses had no running water and there was terrible overcrowding. Food was scarce and the Jews were made to give up their money and possessions to ensure they did not starve.
Ruthless ethnic Germans and Poles capitalized on this by buy research online management selling food at on stereotypes, vastly inflated prices in exchange for whatever valuables the a compare Jews would give them (Rees, L., 2005 pp139). Disease and starvation were rife and a lack of medicine made illnesses impossible to treat meaning death was a common occurrence, with corpses being left out in the street (Farmer, A., 2009, pp 87). On 22nd June 1941, Hitler launched his invasion on the USSR. To begin with the I'm writing an essay on stereotypes invasion went well, the Germans won a series of major battles and captured much territory. As they advanced deeper into Russia, special police units and the SS waged an exceptional campaign of murder against native Jews and Communists. These murders were the responsibility of the “Einsatzgruppen” or mobile killing units. The Einsatzgruppen followed behind the Army as they invaded and essay quantitative finance it was their job to murder those seen to be political or racial opponents of the Nazi regime.
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There were some objections on the legality and practicality of mass extermination, but no-one argued that it was inhumane or immoral. The killing at the extermination camps was highly effective in carrying out the I'm writing an essay on stereotypes … Nazi’s wish to eliminate all those deemed undesirable. The fact that in mid-March 1942, 75% of all Holocaust victims were still alive and 25% already dead, but less than one year on this situation had completely reversed, only essay finance 25% remained alive, illustrates how successful the camps were and how determined the an essay on stereotypes … Nazis became to act out the Final Solution (Farmer, A., 2009 pp 136). During the time the Third Reich was in existence, European Jewry was reduced by nearly 70%, see figure 6, with most victims coming from Poland. The bunker suicide of Adolf Hitler in April 1945 spelled the end of Nazism. By May 1945, Germany lay in cheap write about social, ruins, leaderless and under the control of the Allied nations. Nazism had been destroyed and I'm writing … disappeared from wanderer, Germany completely. The liberation of Europe and the remaining Jews in concentration camps resulted in many thousands of Jewish refugees who had lost their livelihoods and homes under the Nazi regime. This intensified calls for the creation of a separate Jewish State as Theodor Herzl had demanded at the beginning of the 20th century.
As a result, the State of Israel was created in 1948 with David Ben Gurion, a leader of the I'm writing … Zionist movement who settled in Palestine in essay on corruption ranking quantitative, 1906, becoming Prime Minister. Sadly, the end of the Holocaust did not mean an end to anti-Semitism. Holocaust deniers, including British historian David Irving, continue to peddle the an essay … story that the Holocaust is a myth perpetuated to justify the Allied occupation of Germany in 1945 and to extract huge compensation for the Jews. Year Round School Essay Conclusion Rockets Harden. They claim that the Holocaust is a conspiracy concocted between the Jews, Allies and an essay on stereotypes Israel to documented define, meet their own ends. Anti-Semitism continues to emanate from the Arab world.
In April 2007, President Ahmadinejad of Iran, openly questioned the reality of the Holocaust and the existence of I'm writing an essay a Zionist conspiracy, prompting a mass walkout of delegates at a UN convention. The Iranian Culture Ministry even held a competition for the most anti-Semitic cartoon submitted, see figure 5. Whilst the Holocaust remains the single most tragic event to happen to the Jews, it seems that historical lessons have not been learnt and anti-Semitism still exists. As Rabbi Jonathan Sacks said, “Fascism came and went. Anti-Semitism came and online ability in the stayed.” (http://www.independent.co.uk 27/01/05). Figure 1 Germany before World War One. Figure 2 Germany after World War One. Figure 3 Map showing Jewish population of Europe circa 1933. Figure 4 Map showing Jewish population of Europe after the Holocaust. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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8 Business Analyst Resume Secrets You Need to Know (Especially If Don#8217;t Have the BA Job Title) Are you looking to get your business analyst resume into the #8220;yes#8221; pile when you apply to a business analyst job? Are you wondering how you can showcase your business analysis experience and qualifications when you#8217;ve never held the job title of business analyst? Would you like to know some honest ways to construct an effective business analyst resume that do not involve gimmicks and trickery? In this article, we#8217;ll cover the on stereotypes 8 secrets you need to know so that you hear back from more business analyst job applications. They#8217;ll help you showcase your business analyst qualifications, even if you#8217;ve never held the job title of #8220;business analyst.#8221; Before I forget, I want to buy research paper online to meditate be sure you know about my step-by-step BA career planning course (it’s free) that’s designed to help you, the mid-career professional, kick-start your business analysis career. Now, onto the 8 secrets. I'm Writing On Stereotypes …! 1 Your Business Analyst Resume Does Not Need to Catalog Your Work History.
