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Ashbourne College#039;s Psychology Blog. Q1. Outline and evaluate two social psychological theories of bar exam essays 2012, aggression (e.g. How To Write A Conclusion? social learning theory, deindividuation) • Social learning theory= originated from work of Gabriel Tarde (1912) Learning= relatively permanent change in behaviour due to bar exam, experience. • Classical behaviourism= direct experience (classical/operant conditioning)/ • Neo-behaviourism= indirect/vicarious experience (observational) • Theory claims we learn aggression primarily through observation of Conscription 30 Anti, significant people around us= Modelling people who are similar (age/sex) or higher status (parent/teacher) Key characteristics of Imitation: 1. Behaviour of role models. Bar Exam Essays 2012? 2. Copying behaviour of a higher status. 3. Help? Degree of contact with role model. 4. Degree of understanding of the behaviour. • Tarde= these are ways social behaviour and responses could be influenced by the actions of others. • Tarde combines both logic of new york bar exam essays 2012, social/cognitive psychology in social cognitive perspective of human behaviour-= behaviour motivated by inherent psychological factors/ socio-environmental factors: • Individual and social environment linked= reciprocal determinism. SLT consists of four basic processes: 1. Attention= observation- watching the behaviour. 2. Retention= cognitive process schema- storing the write cookridge carpets- accounting system, behaviour. 3. Reproduction= behaviour- copying behaviour. 4. Motivation= state- having reason for displaying behaviour. • SLT= helps in explaining inconsistencies of aggressive behaviour=where we learn to new york essays 2012, act/or not- be aggressive depending on different situations/contexts e.g. aggressive + domineering at home/ meek + submissive at work. Service Speech Service? • Explanation of SLT based on research= ‘Bobo doll studies’ KEY STUDY-Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) Experiment firstly involved: 72 child participants= different groups of children: experimental group –witnessed adult model kick/punch Bobo doll/ control group- witnessed non-aggressive behaviour = After- different groups were put into bar exam essays 2012 the toy room with Bobo doll- their behaviour was observed.
They found children who had witnessed aggressive behaviour were more likely to show aggression. Experiment had a well-defined way of coding the behavioural responses of the children to a measurable outcome. Laboratory research- artificial setting/lacks ecological validity. Children’s behaviour- may have produced demand characteristics (wanting to ‘please the experimenter’) Confidentiality- names of Essays 1 - 30 Anti, those involved maintained private- but films widely available on internet of new york bar exam, experiment suggest compromise of confidentiality. Lack of informed consent- parents/guardians of children were not fully informed + children would have been unaware they were being filmed. Study has face validity to explain children copying through imitating role models/ the media influence on aggression- such as influence of behaviour from Write … t.v. 2012? personalities/ celebrities: e.g. Scholarship Writing? two boys (aged 10/11) murdered young boy Jamie Bulger-watched horror/violent film ‘Child’s Play 3’ before the murder. Bandura’s research focuses society’s attention on the power of the media- in areas of essays 2012, aggression and other related areas e.g. health (anorexia/bulimia) Criticism of imposed etic/generalisibility- by assuming that processes of learning are the same for cheap my essay cookridge aat internal control accounting people in new york, all countries/cultures universally. Scholarship Essay Writing? Cultural bias= Bandura: a western researcher working in bar exam 2012, a western society.
Deterministic approach- to suggest child would passively absorb the observed behaviour and imitate it without logical thought for the implication of cheap aat internal system, it. Process of decreased self-assessment/ awareness- in situations where individual identification is difficult/impossible= e.g. child with a toy mask/individual football supporter amidst a large crowd of essays 2012, supporters/individual in a crowded music arena. Situations were individual identification is restricted ensures changes in the normal standards of behaviour/ inhibitions are lowered- Singer, Brush and Lublin (1965): Group situation-Inhibitions reduced- Change in normal standards of behaviour/anti-social behaviour: Milgram (1964/1965) study of the situational determinants of destructive obedience= found participants were more likely to give higher levels of electrical shocks when they could not see/be seen by astronomy essay 2013 their victim. Similar to this study: Zimbardo (1969)- study showed the effect of reduced inhibitions: He used female undergraduate participants in a ‘study of new york 2012, learning’. The female participants play teacher/ a stooge is service speech writing service, used to new york 2012, play student. ‘Student’ has to writing, complete a set of tasks/ if completed wrongly= teacher gave electric shock to 2012, ‘student’. Half the service speech writing service, participants wore large laboratory coats/hoods to cover their faces/never referred to by name= deindividuated group. Other group wore their normal clothes/given large name tags/ introduced to each other formally. All participants could see ‘student’/were told she was either ‘honest’ or ‘conceited/critical’.
Irrespective of description- deindivuated participants gave twice as many shocks of bar exam, individuated ones. Gender bias- can’t generalise findings universally when only female participants were used. Lacks ecological validity- artificial setting- actions may not be in accordance to real-life situation. Ethical issues- concerning psychological effects of experiment on participants. Diener (1979) = naturalistic observation of Essays 30 Anti Essays, 1,300 ‘trick-or- treating’ children in the U.S. found that children in large groups/wearing costumes- more likely to 2012, perform anti-social actions e.g. 1 - 30 Anti Essays? stealing money/sweets. – the group ‘reduces the new york bar exam, possibility of Essays 1 - 30 Anti, personal identification’- behaviour may deviate from normal moral standards Limitations: Fundamental problem of this theory= doesn’t provide explanation for the fact- not all crowds/groups perform aggressive actions: Evidence linked to deindividuation and anti-social behaviour- but evidence also suggests deindividuation may lead to ‘prosocial’ behaviour= Gergen et al. (1973)- study in which lowered levels of individuation didn’t result in aggressive actions= in a dark room – most participants were involved in new york essays, intimate contact/at least half cuddled/ about 80% of the group felt sexually aroused. Saying aggression is caused by lowering one’s inhibitions is narrow/deterministic: Postmes and Spears (1998)= meta-analysis of over 60 studies investigating deindividuation= no consistent research to support argument- reduced inhibitions/anti-social behaviour more likely to cyber writing, be seen in large groups/crowded situations where anonymity is maintained. = They suggest behaviour change of individuals in large groups- more influence from 2012 ‘group norms’. Terrorism Writing? Relating this theory to groups e.g. football hooliganism is bar exam 2012, too stereotypical: Marsh et al. (1978)= found what might appear to astronomy essay contest, be an anti-social group actually consist of several different groups-with different places in the status ‘hierarchy’/ aggression was highly ritualised rather than physically violent. Evaluation: Challenges: Runciman (1966)= argues aggressive behaviour could be due to one’s relative deprivation- perceived difference between what you have and what you think you should have.
Dollard et al. (1939) = argues aggression is the result of frustration building up (psychoanalysis)/ presence of environmental cues (behaviourism) that signal aggressiveness. Social theories don’t take into account potential biological factors influencing aggression= genetic/bio-chemical or neuro-anatomical causes. Q2. Outline and evaluate research relating to group display of aggression in humans. Psychologists /sociologists interested in how crowds operate. 2 disciplines differ in how they explain crowd disorder: Sociologists focus on role of the media as ‘amplifier’ of anti-social behaviour.
Psychologists more concerned about new york 2012 factors within group that lead to contest 2013, anti-social behaviour. Freud: mindset of an essays individual in a crowd different form that of an individual on their own= merging minds/sharing the writing speech writing, same opinion/inhibitions reduced. Methodological flaws: didn’t follow hypothetico-deductive method. Influence from the group: Freud criticised – idea ‘group’ had a soul of its own: Le Bon (1896)= ‘pathological’ viewpoint: Crowd behaviour the result of individuals’ personalities. Atmosphere of a group causes contagion- ‘group members fall under the influence of a collective mind’ Group members are suggestible/views of group/imitating others ‘group mind’ Blummer (1939)= circular reaction causes individuals to essays 2012, reproduce behaviours/emotions-which intensifies/amplifies. Convergence theory/ emergent norm theory. Motive behind group behaviour- convergence upon a specific location by like-minded individuals e.g. football crowd. Turner and Killian (1957)= crowd behaviour as such is ‘normless’- individual has no norms to follow they base behaviour on others around them. Service Speech Writing? The distinctive behaviour- governs behaviour of the new york essays 2012, group/ taken on write my essay cookridge carpets- aat internal control accounting, as he norm of the group. Convergence theory= View dictates that crowds aren’t a passive group of new york, people- they#8217;re a logically thinking mass of individuals View doesn’t help to explain unpredictable crowd behaviour- because its governed by the norms identified/ accepted by the group. Theory focuses more on how individuals are rational/ the How to …, formation of new york 2012, crowd/ behaviour can be seen as rational/logical – more focused on irrational forces- contrasts to contagion theories.
Emergent norm theory= Doesn’t take into account non-verbal processes that occur in crowds- incomplete. Criticised for not explaining how norms might emerge. Berk (1974)= behaviour that looks irrational (crowd running out of terrorism essay, building) may be rational (building on fire) Value-added theory- Neil Smelser (1963)= • Certain prerequisites (situations/conditions) are needed in order for a group /social movement to develop: stages he suggested were: Stage 1. Structural conduciveness- social situations/conditions must allow for collective action. Stage 2. Essays 2012? Structural strain- parts of astronomy, social system don’t function effectively. 2012? Stage 3. Growth/spread of 2013, generalised belief- shared view assigns casuses/determines a response/action. Stage 4. Bar Exam? Precipitating factors- collective belief strengthened search for alternatives gathers pace. Stage 5. Mobilising the How to Write …, collective for action- leaders/workers emerge hierarchy of new york bar exam essays, order is established. Stage 6. Reaction of agencies of cheap cookridge aat internal accounting system, social control- attempt to interfere the collective operation. Smelser argues social life/processes we follow within it affect how individuals behave= If society offers incentives/rewards that the individual is interest in- they may not think carefully about how they achieve the goal.
Value-added theory= Ethnocentric/lacks ecological validity/generalisibility= Provides a theoretical point-of-view based upon Smelser’s own ‘Western industrialised’ educational/socio-economic background- so not accounting for important cultural differences. Bar Exam Essays 2012? Logical theory- but doesn’t take into account the complexities of crowd behaviour- theory difficult to test- Berk (1974) – “crowd events occur with great speed, are difficult to anticipate#8230;” Elements from these theories can help to scholarship writing, explain crowd behaviour- Hockling (1982) With groups e.g. lynch mobs= Zimbardo (2007)= argues dehumanisation is crucial to understanding ‘man’s inhumanity to man’: Inhuman aggression of essays 2012, lynch mobs in USA- torture/violent murder of black people was not seen as a crime against humanity- it was seen across USA as a result of black people’s stigmatisation as ‘niggers’ so they weren’t seen as individuals= Ginzberg (1988) Most theories fail to acknowledge actions of positive crowd behaviour- Cassidy et al. (2007)=investigated crowd celebrations: Mela (1 month long Hindu festival): crowds behaved well/increased generosity/support. Shows how crowd behaviour/ collective living can promote good/ non-aggressive behaviour/ a strong sense of common identity/close proximity- beneficial instead of being causal factor for subsequent harm. Q3. Outline and evaluate studies relating to biological explanations of human aggression.
Assumption that aggression is caused by internal factors (rather than external) Influences summarised as: Biochemical influences: hormones; the neurotransmitter serotonin. Brain structure influences. Essays? Aggression is the essays 2012, by-product of complex internal physiological processes. Researchers approached investigation of genetic factors in writing speech service, aggression primarily through twin and new york bar exam 2012 adoptions studies= to try and establish whether aggression- a product of inherited characteristic (nature) or environmental influences (nurture) KEY STUDY- Rhee and Waldman (2002)- Meta-analysis of my essay aat internal control accounting system, 51 twin and adoption studies = 87,000 individuals. Anti-social behaviour operationalised in terms of: Psychiatric diagnoses-e.g. anti-social personality disorder. Calculated= genetic component of anti-social behaviour across the studies- approx. 40% Environmental contribution approx.
60% Self-report used in meta-analysis- limits reliability= as differences found as: Self-report individuals = assessed genetic component at 39%/ individuals assessed by new york essays 2012 another person= 53% Difficult to separate genetic/environmental effects in twin studies- MZ twins have more similar environmental experiences. Specific genes cause aggression- such as= Sandberg (1961)-identified (scientifically known as) the 1 -, 47 XYY karyotype. Court-Brown’s research (1965 and new york bar exam essays 1967)- found that of a sample of 314 patients- those with XYY would be ‘best hospitalised due to an increased likelihood of aggressive behaviour’= statement not substantiated with evidence. Service Speech Writing Service? Media encouraged the belief XY phenomenon with films – XYY man/ Alien 3= limits potential for explaining aggression due to its deterministic focus. Aggression passed through genetic transmission- looked at through animal studies.
Nelson (2006)- noted selective breeding experiments can lead to more aggressive behaviour in animals. Theory supported by Cairns (1983)- in study of mice. Observational animal research has= Methodological issues: Evidence helps researchers to create more informed models. New York 2012? Difficult generalising findings from animals to humans/ no alternative-using humans in genetic research seen as unethical. Artificial settings/lacks ecological validity- to how aggression might occur in a real-life setting. Difficult to separate influence of biological genetic factors (nature) from environmental upbringing (nurture)- as extraneous variables could be causing aggression- unreliable. She examined personality traits of a sample-XYY men compared these to a sample of XY men and astronomy contest XXY men(thought to bar exam essays 2012, be more feminine) Focused on cheap write carpets- aat internal system, levels of aggressiveness between 2 groups. Found= in all occurrences of X (about 1 in every 1,000) only characteristic of height seemed to be linked to the XYY condition. Levels of bar exam 2012, aggressiveness between groups fluctuated-= no definite conclusion could be drawn.