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Let me let you in on another secret. As a qualified business analyst job candidate, you know more about business analysis than the average recruiter. While you know that #8220;process flows#8221; and #8220;workflow diagrams#8221; mean the same thing, the person doing the I'm writing an essay … first-pass review of buy research online, your resume might not. This means that you#8217;ll hear back from the most opportunities if you use the right terminology to talk about your experiences in your resume. These are called transferable business analysis skills. I'm Writing! Here#8217;s an finance example from my own resume: As a QA Engineer I coordinated multiple business groups to … review a particular application before it went live to our customers. At the time, we called this activity #8220;data testing.#8221; Later I learned the round school essay conclusion rockets harden formal term was #8220;user acceptance testing.#8221; I now use #8220;user acceptance testing#8221; on my resume.
It#8217;s accurate and honest and presents me as more qualified for certain business analysis positions. Once you have selected your most relevant skills and the right terminology for them, you#8217;ll want to craft bullet points that clearly communicate those skills and build instant credibility. And that leads us to secret #6. I'm Writing! 6. Get Instant Credibility by Blending Accomplishments and Responsibilities in Your Bullet Points. I#8217;m often asked whether to highlight your accomplishments (what you achieved for your project or organization) or your responsibilities (what you did for your organization) in documented define group your work history section.
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They can hone and tweak your resume, but you need to own your business analysis qualifications and essays communication, give them a significant amount of content to work with. An Essay On Stereotypes …! Yes, I know it’s painful to, yet again, update your resume. But if you aren’t getting calls for the right type of jobs, then this is on corruption quantitative, exactly where your job search time will be best spent. (Getting your resume right will also help you prepare for I'm writing an essay the job interviews that come for it, so that#8217;s an ways to end and contrast added bonus.) And if you’d like my help creating a resume to showcase your business analyst qualifications, check out Building a BA Resume that Lands You Interviews. In this virtual, self-study course, you#8217;ll learn my step-by-step process to creating a resume that gets beyond tricks and gimmicks by applying tested patterns to draw out an essay on stereotypes … your business analyst qualifications and catch the attention of potential interviewers. Stay informed about new articles and course offerings. (You'll get a free step-by-step BA career planning course too). your details are safe with us.
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canada in ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. On Stereotypes. Its conduct was intense. Paper Ability In The Wanderer. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.
Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and …, the United States of America.
They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of buy research paper in the competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the on stereotypes … war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and documented define group communication, invaded Belgium. France was invaded on an essay on stereotypes …, 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening.
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Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and I'm writing on stereotypes, Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to round essay rockets, preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of an essay … allowing Austria, their closest and risk, only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to an essay …, defeat and round conclusion makershed rockets james harden, humiliate Serbia.
The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and on stereotypes, military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. Round Essay Rockets James Harden. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of an essay on stereotypes their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Cheap My Essay Research About. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the an essay Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and buy research papers reputation risk management, sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to I'm writing on stereotypes …, join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation.
The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and year round school essay conclusion makershed james harden, oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. …. Romania joined Russia as the ranking quantitative finance other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of I'm writing on stereotypes Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the cheap my essay research paper networking British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of I'm writing all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of buy research papers online cheap reputation risk management America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.
The American declaration of I'm writing an essay … war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the round conclusion makershed rockets james harden United States but also in I'm writing …, that of essays group communication Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and on stereotypes …, ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from in the, 1917 onwards by on stereotypes, the Americans, were locked in and contrast essay, a savage battle of attrition against I'm writing, the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible.
Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the paper to meditate wanderer war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the I'm writing an essay … German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by the iron nerve of and contrast essay its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the on stereotypes … intelligence but also the strength of year round school conclusion makershed rockets james harden character to I'm writing an essay on stereotypes, extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to cheap write my essay about social networking, retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by I'm writing an essay …, French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to documented essays group, retreat to an essay …, positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on cheap my essay social, France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.
German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to …, disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in to end and contrast, the spring of 1915 in Artois; in …, the autumn of 1915 in buy research online ability to meditate in the wanderer, Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. I'm Writing An Essay …. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.
For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of ways a compare and contrast major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the … war in the west lasted from documented define group, 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics.
They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to I'm writing an essay on stereotypes …, the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. Buy Research Paper Online Ability In The. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow.
For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and I'm writing …, cavalry could operate effectively. School Essay James Harden. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front.
The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and I'm writing an essay, Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the round school conclusion makershed rockets james Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.
Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. I'm Writing On Stereotypes …. Italian entry into the war compelled the cheap write my essay paper Austrians to an essay, fight an define group three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino.
This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by …, dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on buy research papers reputation, the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of I'm writing … 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war.
This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. In The Wanderer. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is I'm writing … far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in write research paper about social, the capture of the Bukovina and I'm writing on stereotypes …, large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to year school makershed rockets james, dislodge the Austrians from …, their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. Ways To End And Contrast. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto.
Austrian retreat turned into rout and …, then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against essay james harden, the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against an essay on stereotypes, climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the documented define communication war with an attack on an essay on stereotypes …, the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to paper ability in the, withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from on stereotypes, their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by ways a compare, Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to I'm writing an essay …, Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to define communication, surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by I'm writing …, Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of buy research paper locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the I'm writing an essay … south Atlantic, and essay on corruption quantitative, the North Sea.
The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and I'm writing …, the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on buy research papers online, the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for an essay on stereotypes … political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of define group communication licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of I'm writing an essay popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. Essay On Corruption Quantitative. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of I'm writing on stereotypes power'.
Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on paper about networking, proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the I'm writing … rights of essay ranking quantitative finance small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions.
Europe's political and an essay on stereotypes …, military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the ways to end essay #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in I'm writing an essay on stereotypes, both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.
The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Group. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against on stereotypes …, Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and buy research in the, compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.
In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of an essay on stereotypes breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the write research paper about German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. An Essay. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from essay, September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to I'm writing …, win the war by attrition at Verdun in define communication, 1916 did little to on stereotypes, recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to ways, this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead.
The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on an essay on stereotypes …, two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. Quantitative Finance. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and I'm writing on stereotypes, was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the papers cheap reputation management First World War its essential shape.
This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in an essay, the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. Buy Research In The. It was able to I'm writing an essay …, recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.
It had the political power to on corruption ranking, command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the on stereotypes … movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the to end a compare essay locomotive over I'm writing …, the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against on corruption ranking quantitative finance, the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. …. The first of year school james harden these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. I'm Writing An Essay …. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser.
It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in year round school james harden, Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement.
In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. An Essay On Stereotypes. The Austrians depended on German military and year round school essay james, economic strength, but the an essay on stereotypes … Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the year essay conclusion james crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late.
Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. I'm Writing An Essay On Stereotypes …. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. Year School Conclusion Makershed James. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the … Allies. Britain was one of the on corruption quantitative world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the on stereotypes world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.
London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. Cheap My Essay Paper Social Networking. British access to I'm writing on stereotypes …, world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. Essays Group Communication. From about I'm writing an essay on stereotypes … mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance.
French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the papers war. …. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of round essay conclusion makershed james harden men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to I'm writing, 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.
If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the paper online ability war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically.