Basic measure of comparing XYY to XY male inmates in prison/ comparing evidence to general population= lacks validity. XYY research= found no consistent link between genotype/aggressive nature. Writing Service Service? Using thematic apperception testing= showed XYY tend to give more aggressive/ less anti-aggressive interpretations of images- compared to new york, XY men. Theilgaard concluded= issue is too complex- XYY men might seem to cyber terrorism writing, be more aggressive/ but tendencies didn’t mean they would perform aggressive acts/ resulting in prison. Hormones influence many parts of our lives: Court cases have shown that hormonal fluctuation-woman’s pre-menstrual tension can be used as grounds for claims of temporary insanity- to reduce a charge of new york essays, murder to manslaughter= R v Smith (1979) 3 All ER 605,611 (CA) Nelson (1995)- reviewed research into how hormones influence aggressive behaviour= seems to be a positive correlation between level of androgens circulating in the body and aggressive behaviour in Conscription 30 Anti Essays, female/male prisoners. Levels of androgens not measured a precise point when aggressive act performed. Bar Exam Essays? Testosterone= androgen produced by Leydig cells in male testes/in adrenal cortex= release of hormone is rhythmic following natural circadian rhythm. Increased levels of essay writing, testosterone associated with increased levels of aggression= e.g. during puberty aggression increases when androgen levels are higher. Wagner, Beuving and Hutchinson (1979)= show if a male mouse is castrated- levels of aggression reduce/ if mouse receives testosterone aggression levels increase.
Research graph correlating the number of biting attacks compared to the mouse (pre-castration=post-castration=given 150 microgm/day of testosterone) results show positive trend- increase in the number of biting attacks with increase of testosterone= post-castration/given testosterone. Research correlational- cannot establish cause+ effect= androgens encourage aggressive behaviour but- they could encourage social dominance/ impulsiveness/ competition. Pillay (2006)- high testosterone levels can be desirable for athletes= given link to high levels of competition/athlete’s need for more muscular bodies. “testosterone is only one myriad of factors that influence aggression and the effects of environmental stimuli have at times been found to essays 2012, correlate more strongly” Other environmental factors e.g. temperature/noise/overcrowding have an influential role in showing aggressive behaviour. Huston et al (2007)- basal model of testosterone= more testosterone/ more competitive/dominant. Mazur and Booth (1998)- reciprocal model of testosterone= testosterone levels vary with person’s dominance.
It is the effect not cause. Study= 2,100 air force veterans- over 10 year period- four medical examinations Methodological issues: No peer review- essential in astronomy 2013, validity of research. Longitudinal study- increased amount of data. Using veterans- unable to generalise findings- aggression could be influenced by external factors e.g. memories of the war/ or psychological factors= post-traumatic stress disorder. Serotonin neurotransmitter important in the control of aggression= low levels of serotonin- less able to control impulsive/aggressive behaviour= Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine- 5HT)= Lenard (2008)- “low serotonin levels in the brain can result in impulsive behaviour/aggression/overeating/depression/alcohol abuse/violent suicide”. Normal levels of serotonin exerts a calming/inhibitory effect in the brain. = Cases (1995) Serotonin + aggression. Bar Exam 2012? Davidson, Putnam and Larson (2000)= suggested role of serotonin-‘inhibitory function’ of aggressive tendencies: Compared violent criminals to non-violent= low levels of serotonin in violent criminals. Animal research supports this= in mice- serotonin 1B receptor not functioning-found increase in aggressive behaviour.
Tame domestic animals have higher levels of serotonin. Russian researchers looked at writing silver foxes (animals have been tamed by humans- more than 30yrs)= Found= all had higher levels of serotonin/5-HIAA. Summers et al (2005)= observed that globally acting serotonergic drugs do modify aggressive behaviour- but cannot be singularly identified as the only cause of activity in essays, regions of the brain- that could have serotonergic effects on aggression. Mann et al. Conscription Essays Essays? (1990) = administered drug (known to deplete serotonin levels in the brain) to 35 healthy adults. Found= among males (but not females)- hostility/aggression levels increased after treatment with the new york bar exam, drug. Study of the negative relationship between serotonin/aggression- correlational- doesn’t establish cause+ effect relationships. Ethical issues: when using human participants-research must look after (not use) – to further understand/make better our human existence.
Neurotransmitters on cyber terrorism writing, their own-out of essays, context to the wider physiology of the brain-ignore influence of brain structure on demonstrating aggressive behaviour. Brain structure/damage. Hypothalamus/amgydala associated with aggressive responses: Bard and scholarship essay help Mountcastle (1953)- looked at ‘rage’ in cats caused by detachment of bar exam, higher/lower brain through lesioning= Concluded: hypothalamus initiates aggressive behaviour/cerebral cortex reduces behaviour. Flynn (2006)- found stimulating= lateral hypothalamus in cats- more likely show ‘predatorial aggression’. = medial hypothalamus-more likely to show ‘vicious attack behaviour’. Amgydala= in 1930’s-careful lesioning of How to a Conclusion …, amgydala of aggressive animals showed taming effect.= harming/causing dysfunction to animal is unethical. Amgydalectomy- in essays 2012, humans reduces violent behaviour- but emotion is lost. Brain injury/damage to brain can alter the essay, processing of information/ causes aggression. Frontal cortex closely connected to hypothalamus/amgydala- damage often show: impulsive behaviour/irritability/ short temper/easily provoked.
Phineas Gage- railway worker- a tamping iron- entered left side of his face= passed through jaw/up+ behind left eye/ exited through top of his head- he survived for 11 years after: Noticeable changes in persona- formerly quiet/hard-working/shrewd character turned to very negative/aggressive individual – after result of brain injury. Convincing- but case study- one person- generalisibility limited/ relying on accuracy of new york bar exam essays, medical notes made in 1868 by essay Harlow (Gage’s physician). Evidence supports the bar exam essays, idea that the Amygdala- has influential effect on mediating aggressive responses. Animal studies- cats/rats/hamsters- show neural processed surrounding amgydala functioning= can explain aggressive changes in writing, behaviour. Difficult to generalise- animal studies to humans- human brain more complex than many animals. Potegal et al. (1994)= argue generalisation between animals and new york 2012 humans should be more viable- human/animal differences are qualitative ( i.e. basics the same/ details different): Underlying neural circuitry related to emotional expression seems more similar- allowing for more avenues of Write …, generalisation. Blair et al. (2001) = shows in cases – humans hospitalised for new york 2012 psychopathic tendencies- often caused by Conscription Essays damage to amgydala. Supported by various findings in non-human animals.
Biological explanations are reductionist as it ignores: Influence of culture in aggressive behaviour- socialisation- (e.g. New York Essays 2012? Arapesh tribe= Mead (1935) Aggression learned through observation of various forms of media- Freedman (2002) Situational factors- e.g. temperature/overcrowding/noise • Showing of aggression may simply be result of frustration- ultimately becomes aggressive actions through the identification of cheap write carpets- aat internal system, aggressive cues in environment. Q4. Outline and evaluate research studies into evolutionary explanations of essays, human aggression. Aggressive behaviour by writing service animals= Craig (1921)- provided 1st attempt understanding aggression from 2012 ethological p.o.v.- since Darwin’s work- late 1800’s. Craig- made clear- that animals- ‘even when the animal does fight, he aims not to destroy enemy, but only get rid of his presence and scholarship essay writing interference’ = Van Der Dennen (2005) Lorenz (1966)-ethologist- stressed humans are animals- show similar behaviour patterns to animals: • Four main drivers behind behaviour of animal= fear/reproduction/hunger/aggression. Functions of aggression= Help to ensure fittest/strongest were selected (females select male- who offer greatest survival- form them/offspring) Ensure survival of young (parents show aggression- protecting offspring) Help to distribute a species in balanced way- animals have own territories.
Lorenz- idea of ritualised aggression- to explain aggressive animal behaviour e.g. stags rutting. Analysis furthered- stating animals know when to stop being aggressive (few ever kill enemy)= Gross (1998)- jackdaw behaviour= 2 jackdaws about to bar exam essays 2012, attack each other- if 1 displays- appeasement tactic – (showing a behaviour indicating defeat/submission)- the terrorism essay writing sites, other jackdaw wont attack. Lorenz- criticised by new york bar exam essays 2012 other ethologists/academics: Lehrman (1953)- questions whether correct to make comparisons between species/assume findings for animals to How to Write …, humans- suggest even though 2 behaviours seem similar- cant assume underlying mechanisms the same. Aggressive behaviour by humans: • Fromm (1973)- questions Lorenz’s view= states human aggression comprises 2 forms: benign aggression/malignant aggression e.g. malignant= organised violence-gang warfare- ethnic ‘cleansing’-eradication of Jews in WW2 / benign= parent defending their child from harm by new york 2012 attack/ threat. Nelson (1974)- states Lorenz misses 3 basic factors that can affect aggression: Process of learning: Bandura shows people may learn aggressive behaviour through observation. Structural causes: Nelson- suggests structural causes relate to nature of social- e.g. society without norms/rules- aggression likely to writing service speech writing, spread. Psychological causes of aggression: highlight failings of biological approach= in animal kingdom-aggressive action directed to ‘actual enemy’- threat/challenge. Bar Exam? In humans- aggression can be motivated by many different personal factors e.g. Writing Speech Writing Service? mood/feelings + situational factors e.g. heat/overcrowding. In some cases of human aggression- victims aren’t seen as fellow humans= Fromm (1964)/ Erikson (1956)- might be case in situations of unprovoked random attacks: Rapoport (1965)- suggests ‘man by virtue of his ability to manipulate symbols, attaches the bar exam essays, label ‘enemy’ to entire categories of things: other animals, other people, even inanimate objects and ideas#8230;accordingly aggression ceases to cyber terrorism writing sites, be leads by the situation.’ Differences between animal and human aggression:
Human aggression= might be adaptive/useful i.e. product of evolution. Use of weapons means aggression is destructive/not ritualistic: Tinbergen (1968)-suggest humans only species- aggression not part of ritualistic system e.g. mating- but is rooted in new york, desire to harm another. Evolutionary explanations of human aggression. Acts of terrorists e.g. 9/11 or ware in general= explained through Tinbergen’s ideas/evolutionary theory= as advances in astronomy essay 2013, weapon technology distancing means that aggressor doesn’t need to new york essays 2012, be physically close to the recipient of aggression: Means that appeasement/distress signals that would stop acts of aggression no longer apply e.g. How To Write A Conclusion …? plane crews who are eager to drop bombs on ‘targets’- would not be eager to new york 2012, stab/burn children/adults with their own hands. Krueger et al. Astronomy? (2002)- evolutionary approach concerned with how skills/methods of new york bar exam essays 2012, dealing with environment have evolved into behaviours used in today’s society=
Many evolutionary changes seen in Pleistocene era- since then evolution has been static- Brody et al. Astronomy Contest? (2004) Evolutionary psychologists believe- series of psychological mechanisms affect behaviour/don’t vary much between individuals- universal= they think behaviour witnessed linked to reproductive success of new york bar exam 2012, individual= likely to suggest aggression is result of sexual competition: Females invest in parental issues e.g. time/energy/food etc. Writing Sites? Males compete for females- to pass on their genes= ensure reproductive success: Kenrick, Trost and Sheets (1996). Bar Exam Essays? Dominant image for men nowadays is ‘provider of valuable resources’- men need to be assertive/aggressive. Waller (2002)- applied approach to explain mass killings/genocide= humans have evolved living in Conscription Essays 1 - 30 Anti Essays, groups- need to define boundaries- formulating ‘in’ group (us) and ‘out’ group (them)= likely to result in aggression. Could be caused by new york ancestral past- xenophobia- need for people to feel socially dominant= holding ethnocentric perspectives- lead to acts of aggression/violence. Buss (1999)- foolish to cyber writing sites, assume aggressive behaviour just male versus male: in women physical violence limited- partly due to physiological differences/strength- but verbal aggression is common. New York Essays? Female to female verbal aggression- often aimed at cheap cookridge control system reducing ‘attractiveness’ of competitors- in eyes of males= strategy – evolutionary advantage for bar exam 2012 ‘name-caller’ Influence of infidelity on aggressive behaviour. Infidelity- process unfaithful to partner/ sexual relationship with another person= infidelity had impact on relationship + quality of interpersonal communications between partners/others. • Psychologists argue- act of infidelity triggers emotional state within individual- as perceived threat to relationship/current status quo: Buss, Larsen, Western and Semmelroth (1992)- argue- would naturally lead to show behaviours to reduce/ eliminate threat e.g. Service Speech? act of violence/aggression • Sexual infidelity for men/women- triggers sexual jealousy= psychologists suggest cues/ triggers are different for males/females: Brunk et al. (1996)- suggest from male’s p.o.v- infidelity by female- brings uncertainty of paternity- profound sexual jealousy/ For female who becomes pregnant after act of infidelity- associated sexual jealousy influenced not by parental uncertainty- but lack of time/economic resources- given to her/ offspring by new york 2012 her mate. = lack of cyber sites, emotional support that makes women aggression/ men’s anger/subsequent aggression- based upon essays suspicion of cyber terrorism writing sites, wife’s infidelity. New York 2012? Evolutionary psychologists- look at infidelity from male and cyber sites female perspectives to avoid gender bias into their research into explanations of aggression. Influence of new york bar exam 2012, jealousy -n ot unusual to writing service service, witness violence/ acts of new york bar exam 2012, aggression influenced by jealousy= Harvey, Sprecher and Wenzer (2004) Cascardi and Vivian (1995)- participants asked explain cause of aggression in relationship- jealousy most commonly attributed cause.
Canary, Spitzberg and Semic (1998)- argue couples with relationship conflicts- reported anger/ aggression contributed by jealousy. Violent males lack effective ways of a Conclusion, mediating/ responding to situation of jealousy/ compared to non-violent males- Holtzworth- Monroe and Anglin (1991). Haden and essays Hojjat (2006)- differences in sexual jealousy of young women/men= focus on aggressive responsiveness in partner rivalry situations. 2 separate studies found= men more likely than women- to consider aggressive action against rival/ women more emotionally/ behaviourally reactive. In USA- Morenz and writing service writing service Lane (1996)- Evolutionary theory- explains jealousy as desire to keep one’s mate= males have tendency to show mate tending/guarding activities – aggressive activities to essays, avoid sexual infidelity- Buss and Shackelford (1997)/ females display behaviours less frequently. Limitations- evolutionary approach fails to explain why individuals might react in different ways when faced with same adaptive problem: different men react in different ways when confronted with their wife’s infidelity e.g. violence, debasement, or avoiding issue (by getting drunk) Cultural differences- fails to explain why some cultures seem to require male violence to attain social status/ other cultures (peaceful)- aggression leads to contest 2013, irreparable damage to reputation of the new york 2012, aggressor= Buss and Shackelford (1997)
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Internet Encyclopedia of bar exam essays, Philosophy. Existentialism is a catch-all term for astronomy, those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the view that this problem is best addressed through ontology. This very broad definition will be clarified by discussing seven key themes that existentialist thinkers address. New York Bar Exam 2012. Those philosophers considered existentialists are mostly from the Write a Conclusion …, continent of Europe, and essays 2012 date from the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Outside philosophy, the existentialist movement is probably the most well-known philosophical movement, and at least two of its members are among the speech writing, most famous philosophical personalities and widely read philosophical authors. It has certainly had considerable influence outside philosophy, for example on psychological theory and on the arts. Within philosophy, though, it is safe to say that this loose movement considered as a whole has not had a great impact, although individuals or ideas counted within it remain important. Moreover, most of the philosophers conventionally grouped under this heading either never used, or actively disavowed, the term 'existentialist'.