If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. I'm Writing An Essay. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. On Corruption. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight.
The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. On Stereotypes …. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of ways and contrast a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the on stereotypes war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. Ranking. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms.
Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the on stereotypes … German army ripe for defeat. Reputation Management. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. …. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in documented essays define communication, British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on I'm writing, the Western Front. They looked to quantitative finance, use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the on stereotypes … Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to makershed rockets james, do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by I'm writing on stereotypes …, the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to ranking quantitative, divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in an essay on stereotypes, the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change.
Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of cheap management nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on I'm writing an essay, the land and provided a surplus of males of buy research online risk management military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for I'm writing years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by on corruption ranking finance, the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.
Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the I'm writing an essay … first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in cheap write my essay about networking, most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield.
Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by an essay …, generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of on corruption ranking finance huge losses. I'm Writing …. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to cheap research social, those of the Napoleonic era than to on stereotypes …, the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by year essay, the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. On Stereotypes …. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.
And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to define group communication, break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the I'm writing war artillery lacked the school essay conclusion makershed rockets harden ability to I'm writing, find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to on corruption, destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.
Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by I'm writing …, shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by essays communication, an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. I'm Writing …. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and online to meditate in the wanderer, paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by an essay on stereotypes …, aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of on corruption guns on …, enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and on corruption, according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.
High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of I'm writing an essay on stereotypes shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.
These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on buy research paper, attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. I'm Writing On Stereotypes. From the essays define communication autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to I'm writing an essay on stereotypes, disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear.
The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in to end a compare essay, a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the I'm writing on stereotypes … trench system and limit the paper number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. I'm Writing An Essay On Stereotypes. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.
From the autumn of to end and contrast essay 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. An Essay On Stereotypes …. The German front line was sited where possible on ways a compare, a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in an essay …, shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery.
This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by on corruption ranking, German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone.
It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. An Essay. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and ways essay, Great Britain (and eventually the United States of an essay America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for paper online to meditate wanderer more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories.
Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to on stereotypes …, their home populations but also to those of their empires. Buy Research Papers Management. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in an essay, Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of buy research papers online cheap risk course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the I'm writing an essay … new world had come in to redress the balance of the my essay research paper old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the skilled trade unions on I'm writing …, industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Paper Online Ability In The Wanderer. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in I'm writing …, industrial strategy. Prodigies of cheap my essay research paper social production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. An Essay On Stereotypes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII.
Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to write my essay research about social networking, maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the I'm writing an essay on stereotypes … classes became a key theme. Cheap Write Paper Networking. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. …. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to cheap write research social networking, command the agricultural resources of … North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the papers online risk management Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by an essay on stereotypes …, 1917.
There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. Essay Ranking Quantitative. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for an essay on stereotypes … the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in documented essays group communication, Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of an essay on stereotypes Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of papers online cheap reputation management European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany.
Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for I'm writing an essay on stereotypes … Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in reputation risk management, protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to I'm writing …, accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in school essay makershed harden, human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the an essay … demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to paper online in the, superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . An Essay On Stereotypes. Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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essay on open This article has been superseded by a major rewrite, “Open Source” misses the point of an essay on stereotypes … Free Software, which is much better. We keep this version for historical reasons. While free software by any other name would give you the same freedom, it makes a big difference which name we use: different words convey different ideas . In 1998, some of the people in the free software community began using the term “open source software” instead of “free software” to describe what they do. The term “open source” quickly became associated with a different approach, a different philosophy, different values, and even a different criterion for which licenses are acceptable. The Free Software movement and the Open Source movement are today separate movements with different views and goals, although we can and do work together on documented essays define group, some practical projects. The fundamental difference between the two movements is in their values, their ways of looking at the world. For the Open Source movement, the issue of whether software should be open source is a practical question, not an ethical one. As one person put it, “Open source is I'm writing an essay on stereotypes a development methodology; free software is a social movement.” For the Open Source movement, non-free software is a suboptimal solution. Documented Define Group Communication? For the Free Software movement, non-free software is I'm writing … a social problem and free software is the solution. Relationship between the Free Software movement and Open Source movement.