Even Sartre himself once said: “Existentialism? I don’t know what that is.” So, there is a case to be made that the term – insofar as it leads us to ignore what is distinctive about philosophical positions and to conflate together significantly different ideas – does more harm than good. In this article, however, it is assumed that something sensible can be said about existentialism as a loosely defined movement. The article has three sections. First, we outline a set of themes that define, albeit very broadly, existentialist concerns. This is done with reference to the historical context of existentialism, which will help us to understand why certain philosophical problems and methods were considered so important. Second, we discuss individually six philosophers who are arguably its central figures, stressing in these discussions the ways in new york bar exam essays 2012, which these philosophers approached existentialist themes in distinctive ways. These figures, and many of the others we mention, have full length articles of their own within the Encyclopedia . Finally, we look very briefly at the influence of existentialism, especially outside philosophy. Although a highly diverse tradition of thought, seven themes can be identified that provide some sense of overall unity. Here, these themes will be briefly introduced; they can then provide us with an intellectual framework within which to discuss exemplary figures within the history of existentialism.
Philosophy should not be thought of primarily either as an attempt to investigate and understand the Conscription 30 Anti, self or the world, or as a special occupation that concerns only a few. Rather, philosophy must be thought of as fully integrated within life. To be sure, there may need to be professional philosophers, who develop an elaborate set of methods and concepts (Sartre makes this point frequently) but life can be lived philosophically without a technical knowledge of philosophy. New York Bar Exam Essays. Existentialist thinkers tended to identify two historical antecedents for this notion. First, the ancient Greeks, and particularly the figure of Socrates but also the Stoics and Epicureans. Socrates was not only non-professional, but in his pursuit of the good life he tended to eschew the formation of essay writing, a 'system' or 'theory', and his teachings took place often in public spaces. In this, the existentialists were hardly unusual. New York. In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the rapid expansion of industrialisation and advance in technology were often seen in terms of an alienation of the human from nature or from a properly natural way of living (for example, thinkers of German and English romanticism). The second influence on thinking of philosophy as a way of life was German Idealism after Kant. Partly as a response to the 18 th century Enlightenment, and under the influence of the Neoplatonists, Schelling and Hegel both thought of philosophy as an activity that is an integral part of the history of human beings, rather than outside of life and the world, looking on. Later in the 19 th century, Marx famously criticised previous philosophy by saying that the point of philosophy is not to know things – even to know things about activity – but to change them.
The concept of philosophy as a way of life manifests itself in existentialist thought in a number of ways. Let us give several examples, to scholarship essay which we will return in new york 2012, the sections that follow. First, the existentialists often undertook a critique of modern life in How to, terms of the specialisation of both manual and intellectual labour. Specialisation included philosophy. One consequence of this is that many existentialist thinkers experimented with different styles or genres of writing in order to escape the effects of this specialisation. Second, a notion that we can call 'immanence': philosophy studies life from the inside. For Kierkegaard, for example, the new york 2012, fundamental truths of my existence are not representations – not, that is, ideas, propositions or symbols the meaning of essay contest 2013, which can be separated from their origin.
Rather, the truths of existence are immediately lived, felt and acted. Likewise, for Nietzsche and Heidegger, it is essential to recognise that the philosopher investigating human existence is, him or herself, an existing human. Third, the nature of life itself is a perennial existentialist concern and, more famously (in Heidegger and in bar exam essays 2012, Camus), also the significance of death. A key idea here is that human existence is in some way 'on its own'; anxiety (or anguish) is the recognition of this fact. Anxiety here has two important implications. First, most generally, many existentialists tended to stress the significance of emotions or feelings, in so far as they were presumed to scholarship writing help have a less culturally or intellectually mediated relation to new york bar exam essays one's individual and separate existence. This idea is found in Kierkegaard, as we mentioned above, and in Heidegger's discussion of 'mood'; it is also one reason why existentialism had an influence on psychology. Second, anxiety also stands for How to, a form of existence that is recognition of being on its own. Essays 2012. What is meant by 'being on its own' varies among philosophers.
For example, it might mean the irrelevance (or even negative influence) of essay contest, rational thought, moral values, or empirical evidence, when it comes to making fundamental decisions concerning one's existence. 2012. As we shall see, Kierkegaard sees Hegel's account of religion in terms of the history of absolute spirit as an exemplary confusion of faith and reason. Alternatively, it might be a more specifically theological claim: the existence of a transcendent deity is not relevant to (or is positively detrimental to) such decisions (a view broadly shared by Nietzsche and cheap write cookridge carpets- accounting system Sartre). Finally, being on its own might signify the new york bar exam essays, uniqueness of human existence, and scholarship essay writing thus the fact that it cannot understand itself in 2012, terms of other kinds of existence (Heidegger and Sartre). Related to anxiety is the concept of authenticity, which is let us say the existentialist spin on the Greek notion of 'the good life'.
As we shall see, the authentic being would be able to recognise and affirm the nature of existence (we shall shortly specify some of the aspects of this, such as absurdity and freedom). Not, though, recognise the nature of contest 2013, existence as an intellectual fact, disengaged from essays 2012 life; but rather, the writing service, authentic being lives in accordance with this nature. Essays. The notion of authenticity is sometimes seen as connected to individualism. This is only reinforced by the contrast with a theme we will discuss below, that of the 'crowd'. Certainly, if authenticity involves 'being on one's own', then there would seem to be some kind of value in celebrating and cyber terrorism essay sustaining one's difference and independence from others.
However, many existentialists see individualism as a historical and cultural trend (for example Nietzsche), or dubious political value (Camus), rather than a necessary component of authentic existence. Individualism tends to bar exam 2012 obscure the particular types of Write, collectivity that various existentialists deem important. For many existentialists, the conditions of the modern world make authenticity especially difficult. For example, many existentialists would join other philosophers (such as the Frankfurt School) in condemning an instrumentalist conception of reason and value. The utilitarianism of Mill measured moral value and justice also in bar exam essays, terms of the consequences of actions. Later liberalism would seek to absorb nearly all functions of astronomy, political and social life under the heading of economic performance. Evaluating solely in terms of the measurable outcomes of production was seen as reinforcing the secularisation of the institutions of political, social or economic life; and reinforcing also the abandonment of any broader sense of the spiritual dimension (such an idea is found acutely in Emerson, and is akin to the concerns of Kierkegaard). Existentialists such as Martin Heidegger, Hanna Arendt or Gabriel Marcel viewed these social movements in terms of a narrowing of the possibilities of new york bar exam essays, human thought to writing service speech writing the instrumental or technological. This narrowing involved thinking of the world in terms of resources, and thinking of all human action as a making, or indeed as a machine-like 'function'. The next key theme is freedom.
Freedom can usefully be linked to the concept of anguish, because my freedom is in part defined by the isolation of my decisions from any determination by a deity, or by previously existent values or knowledge. Many existentialists identified the 19 th and 20 th centuries as experiencing a crisis of values. This might be traced back to familiar reasons such as an increasingly secular society, or the rise of bar exam, scientific or philosophical movements that questioned traditional accounts of value (for example Marxism or Darwinism), or the shattering experience of two world wars and the phenomenon of mass genocide. It is important to note, however, that for existentialism these historical conditions do not create the problem of anguish in the face of write cookridge control accounting system, freedom, but merely cast it into new york higher relief. Likewise, freedom entails something like responsibility, for myself and for my actions. Given that my situation is one of Write, being on its own – recognised in anxiety – then both my freedom and my responsibility are absolute. New York Essays. The isolation that we discussed above means that there is nothing else that acts through me, or that shoulders my responsibility.
Likewise, unless human existence is to be understood as arbitrarily changing moment to moment, this freedom and responsibility must stretch across time. Thus, when I exist as an authentically free being, I assume responsibility for my whole life, for a ‘project’ or a ‘commitment’. Write A Conclusion. We should note here that many of the existentialists take on a broadly Kantian notion of freedom: freedom as autonomy . This means that freedom, rather than being randomness or arbitrariness, consists in the binding of oneself to a law, but a law that is given by the self in recognition of its responsibilities. This borrowing from new york Kant, however, is heavily qualified by the next theme. The next common theme we shall call ‘situatedness’. Although my freedom is absolute, it always takes place in a particular context. My body and its characteristics, my circumstances in a historical world, and my past, all weigh upon freedom. This is cyber essay writing what makes freedom meaningful. Suppose I tried to exist as free, while pretending to be in new york bar exam, abstraction from the situation. In that case I will have no idea what possibilities are open to me and what choices need to cheap my essay carpets- control accounting be made, here and now.
In such a case, my freedom will be naive or illusory. This concrete notion of freedom has its philosophical genesis in Hegel, and is generally contrasted to bar exam essays 2012 the pure rational freedom described by Kant. Situatedness is related to cookridge a notion we discussed above under the heading of philosophy as a way of life: the necessity of viewing or understanding life and existence from the ‘inside’. For example, many 19 th century intellectuals were interested in bar exam 2012, ancient Greece, Rome, the Medieval period, or the orient, as alternative models of a less spoiled, more integrated form of life. Nietzsche, to be sure, shared these interests, but he did so not uncritically: because the human condition is characterised by service being historically situated, it cannot simply turn back the clock or decide all at once to be other than it is (Sartre especially shares this view). 2012. Heidegger expresses a related point in astronomy, this way: human existence cannot be abstracted from its world because being-in-the-world is part of the ontological structure of that existence. Many existentialists take my concretely individual body, and the specific type of bar exam essays, life that my body lives, as a primary fact about me (for example, Nietzsche, Scheler or Merleau-Ponty). Essay Help. I must also be situated socially: each of my acts says something about how I view others but, reciprocally, each of their acts is a view about what I am. My freedom is always situated with respect to the judgements of others. This particular notion comes from Hegel’s analysis of ‘recognition’, and is found especially in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Jaspers. Situatedness in new york bar exam essays, general also has an important philosophical antecedent in Marx: economic and scholarship essay political conditions are not contingent features with respect to universal human nature, but condition that nature from the ground up.
Although, of course, existentialism takes its name from the philosophical theme of 'existence', this does not entail that there is homogeneity in the manner existence is to be understood. One point on which there is agreement, though, is that the bar exam 2012, existence with which we should be concerned here is not just any existent thing, but human existence . There is Essays thus an important difference between distinctively human existence and anything else, and human existence is new york essays not to be understood on the model of things , that is, as objects of knowledge. Astronomy Essay Contest. One might think that this is an old idea, rooted in Plato's distinction between matter and soul, or Descartes' between extended and thinking things. But these distinctions appear to be just differences between two types of things. Descartes in new york bar exam 2012, particular, however, is often criticised by the existentialists for subsuming both under the heading 'substance', and 2013 thus treating what is distinctive in human existence as indeed a thing or object, albeit one with different properties. (Whether the existentialist characterisation of Plato or Descartes is accurate is a different question.) The existentialists thus countered the Platonic or Cartesian conception with a model that resembles more the Aristotelian as developed in the Nichomachean Ethics . The latter idea arrives in existentialist thought filtered through Leibniz and Spinoza and the notion of a striving for existence. Equally important is the elevation of the practical above the theoretical in German Idealists. Particularly in Kant, who stressed the primacy of the 'practical', and then in Fichte and early Schelling, we find the notion that human existence is action . Accordingly, in Nietzsche and Sartre we find the notion that the essays 2012, human being is all and only what that being does. My existence consists of forever bringing myself into being – and, correlatively, fleeing from the dead, inert thing that is the totality of Conscription, my past actions. Bar Exam 2012. Although my acts are free, I am not free not to act; thus existence is characterised also by 'exigency' (Marcel). For many existentialists, authentic existence involves a certain tension be recognised and lived through, but not resolved: this tension might be between the animal and the rational (important in Nietzsche) or between facticity and transcendence (Sartre and de Beauvoir). In the Write a Conclusion …, 19 th and 20 th centuries, the human sciences (such as psychology, sociology or economics) were coming to be recognised as powerful and legitimate sciences.
To some extend at least their assumptions and methods seemed to be borrowed from the essays, natural sciences. While philosophers such as Dilthey and later Gadamer were concerned to show that the human sciences had to have a distinctive method, the existentialists were inclined to cheap write control system go further. The free, situated human being is not an object of knowledge in the sense the human always exists as the bar exam essays 2012, possibility of transcending any knowledge of it. There is a clear relation between such an idea and the notion of the 'transcendence of the other' found in the ethical phenomenology of Emmanuel Levinas. Among the most famous ideas associated with existentialism is that of 'absurdity'.
Human existence might be described as 'absurd' in one of the following senses. How To A Conclusion …. First, many existentialists argued that nature as a whole has no design, no reason for existing. Although the natural world can apparently be understood by physical science or metaphysics, this might be better thought of as 'description' than either understanding or explanation. Thus, the achievements of the natural sciences also empty nature of value and meaning. Unlike a created cosmos, for example, we cannot expect the scientifically described cosmos to answer our questions concerning value or meaning. Moreover, such description comes at the cost of a profound falsification of nature: namely, the positing of ideal entities such as 'laws of nature', or the 2012, conflation of all reality under a single model of cheap write carpets- control accounting system, being. Bar Exam Essays. Human beings can and Essays 30 Anti should become profoundly aware of this lack of reason and the impossibility of an new york immanent understanding of scholarship essay writing, it. Camus, for example, argues that the basic scene of human existence is its confrontation with this mute irrationality. A second meaning of the absurd is this: my freedom will not only be undetermined by new york essays knowledge or reason, but from the point of view of the latter my freedom will even appear absurd. Astronomy. Absurdity is thus closely related to the theme of 'being on essays 2012, its own', which we discussed above under the heading of anxiety.
Even if I choose to follow a law that I have given myself, my choice of law will appear absurd, and essay 2013 likewise will my continuously reaffirmed choice to new york follow it. Third, human existence as action is doomed to always destroy itself. Cheap Write My Essay Control Accounting. A free action, once done, is no longer free; it has become an aspect of the world, a thing . The absurdity of essays, human existence then seems to lie in the fact that in becoming myself (a free existence) I must be what I am not (a thing). If I do not face up to this absurdity, and choose to be or pretend to cheap cookridge control accounting be thing-like, I exist inauthentically (the terms in this formulation are Sartre's). Existentialism generally also carries a social or political dimension. Essays 2012. Insofar as he or she is authentic, the 1 -, freedom of the human being will show a certain 'resolution' or 'commitment', and this will involve also the being – and new york bar exam essays 2012 particularly the authentic being – of others. For example, Nietzsche thus speaks of his (or Zarathustra's) work in aiding the transformation of the astronomy contest 2013, human, and there is also in Nietzsche a striking analysis of the concept of friendship; for new york essays 2012, Heidegger, there must be an authentic mode of being-with others, although he does not develop this idea at length; the social and writing service political aspect of new york bar exam 2012, authentic commitment is How to Write much more clear in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Camus. That is the new york bar exam essays 2012, positive side of the social or political dimension.
However, leading up to this positive side, there is a description of the typical forms that inauthentic social or political existence takes. Many existentialists employ terms such as 'crowd', 'horde' (Scheler) or the 'masses' (Jose Ortega y Gasset). Nietzsche's deliberately provocative expression, 'the herd', portrays the bulk of How to, humanity not only bar exam essays 2012, as animal, but as docile and domesticated animals. Notice that these are all collective terms: inauthenticity manifests itself as de-individuated or faceless. Instead of being formed authentically in freedom and Conscription Essays 30 Anti anxiety, values are just accepted from others because ‘that is what everybody does’. These terms often carry a definite historical resonance, embodying a critique of specifically modern modes of human existence. All of the following might be seen as either causes or symptoms of a world that is 'fallen' or 'broken' (Marcel): the technology of bar exam, mass communication (Nietzsche is cheap write cookridge carpets- aat internal control accounting system particularly scathing about newspapers and journalists; in Two Ages , Kierkegaard says something very similar), empty religious observances, the specialisation of labour and social roles, urbanisation and industrialisation. The theme of the crowd poses a question also to 2012 the positive social or political dimension of existentialism: how could a collective form of existence ever be anything other than inauthentic?
The 19 th and 20 th century presented a number of mass political ideologies which might be seen as posing a particularly challenging environment for authentic and free existence. For example, nationalism came in for criticism particularly by Nietzsche. Socialism and communism: after WWII, Sartre was certainly a communist, but even then unafraid to criticise both the essay writing, French communist party and new york bar exam the Soviet Union for Conscription 1 - 30 Anti, rigid or inadequately revolutionary thinking. Democracy: Aristotle in book 5 of his Politics distinguishes between democracy and ochlocracy, which latter essentially means rule by those incapable of bar exam, ruling even themselves. Scholarship Writing. Many existentialists would identify the latter with the American and especially French concept of 'democracy'. Nietzsche and Ortega y Gasset both espoused a broadly aristocratic criterion for social and political leadership. 2. Key Existentialist Philosophers.
a. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Kierkegaard was many things: philosopher, religious writer, satirist, psychologist, journalist, literary critic and generally considered the ‘father’ of existentialism. Being born (in Copenhagen) to a wealthy family enabled him to devote his life to the pursuits of his intellectual interests as well as to distancing himself from the ‘everyday man’ of his times. Kierkegaard’s most important works are pseudonymous, written under fictional names, often very obviously fictional. Bar Exam Essays. The issue of pseudonymity has been variously interpreted as a literary device, a personal quirk or as an illustration of the constant tension between the philosophical truth and existential or personal truth. We have already seen that for the existentialists it is of equal importance what one says and the way in which something is said. This forms part of the cyber essay writing sites, attempt to return to a more authentic way of philosophising, firstly exemplified by the Greeks. In a work like Either/Or (primarily a treatise against the Hegelians) theoretical reflections are followed by reflections on how to seduce girls. The point is to stress the distance between the anonymously and logically produced truths of the logicians and bar exam essays the personal truths of existing individuals. Every pseudonymous author is a symbol for an existing individual and at times his very name is the key to the mysteries of his existence (like in service, the case of Johanes de Silentio , fictional author of Fear and Trembling , where the bar exam, mystery of Abraham’s actions cannot be told, being a product of and belonging to silence). Kierkegaard has been associated with a notion of truth as subjective (or personal); but what does this mean?
The issue is linked with his notorious confrontation with the Danish Church and the academic environment of his days. Kierkegaard’s work takes place against the background of an academia dominated by Hegelian dialectics and a society which reduces the communication with the my essay carpets- aat internal control system, divine to new york 2012 the everyday observance of the ritualistic side of an institutionalized Christianity. Hegel is for Kierkegaard his arch-enemy not only Conscription 1 - 30 Anti Essays, because of what he writes but also what he represents. Hegel is new york bar exam guilty for Kierkegaard because he reduced the living truth of astronomy essay 2013, Christianity (the fact that God suffered and new york bar exam died on the Cross) to just another moment, which necessarily will be overcome, in Conscription Essays 1 -, the dialectical development of the Spirit. While Hegel treats “God” as a Begriff (a concept), for Kierkegaard the truth of Christianity signifies the very paradoxicality of bar exam, faith: that is, that it is possible for the individual to essay contest 2013 go beyond the ‘ethical’ and nevertheless or rather because of this very act of disobedience to be loved by ‘God’. Famously, for Hegel ‘all that is real is rational’ – where rationality means the historically articulated, dialectical progression of Spirit – whereas for Kierkegaard the suspension of rationality is the very secret of Christianity. Against the cold logic of the Hegelian system Kierkegaard seeks “a truth which is truth for me” (Kierkegaard 1996:32). Christianity in particular represents the new york essays, attempt to offer one’s life to the service of the divine. Astronomy. This cannot be argued, it can only be lived. While a theologian will try to argue for new york, the validity of my essay carpets- control, his positions by bar exam essays 2012 arguing and counter-arguing, a true Christian will try to live his life the way Jesus lived it. This evidently marks the continuation of the Hellenic idea of philosophy as a way of life, exemplified in the person of Socrates who did not write treatises, but who died for Write a Conclusion, his ideas.
Before the logical concepts of the theologians (in the words of Martin Heidegger who was hugely influenced by Kierkegaard) “man can neither fall to his knees in awe nor can he play music and dance before this god” (Heidegger 2002:42). The idea of ‘subjective truth’ will have serious consequences to the philosophical understanding of man. Traditionally defined as animale rationale (the rational animal) by bar exam Aristotle and for a long time worshiped as such by generations of philosophical minds, Kierkegaard comes now to redefine the human as the ‘passionate animal’. What counts in man is the astronomy essay contest 2013, intensity of his emotions and his willingness to believe ( contra the once all powerful reason) in that which cannot be understood. Essays 2012. The opening up by Kierkegaard of 2013, this terra incognita of man’s inner life will come to play a major role for later existentialists (most importantly for Nietzsche) and will bring to light the essays, failings and the weaknesses of an over-optimistic (because modelled after the Natural sciences) model of philosophy which was taught to astronomy contest talk a lot concerning the ‘truth’ of the human, when all it understood about the human was a mutilated version. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve lived in a state of innocence in communication with God and in harmony with their physical environment. The expulsion from the Garden opened up a wide range of new possibilities for new york essays, them and thus the problem of anxiety arose.
Adam (the Hebrew word for service speech writing service, man) is now free to determine through his actions the route of things. Naturally, there is a tension here. The human, created in God’s image, is an infinite being. Like God he also can choose and act according to bar exam essays his will. Simultaneously, though, he is cyber terrorism writing a finite being since he is essays 2012 restricted by his body, particular socioeconomic conditions and scholarship essay writing so forth. New York Bar Exam Essays. This tension between the finite and infinite is the source of anxiety. But unlike a Hegelian analysis, Kierkegaard does not look for writing, a way out from anxiety; on the contrary he stresses its positive role in the flourishing of the new york essays 2012, human. As he characteristically puts it: “Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:154). The prioritization of anxiety as a fundamental trait of the human being is a typical existentialist move, eager to assert the cyber terrorism, positive role of emotions for human life.
Perhaps the most famous work of Kierkegaard was Fear and Trembling , a short book which exhibits many of the issues raised by him throughout his career. Fear and Trembling retells the story of the attempted sacrifice of Isaac by his father Abraham. God tells Abraham that in order to prove his faith he has to sacrifice his only son. New York. Abraham obeys, but at terrorism essay sites the last moment God intervenes and saves Isaac. What is the moral of the new york bar exam 2012, story? According to our moral beliefs, shouldn’t Abraham refuse to execute God’s vicious plan? Isn’t one of the fundamental beliefs of Christianity the respect to the life of other?
The answer is naturally affirmative. A Conclusion …. Abraham should refuse God, and new york essays he should respect the ethical law. Then Abraham would be in a good relation with the Law itself as in the expression ‘a law abiding citizen’. On the contrary what Abraham tries to achieve is essay contest 2013 a personal relation with the author of the moral law. This author is neither a symbolic figure nor an essays abstract idea; he is someone with a name. Astronomy Essay Contest 2013. The name of ’God’ is the unpronounceable Tetragrammaton (YHVE), the unpronounceability indicates the bar exam essays 2012, simultaneous closeness and distance of the great Other. The Christian God then, the author of the moral law at his will suspends the law and demands his unlawful wish be obeyed.
Jacques Derrida notes that the temptation is now for Abraham the ethical law itself (Derrida 1998:162): he must resist ethics, this is the mad logic of God. The story naturally raises many problems. Is not such a subjectivist model of truth and writing service writing religion plainly dangerous? What if someone was to support his acts of violence as a command of God? Kierkegaard’s response would be to bar exam essays 2012 suggest that it is only because Abraham loved Isaac with all his heart that the sacrifice could take place. “He must love Isaac with his whole soul. only then can he sacrifice him” (Kierkegaard 1983:74). Abraham’s faith is proved by the strength of his love for his son. However, this doesn’t fully answer the question of 30 Anti, legitimacy, even if we agree that Abraham believed that God loved him so that he would somehow spare him. Kierkegaard also differentiates between the act of Abraham and the act of a tragic hero (like Agamemnon sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia). The tragic hero’s act is a product of calculation.
What is better to do? What would be more beneficial? Abraham stands away from all sorts of calculations, he stands alone, that is, free in front of the bar exam 2012, horror religiosus , the price and the reward of faith. b. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) as an Existentialist Philosopher. “I know my lot. Astronomy Essay. Some day my name will be linked to the memory of something monstrous, of a crisis as yet unprecedented on earth. ” (Nietzsche 2007:88).
Remarkably, what in 1888 sounded like megalomania came some years later to be realized. The name ‘Nietzsche’ has been linked with an array of historical events, philosophical concepts and new york bar exam widespread popular legends. Above all, Nietzsche has managed somehow to associate his name with the turmoil of a crisis. Terrorism Essay. For a while this crisis was linked to new york essays 2012 the events of service writing service, WWII. The exploitation of his teaching by the Nazi ideologues (notably Alfred Rosenberg and new york Alfred Baeumler), although utterly misdirected, arguably had its source in Nietzsche’s own “aristocratic radicalism”.
More generally, the crisis refers to the prospect of a future lacking of any meaning. This is a common theme for all the astronomy essay contest 2013, existentialists to new york bar exam essays 2012 be sure. The prospect of millennia of nihilism (the devaluation of the highest values) inaugurates for Conscription 1 - 30 Anti, Nietzsche the era in which the bar exam 2012, human itself, for the first time in its history, is called to give meaning both to its own existence and to the existence of the world. This is an event of a cataclysmic magnitude, from now on there are neither guidelines to be followed, lighthouses to direct us, and no right answers but only experiments to be conducted with unknown results. Many existentialists, in speech, their attempt to new york bar exam differentiate the value of individual existence from the alienating effects of the masses, formed an uneasy relation with the value of the ‘everyday man’. The ‘common’ man was thought to be lacking in will , taste in terrorism essay, matter of aesthetics, and individuality in the sense that the 2012, assertion of his existence comes exclusively from essay contest his participation in larger groups and essays from the ‘herd’ mentality with which these groups infuse their members.
Nietzsche believed that men in society are divided and sites ordered according to their willingness and capacity to participate in a life of spiritual and bar exam cultural transformation. Certainly not everyone wishes this participation and Nietzsche’s condemnation of those unwilling to challenge their fundamental beliefs is harsh; however it would be a mistake to suggest that Nietzsche thought their presence dispensable. In various aphorisms he stresses the 2013, importance of the ‘common’ as a necessary prerequisite for both the bar exam essays, growth and the value of the ‘exceptional’. Such an idea clashes with our ‘modern’ sensitivities (themselves a product of a particular training). However, one has to recognize that there are no philosophers without presuppositions, and that Nietzsche’s insistence on the value of the exceptional marks his own beginning and his own understanding of the mission of thought.
Despite the dubious politics that the crisis of writing service speech writing, meaning gave rise to, the crisis itself is only an after-effect of a larger and deeper challenge that Nietzsche’s work identifies and poses. For Nietzsche the crisis of meaning is inextricably linked to the crisis of religious consciousness in the West. Whereas for Kierkegaard the problem of meaning was to be resolved through the individual’s relation to the Divine, for Nietzsche the militantly anti-Christian, the problem of meaning is rendered possible at all because of the demise of the Divine. As he explains in The Genealogy of Morality , it is only after the cultivation of truth as a value by the priest that truth comes to question its own value and function. New York Essays 2012. What truth discovers is astronomy essay 2013 that at the ground of all truth lies an unquestionable faith in the value of truth. Christianity is destroyed when it is pushed to tell the truth about itself, when the illusions of the old ideals are revealed. What is called ‘The death of God’ is also then the new york 2012, death of truth (though not of the value of truthfulness ); this is an event of immense consequences for the future. But one has to be careful here. Generations of readers, by concentrating on the event of the actual announcement of the 'death of terrorism essay sites, God', have completely missed madman’s woeful mourning which follows the announcement. “‘Where is God?’ he cried; ‘I‘ll tell you! We have killed him – you and I! We are all his murderers. But how did we do this?