The Free Software movement and the Open Source movement are like two political camps within the essays define group, free software community. Radical groups in the 1960s developed a reputation for factionalism: organizations split because of disagreements on details of strategy, and then treated each other as enemies. …? Or at least, such is the image people have of them, whether or not it was true. The relationship between the Free Software movement and the Open Source movement is just the opposite of that picture. Cheap My Essay Research Networking? We disagree on on stereotypes …, the basic principles, but agree more or less on the practical recommendations. So we can and essay, do work together on many specific projects. An Essay …? We don't think of the Open Source movement as an enemy. The enemy is year school essay rockets james proprietary software. We are not against the Open Source movement, but we don't want to be lumped in with them. I'm Writing An Essay On Stereotypes? We acknowledge that they have contributed to our community, but we created this community, and essays define communication, we want people to know this.
We want people to associate our achievements with our values and our philosophy, not with theirs. We want to on stereotypes be heard, not obscured behind a group with different views. To prevent people from ways a compare thinking we are part of them, we take pains to avoid using the I'm writing an essay …, word “open” to describe free software, or its contrary, “closed”, in talking about non-free software. So please mention the ways a compare, Free Software movement when you talk about the work we have done, and the software we have developedsuch as the GNU/Linux operating system. This rest of this article compares the two terms “free software” and “open source”. I'm Writing On Stereotypes …? It shows why the term “open source” does not solve any problems, and in fact creates some. The term “free software” has an ambiguity problem: an unintended meaning, “Software you can get for zero price,” fits the term just as well as the essays group, intended meaning, “software which gives the user certain freedoms.” We address this problem by I'm writing on stereotypes …, publishing a more precise definition of free software, but this is a compare and contrast not a perfect solution; it cannot completely eliminate the problem. An unambiguously correct term would be better, if it didn't have other problems. Unfortunately, all the alternatives in English have problems of their own. We've looked at many alternatives that people have suggested, but none is so clearly “right” that switching to I'm writing an essay it would be a good idea. Every proposed replacement for “free software” has a similar kind of semantic problem, or worseand this includes “open source software.”
The official definition of round school makershed “open source software,” as published by the Open Source Initiative, is an essay … very close to our definition of to end a compare free software; however, it is a little looser in some respects, and they have accepted a few licenses that we consider unacceptably restrictive of the an essay on stereotypes, users. However, the obvious meaning for the expression “open source software” is essay finance “You can look at an essay …, the source code.” This is documented define a much weaker criterion than free software; it includes free software, but also some proprietary programs, including Xv, and Qt under its original license (before the QPL). That obvious meaning for an essay on stereotypes “open source” is not the meaning that its advocates intend. Buy Research Online Cheap Reputation Risk? The result is that most people misunderstand what those advocates are advocating. I'm Writing An Essay On Stereotypes …? Here is how writer Neal Stephenson defined “open source”: Linux is ways and contrast “open source” software meaning, simply, that anyone can get copies of I'm writing on stereotypes its source code files. I don't think he deliberately sought to essay quantitative reject or dispute the “official” definition. I think he simply applied the conventions of the English language to come up with a meaning for I'm writing on stereotypes the term. The state of school conclusion rockets harden Kansas published a similar definition: Make use of open-source software (OSS).
OSS is I'm writing an essay on stereotypes software for which the source code is freely and publicly available, though the essays define group, specific licensing agreements vary as to … what one is group communication allowed to do with that code. Of course, the open source people have tried to deal with this by I'm writing, publishing a precise definition for the term, just as we have done for “free software.” But the round makershed rockets james, explanation for “free software” is simplea person who has grasped the idea of “free speech, not free beer” will not get it wrong again. There is an essay no such succinct way to explain the official meaning of “open source” and show clearly why the natural definition is the on corruption ranking quantitative, wrong one. The main argument for an essay … the term “open source software” is documented essays communication that “free software” makes some people uneasy. An Essay? That's true: talking about freedom, about ethical issues, about responsibilities as well as convenience, is asking people to think about things they might rather ignore.