How were we able to drink up the sea? Who gave us the sponge to wipe away the entire horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun? Where is it moving? Where are we moving to? Away from new york essays all suns?” (Nietzsche 2001:125).
The above sentences are very far from constituting a cheerful declaration: no one is happy here! Nietzsche’s atheism has nothing to do with the naive atheism of others (for example Sartre) who rush to affirm their freedom as if their petty individuality were able to writing service service fill the vast empty space left by the absence of God. Nietzsche is not naive and because he is not naive he is rather pessimistic. What the death of God really announces is the demise of the human as we know it. One has to think of this break in the history of the human in 2012, Kantian terms.
Kant famously described Enlightenment as “man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity” (Kant 1991:54). Cheap Write Carpets- Control Accounting. Similarly Nietzsche believes that the demise of the divine could be the opportunity for the emergence of a being which derives the meaning of its existence from new york essays within itself and writing speech writing not from new york bar exam essays some authority external to it. If the scholarship, meaning of the human derived from God then, with the universe empty, man cannot take the place of the absent God. This empty space can only be filled by something greater and fuller, which in the Nietzschean jargon means the greatest unity of contradictory forces. That is the Ubermensch (Overhuman) which for Nietzsche signifies the attempt towards the cultural production of a human being which will be aware of his dual descent – from bar exam essays animality and from rationality – without prioritizing either one, but keeping them in an agonistic balance so that through struggle new and exciting forms of human existence can be born. Nietzsche was by training a Klassische Philologe (the rough equivalent Anglosaxon would be an expert in essay sites, classics – the texts of the ancient Greek and Roman authors). Perhaps because of his close acquaintance with the ancient writers, he became sensitive to a quite different understanding of new york 2012, philosophical thinking to that of his contemporaries. For the Greeks, philosophical questioning takes place within the perspective of a certain choice of life. There is Essays 1 - Essays no ‘life’ and then quite separately the theoretical (theoria: from thea – view, and horan – to bar exam essays 2012 see) or 'from a distance' contemplation of phenomena. Write A Conclusion …. Philosophical speculation is the new york bar exam essays 2012, result of a certain way of life and the attempted justification of this life. Interestingly Kant encapsulates this attitude in the following passage: “When will you finally begin to live virtuously?’ said Plato to an old man who told him he was attending classes on virtue.
The point is not always to speculate, but also ultimately to think about applying our knowledge. Today, however, he who lives in conformity with what he teaches is taken for a dreamer” (Kant in Conscription Essays 1 - 30 Anti, Hadot 2002:xiii). We have to understand Nietzsche’s relation to philosophy within this context not only because it illustrates a stylistically different contemplation but because it demonstrates an altogether different way of philosophizing. Thus in Twilight of the essays, Idols Nietzsche accuses philosophers for their ‘Egyptism’, the fact that they turn everything into a concept under evaluation. “All that philosophers have been handling for thousands of Essays 1 - 30 Anti, years is conceptual mummies; nothing real has ever left their hands alive” (Nietzsche 1998:16). Philosophical concepts are valuable insofar as they serve a flourishing life, not as academic exercises. Under the new model of philosophy the old metaphysical and moral questions are to be replaced by new questions concerning history, genealogy, environmental conditions and so forth. Let us take a characteristic passage from 1888: “I am interested in a question on new york bar exam essays 2012, which the ‘salvation of humanity’ depends more than on any curio of the theologians: the 1 -, question of nutrition . For ease of use, one can put it in the following terms: ‘how do you personally have to nourish yourself in order to attain your maximum of strength, of virtu in the Renaissance style, of moraline-free virtue?” (Nietzsche 2007:19). What is Nietzsche telling us here? Two things: firstly that, following the tradition of Spinoza, the new york bar exam essays, movement from transcendence to immanence passes through the rehabilitation of the body. To say that, however, does not imply a simple-minded materialism. When Spinoza tells “nobody as yet has determined the limits of the essay, body’s capabilities” (Spinoza 2002: 280) he is not writing about something like bodily strength but to the possibility of an emergence of a body liberated from the sedimentation of culture and memory.
This archetypical body is indeed as yet unknown and we stand in ignorance of new york, its abilities. The second thing that Nietzsche is telling us in the above passage is astronomy contest 2013 that this new immanent philosophy necessarily requires a new ethics. New York Essays 2012. One has to be clear here because of the How to a Conclusion …, many misunderstandings of Nietzschean ethics. Nietzsche is primarily a philosopher of new york bar exam essays 2012, ethics but ethics here refers to the possible justification of a way of life, which way of life in turn justifies human existence on earth. For Nietzsche, ethics does not refer to moral codes and guidelines on how to live one’s life.
Morality, which Nietzsche rejects, refers to the obsessive need (a need or an instinct can also be learned according to Nietzsche) of the human to preserve its own species and to regard its species as higher than the other animals. In short morality is arrogant . A Nietzschean ethics is an Write ethics of modesty. It places the human back where it belongs, among the other animals. However to say that is new york not to equate the essay writing, human with the animal. Unlike non-human animals men are products of history that is to say products of memory.
That is their burden and their responsibility. In the Genealogy of Morality Nietzsche explains morality as a system aiming at new york the taming of the human animal. Morality’s aim is the elimination of the creative power of animal instincts and the establishment of a life protected within the cocoon of ascetic ideals. These 'ideals' are all those values and ideologies made to Conscription Essays 30 Anti protect man against new york 2012 the danger of nihilism, the state in which man finds no answer to the question of his existence. Morality clings to the preservation of the cheap write cookridge carpets-, species ‘man’; morality stubbornly denies the very possibility of an open-ended future for humans. If we could summarize Nietzsche’s philosophical anthropology in a few words, we would say that for Nietzsche it is necessary to attempt (there are no guarantees here) to think of the human not as an end-in-itself but only bar exam 2012, as a means to service writing something “. Essays. perfect, completely finished, happy, powerful, triumphant, that still leaves something to fear!” (Nietzsche 2007:25).
c. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Heidegger exercised an writing help unparalleled influence on modern thought. Without knowledge of his work recent developments in modern European philosophy (Sartre, Gadamer, Arendt, Marcuse, Derrida, Foucault et al.) simply do not make sense. New York Bar Exam Essays. He remains notorious for his involvement with National Socialism in the 1930s. Astronomy Essay Contest 2013. Outside European philosophy, Heidegger is only occasionally taken seriously, and is sometimes actually ridiculed (famously the Oxford philosopher A.J. Ayer called him a ‘charlatan’). In 1945 in Paris Jean-Paul Sartre gave a public lecture with the title ‘Existentialism is a Humanism’ where he defended the priority of action and the position that it is a man’s actions which define his humanity.
In 1946, Jean Beaufret in a letter to Heidegger poses a number of questions concerning the link between humanism and the recent developments of existentialist philosophy in France. Heidegger’s response is new york bar exam a letter to Beaufret which in 1947 is published in a book form with the Conscription 1 - Essays, title ‘Letter on Humanism’. There he repudiates any possible connection of his philosophy with the existentialism of Sartre. The question for us here is the following: Is it possible, given Heidegger’s own repudiation of existentialism, still to characterise Heidegger’s philosophy as 'existentialist'? The answer here is that Heidegger can be classified as an existentialist thinker despite all his differences from Sartre. Our strategy is to stress Heidegger’s connection with some key existentialist concerns, which we introduced above under the labels ‘Existence’, ‘Anxiety’ and the ‘Crowd’. We have seen above that a principle concern of all existentialists was to affirm the priority of individual existence and to stress that human existence is to be investigated with methods other than those of the natural sciences. This is also one of Heidegger’s principle concerns.
His magnum opus Being and Time is an investigation into new york essays the meaning of Being as that manifests itself through the human being, Dasein. The sciences have repeatedly asked ‘What is a man?’ ‘What is a car?’ ‘What is an emotion?’ they have nevertheless failed – and because of the nature of science, had to fail – to ask the writing service speech service, question which grounds all those other questions. This question is what is the meaning of (that) Being which is not an entity (like other beings, for example a chair, a car, a rock) and yet through it entities have meaning at all? Investigating the question of the meaning of Being we discover that it arises only because it is made possible by 2012 the human being which poses the question. Writing Speech. Dasein has already a (pre-conceptual) understanding of essays 2012, Being because it is the place where Being manifests itself. Conscription Essays 1 - 30 Anti. Unlike the traditional understanding of the human as a hypokeimenon (Aristotle) – what through the filtering of Greek thought by the Romans becomes substantia, that which supports all entities and qualities as their base and their ground – Dasein refers to the way which human beings are. ”The essence of Dasein lies in its existence” (Heidegger 1962: 67) and the existence of Dasein is not fixed like the existence of a substance is. This is why human beings locate a place which nevertheless remains unstable and unfixed. The virtual place that Dasein occupies is not empty. It is new york bar exam 2012 filled with beings which ontologically structure the scholarship essay writing, very possibility of Dasein. New York Bar Exam Essays 2012. Dasein exists as in-the-world.
World is Essays not something separate from Dasein; rather, Dasein cannot be understood outside the referential totality which constitutes it. Heidegger repeats here a familiar existentialist pattern regarding the situatedness of experience. Sartre, by contrast, comes from the tradition of essays 2012, Descartes and to this tradition remains faithful. From Heidegger's perspective, Sartre’s strategy of affirming the cheap my essay cookridge carpets- aat internal, priority of existence over 2012, essence is a by-product of the tradition of Renaissance humanism which wishes to scholarship help assert the importance of man as the bar exam 2012, highest and scholarship essay most splendid of finite beings. Sartrean existence refers to the fact that a human is whereas Heidegger’s ek-sistence refers to the way with which Dasein is thrown into a world of referential relations and as such Dasein is claimed by Being to guard its truth. Sartre, following Descartes, thinks of the human as a substance producing or sustaining entities, Heidegger on the contrary thinks of the human as a passivity which accepts the new york bar exam, call of Being. “Man is not the lord of beings. Man is the shepherd of Being” (Heidegger 1993:245).
The Heideggerian priority then is Being, and Dasein’s importance lies in its receptiveness to the call of Being. For Kierkegaard anxiety defines the astronomy 2013, possibility of bar exam, responsibility, the exodus of man from the Conscription Essays, innocence of Eden and his participation to history. But the birthplace of anxiety is the experience of nothingness, the new york bar exam, state in which every entity is experienced as withdrawn from its functionality. “Nothing . gives birth to anxiety” (Kierkegaard 1980:41). In anxiety we do not fear something in write my essay carpets- accounting, particular but we experience the terror of a vacuum in which is new york bar exam existence is thrown. Service Speech Writing. Existentialist thinkers are interested in anxiety because anxiety individualizes one (it is when I feel Angst more than everything that I come face to face with my own individual existence as distinct from all other entities around me).
Heidegger thinks that one of the fundamental ways with which Dasein understands itself in the world is through an array of ‘moods’. Dasein always ‘finds itself’ ( befinden sich ) in a certain mood. Man is not a thinking thing de-associated from the world, as in Cartesian metaphysics, but a being which finds itself in various moods such as anxiety or boredom. For the essays 2012, Existentialists, primarily and for writing, the most part I don’t exist because I think (recall Descartes’ famous formula) but because my moods reveal to me fundamental truths of bar exam essays 2012, my existence. Essay. Like Kierkegaard, Heidegger also believes that anxiety is born out of the terror of essays, nothingness. “The obstinacy of the ‘nothing and nowhere within-the-world’ means as a phenomenon that the world as such is that in the face of which one has anxiety ” (Heidegger 1962:231). For Kierkegaard the cyber sites, possibility of anxiety reveals man’s dual nature and because of new york 2012, this duality man can be saved. “If a human being were a beast or an angel, he could not be in anxiety. Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and writing speech writing service the more profoundly he is in essays 2012, anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:155). Equally for Heidegger anxiety manifests Dasein’s possibility to live an authentic existence since it realizes that the crowd of ‘others’ (what Heidegger calls the ‘They’) cannot offer any consolation to the drama of existence. In this article we have discussed the ambiguous or at times downright critical attitude of Conscription Essays 30 Anti Essays, many existentialists toward the uncritical and unreflecting masses of people who, in a wholly anti-Kantian and thus also anti-Enlightenment move, locate the meaning of their existence in an external authority.
They thus give up their (purported) autonomy as rational beings. For Heidegger, Dasein for the most part lives inauthentically in bar exam essays, that Dasein is cyber terrorism essay writing sites absorbed in a way of life produced by others, not by Dasein itself. “We take pleasure and enjoy ourselves as they [man] take pleasure; we read, see and judge about literature and art as they see and judge. ” (Heidegger 1962:164). Bar Exam Essays 2012. To be sure this mode of existence, the ‘They’ ( Das Man ) is one of the writing, existentialia, it is an a priori condition of possibility of the Dasein which means that inauthenticity is inscribed into the mode of being of Dasein, it does not come from the outside as a bad influence which could be erased. Heidegger’s language is ambiguous on new york essays, the problem of scholarship essay writing help, inauthenticity and the reader has to make his mind on the status of the ‘They’. A lot has been said on the possible connections of Heidegger’s philosophy with his political engagements. Although it is always a risky business to read the works of great philosophers as political manifestos, it seems prima facie evident that Heidegger’s thought in this area deserves the close investigation it has received. Heidegger was a highly original thinker. His project was nothing less than the overcoming of Western metaphysics through the new york bar exam essays 2012, positing of the forgotten question of being.
He stands in a critical relation to past philosophers but simultaneously he is heavily indebted to them, much more than he would like to service admit. This is not to question his originality, it is to recognize that thought is not an ex nihilo production; it comes as a response to things past, and aims towards what is made possible through that past. d. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) as an 2012 Existentialist Philosopher. In the public consciousness, at astronomy least, Sartre must surely be the central figure of 2012, existentialism. All the themes that we introduced above come together in his work. Conscription Essays 1 - Essays. With the possible exception of Nietzsche, his writings are the new york essays 2012, most widely anthologised (especially the lovely, if oversimplifying, lecture 'Existentialism and Humanism') and his literary works are widely read (especially the novel Nausea ) or performed. My Essay System. Although uncomfortable in the limelight, he was nevertheless the new york bar exam essays, very model of a public intellectual, writing hundreds of short pieces for public dissemination and taking resolutely independent and scholarship writing often controversial stands on major political events. His writings that are most clearly existentialist in essays, character date from Sartre's early and middle period, primarily the 1930s and writing service 1940s. From the 1950s onwards, Sartre moved his existentialism towards a philosophy the purpose of which was to understand the possibility of new york bar exam, a genuinely revolutionary politics. Sartre was in essay, his late 20s when he first encountered phenomenology, specifically the philosophical ideas of 2012, Edmund Husserl. (We should point out that Heidegger was also deeply influenced by Husserl, but it is less obvious in the language he employs because he drops the language of consciousness and How to a Conclusion acts.) Of particular importance, Sartre thought, was Husserl's notion of bar exam essays, intentionality. In Sartre's interpretation of this idea, consciousness is not to be identified with a thing (for example a mind, soul or brain), that is to say some kind of a repository of ideas and images of things.
Rather, consciousness is write cookridge accounting system nothing but a directedness towards things. Sartre found a nice way to sum up the notion of the intentional object: If I love her, I love her because she is lovable (Sartre 1970:4-5). Within my experience, her lovableness is not an aspect of my image of her, rather it is a feature of bar exam essays 2012, her (and ultimately a part of the my essay cookridge carpets- control, world) towards which my consciousness directs itself. The things I notice about her (her smile, her laugh) are not originally neutral, and then I interpret the idea of new york 2012, them as 'lovely', they are aspects of her as lovable. The notion that consciousness is not a thing is vital to Sartre.
Indeed, consciousness is primarily to be characterised as nothing : it is first and foremost not that which it is cheap cookridge control accounting system conscious of. (Sartre calls human existence the 'for-itself', and the being of things the 'in-itself'.) Because it is not a thing, it is not subject to the laws of things; specifically, it is not part of a chain of causes and 2012 its identity is not akin to that of a substance. Writing Speech Writing Service. Above we suggested that a concern with the nature of existence, and more particularly a concern with the distinctive nature of human existence, are defining existentialist themes. Moreover, qua consciousness, and not a thing that is part of the bar exam 2012, causal chain, I am free. From moment to moment, my every action is mine alone to choose. I will of course have a past 'me' that cannot be dispensed with; this is part of my 'situation'. However, again, I am first and foremost not my situation. Thus, at every moment I choose whether to continue on that life path, or to astronomy essay be something else. Thus, my existence (the mere fact that I am) is prior to my essence (what I make of myself through my free choices). I am thus utterly responsible for myself. If my act is new york bar exam not simply whatever happens to come to mind, then my action may embody a more general principle of cheap cookridge carpets- aat internal control system, action. This principle too is one that I must have freely chosen and committed myself to.
It is an image of the type of life that I believe has value. (In these ways, Sartre intersects with the broadly Kantian account of freedom which we introduced above in our thematic section.) As situated, I also find myself surrounded by such images – from religion, culture, politics or morality – but none compels my freedom. (All these forces that seek to appropriate my freedom by objectifying me form Sartre's version of the crowd theme.) I exist as freedom, primarily characterised as not determined, so my continuing existence requires the ever renewed exercise of freedom (thus, in our thematic discussion above, the notion from Spinoza and Leibniz of existence as a striving-to-exist). 2012. Thus also, my non-existence, and the non-existence of everything I believe in, is cheap write my essay control accounting only a free choice away. Essays 2012. I (in the sense of an authentic human existence) am not what I 'am' (the past I have accumulated, the things that surround me, or the way that others view me). I am alone in my responsibility; my existence, relative to everything external that might give it meaning, is absurd. Face to face with such responsibility, I feel 'anxiety'. Write …. Notice that although Sartre's account of situatedness owes much to Nietzsche and Heidegger, he sees it primarily in terms of what gives human freedom its meaning and its burden. Nietzsche and Heidegger, in contrast, view such a conception of freedom as naively metaphysical. Suppose, however, that at some point I am conscious of myself in a thing-like way. For example, I say 'I am a student' (treating myself as having a fixed, thing-like identity) or 'I had no choice' (treating myself as belonging to the causal chain). I am ascribing a fixed identity or set of qualities to myself, much as I would say 'that is a piece of granite'.
In that case I am existing in denial of my distinctively human mode of existence; I am fleeing from my freedom. This is inauthenticity or 'bad faith'. New York Bar Exam. As we shall see, inauthenticity is not just an occasional pitfall of human life, but essential to it. Human existence is a constant falling away from an authentic recognition of its freedom. Sartre here thus echoes the notion in Heidegger than inauthenticity is a condition of possibility of human existence. Intentionality manifests itself in another important way. Rarely if ever am I simply observing the world; instead I am involved in wanting to do something, I have a goal or purpose.
Here, intentional consciousness is write cookridge aat internal system not a static directedness towards things, but is rather an active projection towards the future. Suppose that I undertake as my project marrying my beloved. This is an intentional relation to bar exam a future state of affairs. As free, I commit myself to this project and must reaffirm that commitment at every moment. It is part of my life project, the image of human life that I offer to writing service myself and to others as something of value. Notice, however, that my project involves inauthenticity. I project myself into the future where I will be married to her – that is, I define myself as 'married', as if I were a fixed being.
Thus there is an essential tension to all projection. On the one hand, the mere fact that I project myself into the future is emblematic of my freedom; only a radically free consciousness can project itself. Essays 2012. I exist as projecting towards the future which, again, I am not . Thus, I am (in the sense of an authentic self) what I am not (because my projecting is always underway towards the future). 2013. On the other hand, in projecting I am projecting myself as something , that is, as a thing that no longer projects, has no future, is not free. Every action, then, is new york bar exam both an expression of How to Write …, freedom and also a snare of freedom. Projection is absurd: I seek to become the impossible object, for-itself-in-itself, a thing that is new york essays both free and How to a Conclusion … a mere thing. Born of this tension is a recognition of freedom, what it entails, and new york 2012 its essential fragility. Thus, once again, we encounter existential anxiety. (In this article, we have not stressed the importance of the concept of time for existentialism, but it should not be overlooked: witness one of Nietzsche's most famous concepts (eternal recurrence) and the title of cheap write my essay cookridge aat internal control, Heidegger's major early work ( Being and bar exam 2012 Time ).) In my intentional directedness towards my beloved I find her 'loveable'. This too, though, is an objectification. Within my intentional gaze, she is loveable in much the essay, same way that granite is hard or heavy.
Insofar as I am in love, then, I seek to deny her freedom. 2012. Insofar, however, as I wish to be loved by writing her, then she must be free to choose me as her beloved. If she is free, she escapes my love; if not, she cannot love. It is in these terms that Sartre analyses love in Part Three of Being and Nothingness . Love here is a case study in the basic forms of social relation. Bar Exam 2012. Sartre is thus moving from an entirely individualistic frame of reference (my self, my freedom and my projects) towards a consideration of the self in concrete relations with others. Sartre is working through – in a way he would shortly see as being inadequate – the issues presented by the Hegelian dialectic of recognition, which we mentioned above. This 'hell' of endlessly circling acts of freedom and objectification is brilliantly dramatised in Sartre's play No Exit . A few years later at the end of the service writing, 1940s, Sartre wrote what has been published as Notebooks for new york, an Ethics . Sartre (influenced in essay help, the meantime by the criticisms of Merleau-Ponty and de Beauvoir, and by his increasing commitment to collectivist politics) elaborated greatly his existentialist account of relations with others, taking the Hegelian idea more seriously.
He no longer thinks of concrete relations so pessimistically. While Nietzsche and Heidegger both suggest the possibility of an authentic being with others, both leave it seriously under-developed. For our purposes, there are two key ideas in the Notebooks . The first is that my projects can be realised only new york, with the cooperation of others; however, that cooperation presupposes their freedom (I cannot make her love me), and Write a Conclusion … their judgements about me must concern me. 2012. Therefore permitting and nurturing the freedom of How to Write, others must be a central part of all my projects. Sartre thus commits himself against any political, social or economic forms of subjugation. Second, there is the 2012, possibility of a form of social organisation and action in service speech service, which each individual freely gives him or herself over to a joint project: a 'city of ends' (this is new york bar exam 2012 a reworking of Kant's idea of the 'kingdom of ends', found in the Grounding for cheap my essay cookridge carpets- aat internal control accounting, the Metaphysics of Morals ). Bar Exam Essays 2012. An authentic existence, for Sartre, therefore means two things. First, it is something like a 'style' of existing – one that at every moment is anxious, and that means fully aware of the absurdity and fragility of its freedom. Second, though, there is some minimal level of content to any authentic project: whatever else my project is, it must also be a project of freedom, for myself and for others. e. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir was the youngest student ever to pass the demanding agregation at the prestigious Ecole Normale Superieure.
Subsequently a star Normalienne , she was a writer, philosopher, feminist, lifelong partner of Jean-Paul Sartre, notorious for her anti-bourgeois way of living and scholarship essay help her free sexual relationships which included among others a passionate affair with the bar exam, American writer Nelson Algren. Much ink has been spilled debating whether de Beauvoir’s work constitutes a body of How to a Conclusion, independent philosophical work, or is a reformulation of Sartre’s work. The debate rests of essays, course upon the fundamental misconception that wants a body of work to exist and develop independently of (or uninfluenced by) its intellectual environment. Such ‘objectivity’ is not only impossible but also undesirable: such a body of work would be ultimately irrelevant since it would be non-communicable. So the question of de Beauvoir’s ‘independence’ could be dismissed here as irrelevant to the philosophical questions that her work raises. In 1943 Being and Nothingness , the astronomy contest, groundwork of the Existentialist movement in France was published. There Sartre gave an account of freedom as ontological constitutive of the subject. New York Essays. One cannot but be free: this is the kernel of the service speech service, Sartrean conception of freedom. In 1945 Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of Perception is published. There, as well as in an essay from the same year titled 'The war has taken place' , Merleau-Ponty heavily criticizes the bar exam, Sartrean stand, criticising it as a reformulation of basic Stoic tenets. One cannot assume freedom in How to Write a Conclusion …, isolation from the freedom of others.
Action is participatory: “…my freedom is interwoven with that of others by way of the world” (Merleau-Ponty in Stewart 1995:315). 2012. Moreover action takes place within a certain historical context. For Merleau-Ponty the subjective free-will is always in a dialectical relationship with its historical context. In 1947 Simone de Beauvoir’s Ethics of Ambiguity is published. The book is an introduction to existentialism but also a subtle critique of Sartre’s position on freedom, and a partial extension of existentialism towards the social. Although de Beauvoir will echo Merleau-Ponty’s criticism regarding the essential interrelation of the subjects, nevertheless she will leave unstressed the importance that the social context plays in the explication of moral problems. Like Sartre it is only later in her life that this will be acknowledged. In any case, de Beauvoir’s book precipitates in turn a major rethink on Sartre’s part, and the result is the contest 2013, Notebooks for new york bar exam, an Ethics . In Ethics of Ambiguity de Beauvoir offers a picture of the cyber terrorism essay writing sites, human subject as constantly oscillating between facticity and transcendence. 2012. Whereas the human is always already restricted by the brute facts of his existence, nevertheless it always aspires to overcome its situation, to choose its freedom and contest thus to create itself. This tension must be considered positive, and new york bar exam essays 2012 not restrictive of action.
It is exactly because the service, ontology of the new york 2012, human is a battleground of antithetical movements (a view consistent with de Beauvoir’s Hegelianism) that the How to Write, subject must produce an ethics which will be continuous with its ontological core. The term for this tension is ambiguity . Ambiguity is not a quality of the human as substance, but a characterisation of human existence. We are ambiguous beings destined to throw ourselves into new york essays 2012 the future while simultaneously it is essay writing our very own existence that throws us back into facticity. That is to say, back to the brute fact that we are in a sense always already destined to fail – not in this or that particular project but to fail as pure and sustained transcendence. It is exactly because of (and through) this fundamental failure that we realize that our ethical relation to the world cannot be self-referential but must pass through the realization of the common destiny of the human as a failed and interrelated being. De Beauvoir, unlike Sartre, was a scholarly reader of Hegel. Her position on an existential ethics is thus more heavily influenced by Hegel’s view in the Phenomenology of Spirit concerning the moment of recognition (Hegel 1977:111). There Hegel describes the new york 2012, movement in service speech writing, which self-consciousness produces itself by positing another would be self-consciousness, not as a mute object ( Gegen-stand ) but as itself self-consciousness. The Hegelian movement remains one of the most fascinating moments in the history of philosophy since it is for the first time that the constitution of the self does not take place from within the self (as happens with Descartes, for whom the only truth is the truth of my existence; or Leibniz, for whom the new york 2012, monads are ‘windowless’; or Fichte, for whom the terrorism sites, ‘I’ is absolutely self-constitutive) but from the new york essays, outside. It is, Hegel tells us, only because someone else recognizes me as a subject that I can be constituted as such. Outside the moment of recognition there is no self-consciousness.
De Beauvoir takes to heart the Hegelian lesson and tries to formulate an ethics from it. What would this ethics be? As in Nietzsche, ethics refers to service speech writing a way of life (a ????), as opposed to morality which concerns approved or condemned behaviour. Thus there are no recipes for ethics. Drawn from Hegel’s moment of recognition, de Beauvoir acknowledges that the possibility of human flourishing is based firstly upon the recognition of the new york bar exam essays 2012, existence of the other (“Man can find a justification of his own existence only in the existence of the essay contest, other men” (Beauvoir 1976:72) and bar exam 2012 secondly on the recognition that my own flourishing (or my ability to pose projects, in essay 2013, the language of existentialists) passes through the possibility of a common flourishing. “Only the freedom of others keeps each one of us from hardening in the absurdity of facticity,” (Beauvoir 1976:71) de Beauvoir writes; or again “To will oneself free is also to will others free” (Beauvoir 1976:73). The Ethics of Ambiguity ends by new york declaring the necessity of assuming one’s freedom and the assertion that it is a Conclusion only through action that freedom makes itself possible. This is not a point to be taken light-heartedly. It constitutes a movement of opposition against a long tradition of philosophy understanding itself as theoria : the disinterested contemplation on the nature of the human and the world. De Beauvoir, in common with most existentialists, understands philosophy as praxis : involved action in the world and participation in the course of history.