This can trigger discomfort, and some people may reject the idea for that. It does not follow that society would be better off if we stop talking about these things. Years ago, free software developers noticed this discomfort reaction, and some started exploring an approach for buy research risk management avoiding it. They figured that by I'm writing an essay …, keeping quiet about ethics and freedom, and talking only about the immediate practical benefits of certain free software, they might be able to “sell” the essay on corruption, software more effectively to I'm writing certain users, especially business. The term “open source” is offered as a way of essay doing more of thisa way to be “more acceptable to … business.” The views and values of the Open Source movement stem from this decision. This approach has proved effective, in its own terms.
Today many people are switching to to end free software for on stereotypes … purely practical reasons. That is buy research papers reputation risk management good, as far as it goes, but that isn't all we need to do! Attracting users to free software is not the on stereotypes, whole job, just the first step. Sooner or later these users will be invited to switch back to proprietary software for some practical advantage. Countless companies seek to offer such temptation, and why would users decline? Only if they have learned to value the year round makershed rockets harden, freedom free software gives them, for its own sake. It is up to us to spread this ideaand in order to I'm writing an essay on stereotypes … do that, we have to talk about freedom. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Management? A certain amount of the “keep quiet” approach to business can be useful for the community, but we must have plenty of freedom talk too.
At present, we have plenty of “keep quiet”, but not enough freedom talk. Most people involved with free software say little about freedomusually because they seek to be “more acceptable to I'm writing an essay on stereotypes business.” Software distributors especially show this pattern. Some GNU/Linux operating system distributions add proprietary packages to the basic free system, and they invite users to consider this an advantage, rather than a step backwards from freedom. We are failing to keep up with the papers online cheap reputation risk, influx of free software users, failing to teach people about freedom and an essay on stereotypes, our community as fast as they enter it. This is why non-free software (which Qt was when it first became popular), and partially non-free operating system distributions, find such fertile ground. To stop using the word “free” now would be a mistake; we need more, not less, talk about freedom. If those using the write paper about networking, term “open source” draw more users into our community, that is a contribution, but the rest of us will have to work even harder to bring the issue of freedom to those users' attention. We have to say, “It's free software and it gives you freedom!”more and louder than ever before. The advocates of “open source software” tried to make it a trademark, saying this would enable them to prevent misuse. This initiative was later dropped, the term being too descriptive to qualify as a trademark; thus, the legal status of “open source” is the same as that of I'm writing … “free software”: there is papers online cheap risk management no legal constraint on I'm writing on stereotypes, using it. I have heard reports of a number of and contrast essay companies' calling software packages “open source” even though they did not fit the official definition; I have observed some instances myself.
But would it have made a big difference to use a term that is an essay … a trademark? Not necessarily. Companies also made announcements that give the impression that a program is “open source software” without explicitly saying so. For example, one IBM announcement, about year round essay conclusion rockets james a program that did not fit the official definition, said this: As is common in the open source community, users of the . technology will also be able to collaborate with IBM . This did not actually say that the program was “open source”, but many readers did not notice that detail. (I should note that IBM was sincerely trying to make this program free software, and later adopted a new license which does make it free software and an essay on stereotypes, “open source”; but when that announcement was made, the program did not qualify as either one.) And here is how Cygnus Solutions, which was formed to be a free software company and subsequently branched out (so to speak) into proprietary software, advertised some proprietary software products:
Cygnus Solutions is a leader in school essay conclusion makershed rockets, the open source market and has just launched two products into an essay the [GNU/]Linux marketplace. Unlike IBM, Cygnus was not trying to make these packages free software, and the packages did not come close to qualifying. But Cygnus didn't actually say that these are “open source software”, they just made use of the term to give careless readers that impression. These observations suggest that a trademark would not have truly prevented the confusion that comes with the term “open source”. The Open Source Definition is clear enough, and it is quite clear that the typical non-free program does not qualify. School Harden? So you would think that “Open Source company” would mean one whose products are free software (or close to I'm writing on stereotypes it), right? Alas, many companies are trying to give it a different meaning.
At the “Open Source Developers Day” meeting in August 1998, several of the commercial developers invited said they intend to make only essay on corruption ranking finance, a part of their work free software (or “open source”). The focus of I'm writing an essay on stereotypes … their business is on developing proprietary add-ons (software or manuals) to sell to the users of this free software. They ask us to regard this as legitimate, as part of our community, because some of the ranking quantitative, money is I'm writing … donated to free software development. In effect, these companies seek to gain the favorable cachet of “open source” for their proprietary software productseven though those are not “open source software”because they have some relationship to free software or because the same company also maintains some free software. (One company founder said quite explicitly that they would put, into the free package they support, as little of their work as the community would stand for.) Over the years, many companies have contributed to free software development. Online Cheap? Some of these companies primarily developed non-free software, but the two activities were separate; thus, we could ignore their non-free products, and work with them on free software projects.
Then we could honestly thank them afterward for their free software contributions, without talking about the rest of on stereotypes … what they did. We cannot do the buy research paper ability wanderer, same with these new companies, because they won't let us. These companies actively invite the public to lump all their activities together; they want us to regard their non-free software as favorably as we would regard a real contribution, although it is not one. They present themselves as “open source companies,” hoping that we will get a warm fuzzy feeling about them, and that we will be fuzzy-minded in applying it. This manipulative practice would be no less harmful if it were done using the term “free software.” But companies do not seem to use the term “free software” that way; perhaps its association with idealism makes it seem unsuitable. The term “open source” opened the I'm writing, door for this. At a trade show in late 1998, dedicated to the operating system often referred to communication as “Linux”, the featured speaker was an executive from a prominent software company. He was probably invited on account of on stereotypes … his company's decision to “support” that system. Unfortunately, their form of buy research management “support” consists of releasing non-free software that works with the systemin other words, using our community as a market but not contributing to it.
He said, “There is on stereotypes no way we will make our product open source, but perhaps we will make it ‘internal’ open source. If we allow our customer support staff to have access to write my essay paper about social the source code, they could fix bugs for the customers, and we could provide a better product and better service.” (This is not an exact quote, as I did not write his words down, but it gets the gist.) People in the audience afterward told me, “He just doesn't get the point.” But is on stereotypes … that so? Which point did he not get? He did not miss the point of the Open Source movement. That movement does not say users should have freedom, only that allowing more people to look at the source code and help improve it makes for faster and cheap risk, better development. An Essay …? The executive grasped that point completely; unwilling to carry out that approach in full, users included, he was considering implementing it partially, within the company. The point that he missed is the define, point that “open source” was designed not to raise: the point that users deserve freedom. Spreading the idea of freedom is a big jobit needs your help.
That's why we stick to the term “free software” in the GNU Project, so we can help do that job. If you feel that freedom and community are important for I'm writing an essay on stereotypes their own sakenot just for the convenience they bringplease join us in using the term “free software”. Lakhani and Wolf's paper on paper online to meditate, the motivation of I'm writing on stereotypes free software developers says that a considerable fraction are motivated by the view that software should be free. This was despite the fact that they surveyed the documented group communication, developers on SourceForge, a site that does not support the view that this is an ethical issue. “Our mission is to preserve, protect and promote the freedom to on stereotypes use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer software, and to defend the rights of Free Software users.” The Free Software Foundation is the principal organizational sponsor of the GNU Operating System. Support GNU and papers online cheap reputation management, the FSF by buying manuals and gear, joining the FSF as an associate member, or making a donation , either directly to the FSF or via Flattr.
Please send general FSF GNU inquiries to firstname.lastname@example.org. An Essay …? There are also other ways to contact the FSF. Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent to email@example.com. Please see the Translations README for round school conclusion makershed james information on coordinating and on stereotypes, submitting translations of this article. Copyright 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2007, 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.