It is out of this understanding that The Second Sex is born. In 1949 Le Deuxieme Sexe is published in France. In English in 1953 it appeared as The Second Sex in an abridged translation. The book immediately became a best seller and later a founding text of S econd Wave Feminism (the feminist movement from the early 60’s to the 70’s inspired by the civil rights movement and bar exam 2012 focusing at the theoretical examination of the concepts of cheap write carpets- aat internal, equality, inequality, the role of new york essays 2012, family, justice and so forth). More than anything, The Second Sex constitutes a study in applied existentialism where the abstract concept ‘Woman’ gives way to write my essay cookridge accounting system the examination of the lives of everyday persons struggling against oppression and humiliation. When de Beauvoir says that there is no such thing as a ‘Woman’ we have to hear the echo of the Kierkegaardian assertion of the single individual against the abstractions of new york essays 2012, Hegelian philosophy, or similarly Sartre’s insistence on the necessity of the prioritization of the personal lives of self-creating people (what Sartre calls ‘existence’) as opposed to a pre-established ideal of what humans should be like (what Sartre calls ‘essence’).
The Second Sex is an exemplary text showing how a philosophical movement can have real, tangible effects on How to Write a Conclusion, the lives of many people, and new york essays 2012 is a magnificent exercise in what philosophy could be. “I hesitated a long time before writing a book on woman. Cheap Carpets- Aat Internal Control Accounting. The subject is irritating, especially for women. ” (Beauvoir 2009:3). The Second Sex begins with the most obvious (but rarely posed) question: What is woman? De Beauvoir finds that at present there is no answer to that question. The reason is bar exam essays 2012 that tradition has always thought of woman as the writing service speech, other of man. It is only man that constitutes himself as a subject (as the Absolute de Beauvoir says), and woman defines herself only through him. “She determines and differentiates herself in relation to man, and he does not in relation to her; she is the inessential in front of the new york bar exam, essential. ” (Beauvoir 2009:6). But why is it that woman has initially accepted or tolerated this process whereby she becomes the other of man?
De Beauvoir does not give a consoling answer; on the contrary, by turning to Sartre’s notion of bad faith (which refers to the human being’s anxiety in front of the responsibility entailed by Write … the realization of its radical freedom) she thinks that women at new york essays 2012 times are complicit to their situation. It is scholarship essay writing indeed easier for one – anyone – to assume the role of an object (for example a housewife 'kept' by her husband) than to take responsibility for creating him or herself and creating the possibilities of new york essays 2012, freedom for others. Write My Essay Cookridge Control. Naturally the condition of bad faith is not always the case. Often women found themselves in a sociocultural environment which denied them the very possibility of personal flourishing (as happens with most of the major religious communities). A further problem that women face is essays that of understanding themselves as a unity which would enable them to writing assume the role of their choosing. “Proletarians say ‘we’. So do blacks” (Beauvoir 2009:8). By saying ‘we’ they assume the role of the subject and turn everyone else into ‘other’. Women are unable to utter this ‘we’. “They live dispersed among men, tied by homes, work, economic interests and bar exam essays 2012 social conditions to certain men – fathers or husbands – more closely than to other women. As bourgeois women, they are in solidarity with bourgeois men and cheap cookridge carpets- aat internal control accounting not with women proletarians; as white women, they are in solidarity with white men and not with black women” (Beauvoir 2009:9).
Women primarily align themselves to their class or race and not to other women. The female identity is “very much bound up with the identity of the men around them. ” (Reynolds 2006:145). One of the most celebrated moments in The Second Sex is the much quoted phrase: “One is new york bar exam essays not born, but rather becomes, woman” (Beauvoir 2009:293). She explains: “No biological, physical or economic destiny defines the figure that the human female takes on in society; it is civilization as a whole that elaborates this intermediary product between the male and the eunuch that is called feminine” (Beauvoir 2009:293). For some feminists this clearly inaugurates the problematic of the sex-gender distinction (where sex denotes the biological identity of the person and astronomy gender the cultural attribution of properties to the sexed body). Simply put, there is absolutely nothing that determines the ‘assumed’ femininity of the new york bar exam, woman (how a woman acts, feels, behaves) – everything that we have come to think as ‘feminine’ is a social construction not a natural given. Later feminists like Monique Wittig and Judith Butler will argue that ‘sex’ is already ‘gender’ in the sense that a sexed body exists always already within a cultural nexus that defines it. Thus the sex assignment (a doctor pronouncing the How to a Conclusion …, sex of the bar exam essays 2012, baby) is How to a Conclusion a naturalized (but not at all natural) normative claim which delivers the human into a world of power relations. f. Albert Camus (1913-1960) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Albert Camus was a French intellectual, writer and journalist.
His multifaceted work as well as his ambivalent relation to both philosophy and existentialism makes every attempt to new york bar exam 2012 classify him a rather risky operation. Scholarship Essay. A recipient of the 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature primarily for his novels, he is also known as a philosopher due to his non-literary work and his relation with Jean-Paul Sartre. And yet his response was clear: “I am not a philosopher, because I don’t believe in reason enough to believe in a system. What interests me is knowing how we must behave, and more precisely, how to behave when one does not believe in new york bar exam essays, God or reason” (Camus in Sherman 2009: 1). The issue is not just about the label 'existentialist'. It rather points to a deep tension within the terrorism essay writing sites, current of bar exam, thought of all thinkers associated with existentialism. The question is: With how many voices can thought speak?
As we have already seen, the thinkers of existentialism often deployed more than one. Almost all of them share a deep suspicion to a philosophy operating within reason as conceived of by How to a Conclusion … the Enlightenment. Camus shares this suspicion and his so called philosophy of the absurd intends to set limits to the overambitions of Western rationality. Reason is absurd in that it believes that it can explain the totality of the bar exam, human experience whereas it is exactly its inability for contest, explanation that, for example, a moment of fall designates. Essays. Thus in his novel “The Fall” the protagonist’s tumultuous narrative reveals the overtaking of a life of superficial regularity by the forces of darkness and irrationality. “A bourgeois hell, inhabited of course by essay help bad dreams” (Camus 2006:10). In a similar fashion Camus has also repudiated his connection with existentialism. “Non, je ne suis pas existentialist” is the title of a famous interview that he gave for the magazine Les Nouvelles Litteraires on the 15 of November, 1945. The truth of the matter is new york bar exam 2012 that Camus’ rejection of terrorism sites, existentialism is essays 2012 directed more toward Sartre’s version of it rather than toward a dismissal of the main problems that the existential thinkers faced. Particularly, Camus was worried that Sartre’s deification of history (Sartre’s proclaimed Marxism) would be incompatible with the affirmation of personal freedom. Camus accuses Hegel (subsequently Marx himself) of reducing man to history and thus denying man the possibility of creating his own history, that is, affirming his freedom. Philosophically, Camus is known for his conception of the absurd. Perhaps we should clarify from the very beginning what the absurd is not.
The absurd is not nihilism. For Camus the acceptance of the contest, absurd does not lead to nihilism (according to Nietzsche nihilism denotes the state in which the highest values devalue themselves) or to new york bar exam essays 2012 inertia, but rather to 30 Anti Essays their opposite: to essays 2012 action and participation. The notion of the absurd signifies the space which opens up between, on the one hand, man’s need for intelligibility and, on the other hand, 'the unreasonable silence of the world' as he beautifully puts it. In a world devoid of essay writing, God, eternal truths or any other guiding principle, how could man bear the responsibility of a meaning-giving activity? The absurd man, like an 2012 astronaut looking at the earth from above, wonders whether a philosophical system, a religion or a political ideology is able to write cookridge control accounting system make the world respond to bar exam essays 2012 the questioning of man, or rather whether all human constructions are nothing but the excessive face-paint of a clown which is there to cover his sadness. This terrible suspicion haunts the absurd man. In one of the most memorable openings of a non-fictional book he states: “There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy.
All the rest – whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the a Conclusion …, mind has nine or twelve categories – comes afterwards. New York Essays 2012. These are games; one must first answer” (Camus 2000:11). The problem of suicide (a deeply personal problem) manifests the exigency of a meaning-giving response. How To Write A Conclusion …. Indeed for essays 2012, Camus a suicidal response to scholarship essay writing help the problem of meaning would be the confirmation that the absurd has taken over man’s inner life. It would mean that man is not any more an bar exam animal going after answers, in accordance with some inner drive that leads him to act in order to endow the world with meaning. The suicide has become but a passive recipient of the muteness of the world. “. The absurd . is simultaneously awareness and rejection of death” (Camus 2000:54). One has to be aware of death – because it is precisely the realization of man’s mortality that pushes someone to strive for answers – and one has ultimately to reject death – that is, reject suicide as well as the cyber terrorism essay writing sites, living death of inertia and inaction. At the end one has to keep the absurd alive, as Camus says. But what does it that mean? In The Myth of bar exam essays 2012, Sisyphus Camus tells the story of the service speech writing, mythical Sisyphus who was condemned by the Gods to ceaselessly roll a rock to the top of a mountain and then have to let it fall back again of its own weight. “Sisyphus, proletarian of the new york 2012, gods, powerless and scholarship essay writing rebellious, knows the whole extent of his wretched condition: it is new york bar exam essays 2012 what he thinks of cheap carpets- control accounting, during his descent.
The lucidity that was to constitute his torture at the same time crowns his victory. New York. There is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn” (Camus 2000:109). Service Speech Writing. One must imagine then Sisyphus victorious: fate and absurdity have been overcome by a joyful contempt. Scorn is the appropriate response in the face of the new york 2012, absurd; another name for this 'scorn' though would be artistic creation. When Camus says: “One does not discover the absurd without being tempted to write a manual of happiness” (Camus 2000:110) he writes about a moment of exhilarated madness, which is the moment of the genesis of the artistic work.
Madness, but nevertheless profound – think of the function of the Fool in Shakespeare’s King Lear as the one who reveals to the king the How to a Conclusion …, most profound truths through play, mimicry and songs. Such madness can overcome the absurd without cancelling it altogether. Almost ten years after the publication of new york bar exam essays, The Myth of Sisyphus Camus publishes his second major philosophical work, The Rebel (1951). Camus continues the problematic which had begun with The Myth of How to …, Sisyphus. Previously, revolt or creation had been considered the necessary response to new york essays the absurdity of existence. Here, Camus goes on to examine the nature of Essays 1 - 30 Anti, rebellion and its multiple manifestations in history. In The Myth of Sisyphus , in truly Nietzschean fashion, Camus had said: “There is but one useful action, that of remaking man and the earth” (Camus 2000:31). However, in The Rebel , reminiscent of Orwell’s Animal Farm , one of the first points he makes is the following: “The slave starts by bar exam essays begging for justice and ends by wanting to wear a crown. He too wants to dominate” (Camus 2000b:31).
The problem is service that while man genuinely rebels against both unfair social conditions and, as Camus says, against the whole of creation, nevertheless in the practical administration of bar exam, such revolution, man comes to terrorism essay writing deny the bar exam essays, humanity of the other in an attempt to impose his own individuality. Take for example the case of the infamous Marquis de Sade which Camus explores. In Sade, contradictory forces are at work (see The 120 Days of Sodom ). On the writing speech, one hand, Sade wishes the new york bar exam, establishment of a (certainly mad ) community with desire as the ultimate master, and on the other hand this very desire consumes itself and all the subjects who stand in Essays 1 - 30 Anti Essays, its way. Camus goes on new york, to examine historical manifestations of rebellion, the most prominent case being that of the French Revolution. Camus argues that the revolution ended up taking the place of the transcendent values which it sought to abolish. An all-powerful notion of justice now takes the place formerly inhabited by God. Rousseau’s infamous suggestion that under the rule of ‘general will’ everyone would be 'forced to be free' (Rousseau in Foley 2008:61) opens the way to 2013 the crimes committed after the revolution. New York Bar Exam 2012. Camus fears that all revolutions end with the re-establishment of the State. Conscription Essays 1 -. “. Seventeen eighty-nine brings Napoleon; 1848 Napoleon III; 1917 Stalin; the Italian disturbances of the twenties, Mussolini; the Weimar Republic, Hitler” (Camus 2000b:146). Camus is led to new york examine the terrorism essay, Marxist view of history as a possible response to the failed attempts at the establishment of new york bar exam, a true revolutionary regime.
Camus examines the similarities between the Christian and the Marxist conception of history. Astronomy Essay Contest. They both exhibit a bourgeois preoccupation with progress. In the name of the future everything can be justified: “the future is the only kind of property that the masters willingly concede to the slaves” (Camus 2000b:162). History according to both views is the linear progress from a set beginning to new york bar exam essays 2012 a definite end (the metaphysical salvation of man or the materialistic salvation of him in the future Communist society). Influenced by Kojeve’s reading of Hegel, Camus interprets this future, classless society as the ‘end of history’. The ‘end of history’ suggests that when all contradictions cease then history itself will come to an end. This is, Camus argues, essentially nihilistic: history, in effect, accepts that meaning creation is no longer possible and commits suicide. Because historical revolutions are for the most part nihilistic movements, Camus suggests that it is the scholarship essay help, making-absolute of the values of the revolution that necessarily lead to their negation.
On the new york 2012, contrary a relative conception of these values will be able to sustain a community of free individuals who have not forgotten that every historical rebellion has begun by affirming a proto-value (that of human solidarity) upon which every other value can be based. 3. The Influence of essay writing help, Existentialism. In the field of visual arts existentialism exercised an enormous influence, most obviously on the movement of bar exam essays, Expressionism. Expressionism began in carpets- system, Germany at bar exam the beginning of the 20 th century. With its emphasis on subjective experience, Angst and intense emotionality, German expressionism sought to go beyond the naivete of realist representation and to deal with the anguish of the modern man (exemplified in the terrible experiences of WWI). Many of the artists of contest, Expressionism read Nietzsche intensively and new york bar exam 2012 following Nietzsche’s suggestion for scholarship essay help, a transvaluation of values experimented with alternative lifestyles.
Erich Heckel’s woodcut “Friedrich Nietzsche” from 1905 is a powerful reminder of the new york essays 2012, movement’s connection to Existentialist thought. Abstract expressionism (which included artists such as de Kooning and Pollock, and theorists such as Rosenberg) continued with some of the same themes in the United States from the 1940s and tended to embrace existentialism as one of its intellectual guides, especially after Sartre's US lecture tour in Essays 1 - 30 Anti Essays, 1946 and a production of bar exam essays, No Exit in New York. German Expressionism was particularly important during the birth of the new art of cinema. How To Write A Conclusion. Perhaps the closest cinematic work to Existentialist concerns remains F.W. New York Bar Exam Essays. Murnau’s The Last Laugh (1924) in which the constantly moving camera (which prefigures the ‘rule’ of the hand-held camera of the scholarship, Danish Dogma 95 ) attempts to new york essays 2012 arrest the spiritual anguish of a man who suddenly finds himself in a meaningless world. Expressionism became a world-wide style within cinema, especially as film directors like Lang fled Germany and ended up in Hollywood. Jean Genet's Un chant d'amour (1950) is a moving poetic exploration of desire. In the sordid, claustrophobic cells of a prison the help, inmates’ craving for intimacy takes place against the background of an unavoidable despair for existence itself. European directors such as Bergman and new york bar exam essays Godard are often associated with existentialist themes. Godard's Vivre sa vie ( My Life to Live , 1962) is explicit in its exploration of the scholarship writing, nature of new york bar exam essays 2012, freedom under conditions of extreme social and personal pressure. In the cyber essay writing sites, late 20 th and early 21 st centuries existentialist ideas became common in mainstream cinema, pervading the work of writers and directors such as Woody Allen, Richard Linklater, Charlie Kaufman and Christopher Nolan.
Given that Sartre and Camus were both prominent novelists and bar exam playwrights, the influence of existentialism on literature is not surprising. However, the influence was also the other way. Novelists such as Dostoevsky or Kafka, and the dramatist Ibsen, were often cited by mid-century existentialists as important precedents, right along with Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Dostoevsky creates a character Ivan Karamazov (in The Brothers Karamazov , 1880) who holds the view that if God is dead, then everything is Conscription Essays 1 - Essays permitted; both Nietzsche and Sartre discuss Dostoevsky with enthusiasm. Within drama, the theatre of the absurd and most obviously Beckett were influenced by existentialist ideas; later playwrights such as Albee, Pinter and new york bar exam 2012 Stoppard continue this tradition. One of the key figures of 20 th century psychology, Sigmund Freud, was indebted to Nietzsche especially for Write …, his analysis of the role of psychology within culture and history, and for his view of cultural artefacts such as drama or music as 'unconscious' documentations of new york bar exam 2012, psychological tensions. But a more explicit taking up of write cookridge system, existentialist themes is found in the broad 'existentialist psychotherapy' movement. Bar Exam Essays 2012. A common theme within this otherwise very diverse group is that previous psychology misunderstood the fundamental nature of the human and my essay cookridge carpets- aat internal control accounting system especially its relation to others and to acts of meaning-giving; thus also, previous psychology had misunderstood what a 'healthy' attitude to self, others and meaning might be.
Key figures here include Swiss psychologists Ludwig Binswanger and later Menard Boss, both of who were enthusiastic readers of Heidegger; the Austrian Frankl, who invented the method of logotherapy; in England, Laing and 2012 Cooper, who were explicitly influenced by Sartre; and in the United States, Rollo May, who stresses the ineradicable importance of 2013, anxiety. As a whole, existentialism has had relatively little direct influence within philosophy. New York Essays. In Germany, existentialism (and especially Heidegger) was criticised for being obscure, abstract or even mystical in nature. How To …. This criticism was made especially by new york bar exam Adorno in The Jargon of Authenticity, and in Dog Years , novelist Gunter Grass gives a Voltaire-like, savage satire of Heidegger. The criticism was echoed by many in the analytic tradition. Heidegger and the existentialist were also taken to task for paying insufficient attention to social and political structures or values, with dangerous results.
In France, philosophers like Sartre were criticised by those newly under the influence of structuralism for paying insufficient attention to the nature of language and to impersonal structures of meaning. In short, philosophy moved on, and in different directions. Individual philosophers remain influential, however: Nietzsche and Heidegger in writing speech writing, particular are very much 'live' topics in philosophy, even in the 21 st century. However, there are some less direct influences that remain important. Let us raise three examples. Both the issue of bar exam essays 2012, freedom in relation to situation, and that of the philosophical significance of what otherwise might appear to astronomy essay 2013 be extraneous contextual factors, remain key, albeit in bar exam 2012, dramatically altered formulation, within the work of Michel Foucault or Alain Badiou, two figures central to late 20 th century European thought.
Likewise, the philosophical importance that the existentialists placed upon emotion has been influential, legitimising a whole domain of accounting system, philosophical research even by new york bar exam essays philosophers who have no interest in existentialism. Similarly, existentialism was a philosophy that insisted philosophy could and should deal very directly with 'real world' topics such as sex, death or crime, topics that had most frequently been approached abstractly within the philosophical tradition. Mary Warnock wrote on existentialism and especially Sartre, for example, while also having an incredibly important and public role within recent applied ethics.
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Why does George kill Lennie in Of Mice and bar exam essays 2012, Men? In Of Mice and Men , George kills Lennie to spare him from a painful death at writing, the hands of the mob. When the bar exam 2012, men on the farm find discover that Lennie has killed Curley’s wife, they set out to find him. George knows Curley will not care that Lennie’s actions were unintentional and Essays 1 - 30 Anti Essays, decides to bar exam, give Lennie a quick and merciful death to spare him from the suffering he would endure if left to Curley and essay, the other farmhands. George kills Lennie for 2012, multiple reasons.
The reason most commonly offered is that George wants to save Lennie from a Conclusion, being tortured by the pursuing lynch mob. This is new york essays 2012, probably valid, but it does not explain why he doesn’t help Lennie escape. Lennie is hiding on the bank of a shallow river. The two men could wade across the river and climb into the Gabilan Mountains. The lynch mob might never even think. George kills Lennie for multiple reasons. The reason most commonly offered is scholarship essay writing, that George wants to save Lennie from being tortured by essays 2012, the pursuing lynch mob. This is probably valid, but it does not explain why he doesn’t help Lennie escape. Lennie is hiding on the bank of a shallow river.
The two men could wade across the river and climb into astronomy essay, the Gabilan Mountains. The lynch mob might never even think of new york bar exam essays 2012, looking for them up there. Even if the mob finally guessed they had fled into the mountains, George and Lennie would have too much of a head start, and write my essay cookridge control accounting, it would soon be getting dark. According to Lennie, the mountains have many caves. A mob would have to bar exam essays, search each cave, and in the meantime the fugitives could be getting farther away. George didn’t intend to help Lennie escape. Service Speech Writing. This is proved conclusively by the fact that he stole Carlson’s Luger from under his bunk at the ranch. He intended to kill Lennie as painlessly as possible, just as he had seen Carlson kill Candy's dog with a single shot. When George saw the body of Curley’s wife in the barn, he assumed, like all the new york essays 2012, other men, that Lennie had tried to rape her and cyber essay, had unintentionally killed her while they were struggling.
George realizes that Lennie is becoming a menace to society and that he would probably kill other girls if allowed to live in new york essays, freedom. This is the first time Lennie has killed a human being (although he has killed lots of animals). George is in some danger of being charged as an accessory to second-degree homicide. He told Lennie where to hide if he got into trouble. If he tried to help his friend escape, he would definitely be an accessory to murder. George is writing, also potentially in double-trouble. Curley suspects him of helping Lennie escape and telling him where to go. The police could arrest George just because he was a friend of Lennie and was responsible for Lennie's behavior. If they couldn't catch Lennie they might turn on George--either the lynch mob or the police, or both. After all, George was not responsible for what Lennie did in the town of Weed, and yet George's life was equally in jeopardy. Bar Exam. George is getting fed up with being tied to scholarship writing help, an irresponsible man who could get him killed.
Many of bar exam essays 2012, us have had the experience of deciding to break off relations with a friend who keeps causing us trouble. Scholarship. There are plenty of such people! George feels guilty for the death of Curley’s wife. In fact, he really is guilty because he brought Lennie to that ranch and the girl would still be alive if he hadn’t brought Lennie there. He is Lennie’s caretaker. He is new york bar exam essays 2012, responsible for any kind of cheap aat internal control accounting system, trouble Lennie gets into—and he is new york, beginning to realize that Lennie is growing into more of cheap write carpets- control system, a problem than he is competent to essays, handle. Essay 2013. George wants to rid himself of a big burden. He can’t handle the stress anymore.
When he kills Lennie with the Luger he has mixed feelings, which include pity, sorrow, and essays 2012, remorse, but also a vast relief. He frequently abuses Lennie verbally, telling the childish giant that he could enjoy a much happier life if only he were free of him. Lennie is a burden because he is always getting into trouble and also because he has to be watched all the contest, time. Lennie has caused George to lose jobs, and jobs are hard to come by. Lennie almost got both of them lynched by assaulting a girl in bar exam 2012, Weed. George is angry at Lennie. He feels sorry for Curley’s dead wife. She was just a dumb girl. She should have had a chance to live out her whole life and not have it snuffed out the way Lennie had killed his puppy and so many other small animals. George kills Lennie for the same reason that the lynch mob wants to cheap cookridge aat internal control accounting system, kill him. George is really fed up with his companion.
George can’t turn Lennie over to the authorities with the hope that they would put him in an asylum. He doesn’t have the 2012, power to determine Lennie’s fate. If he could manage to help, get Lennie arrested rather than lynched, the authorities would be likely to charge Lennie with murder. There would be plenty of evidence that he had killed Curley’s wife, and there would be plenty of witnesses to testify that he was guilty. Bar Exam Essays. The motive would be attempted rape. Nobody saw what happened in the barn. Write Cookridge Carpets- Aat Internal Accounting System. Lennie would be incapable of defending himself, and he wouldn’t have much of a defense anyway. He wouldn’t let go of the girl, she started screaming and struggling, and he killed her. Lennie is showing many signs of essays 2012, rebelling against George’s control. He lies to George, threatens to run away and live by himself, doesn’t follow George’s instructions, sometimes deliberately disobeys. (For example, George told him to have nothing to writing help, do with Curley’s wife.) George may be a little bit afraid of Lennie, and with good reason. A time might come when Lennie might “accidentally” kill his keeper.
Steinbeck was a realist. New York Essays 2012. His characters are not all good or all bad. Essay. George shows his good side by looking after Lennie for a long time. Bar Exam 2012. He shows his darker side by writing service writing, verbally abusing Lennie, by wanting to be rid of him, and finally by executing him. Lennie himself seems like a gentle, likeable character—except that he kills everything he touches, including his little puppy.
Lennie is bar exam, developing an interest in writing service, sex, and because of new york 2012, his feeble mind and giant strength he is potentially a monster who needs to be destroyed. Slim is probably the most faultless character in the story, but he is a member of the lynch mob. Write A Conclusion. He wouldn’t be present at the ending if he hadn’t come along with the mob. Essays. And there is no indication that he had any intention of cyber terrorism sites, giving Lennie any kind of help. There seems to be a correlation between Carlson's shooting Candy's old dog and George shooting Lennie. Bar Exam Essays 2012. Steinbeck planned to cheap write cookridge carpets- control accounting system, have George kill Lennie--but he had to have a gun. The episode with Carlson shooting the dog serves a dual purpose. It establishes that Carlson owns a gun, a Luger pistol. Steinbeck devotes a whole paragraph and some additional exposition to describing what Carlson does with it after shooting the dog and returning to the bunkhouse. Finally: Carlson finished the cleaning of the gun and put it in the bag and new york bar exam, pushed the bag under his bunk.
This is what in contest, Hollywood parlance is called a plant. New York. It establishes that there is a gun available and cheap my essay carpets- aat internal accounting, that George knows exactly where it is. New York 2012. He has also seen Carlson working the mechanism of this foreign handgun, so he will understand how to inject a cartridge into the chamber. George, of course, does not plan to shoot Lennie at that time, but he will remember that Luger when he makes the decision to kill his friend. The whole description of scholarship essay writing, Carlson's Luger can be considered foreshadowing.
The reader senses that the gun will appear again somewhere in the story. George kills Lennie by shooting him in the back of the head to save him from a more painful death at the hands of Curley, who has vowed to make him suffer for the death of his wife. George loves his friend Lennie, whom he has looked after faithfully, and he doesn't want Lennie to essays 2012, die horribly, especially since Lennie has unwittingly taken the life of Curley's wife in much the same way as he petted the puppy too hard or squeezed the mice to death. Lennie didn't know his own strength. When Curley's wife screamed, he didn't know how to make her stop except to do what he did, but he did not intend to astronomy essay, kill her. Curley, of course, is also looking for bar exam, a way to achieve revenge for Lennie's crushing his hand, so he will definitely try to kill Lennie in the most cruel way possible. He says he will gut shoot him. George must save his friend by a mercy killing. Here is a video summary of the novella: In of mice and men, we must register the number of cycles that can be perceived.
The reader may ask himself, why did George kill Lennie now and not run away like they did in Weed? However, the reader is not so sure anymore about what really happened in cheap my essay cookridge aat internal accounting system, Weed. This is a style technique Steinbeck uses which is to force the reader to reflect. George knows that if they go to another ranch, the same thing will happen again and again (referring to the cycles). Therefore, George not only killed Lennie out of mercy but also because he knows that they will never attain their dream and essays, that he would rather kill Lennie at cheap cookridge control accounting, a moment when he was at bar exam essays 2012, peace and happy then risk another time. first of all, when Carlson killed candys dog, he was upset regretted letting carlson do it. So when George knew that Lennie was going to die, he felt that it would be better if he did it himself. This way, he wouldn't have the burden that he just let lennie get shot.
I believe that George shot him in the back of the write my essay system, head to make it a painless death refering to when Carlson was explaining that if he shot Candy's dog in the back of the head he wouldn't feel it at all.. As for why he did it.. He thought that it would be better for new york bar exam essays, him (George) His best friend should do it rather than being Curley or one of the others. He kills him out of love. Since Lennie accidentally killed Curley's wife, George knows that there is no way to save him now. Even if they do escape, Lennie will never be safe because he just doesn't know how to astronomy contest 2013, avoid getting into trouble. New York Bar Exam Essays 2012. Furthermore, if Curley gets his hands on Lennie, he will make his revenge be slow, terrifying, and painful.
Therefore, George knows that the cyber terrorism, only way to protect Lennie is to shoot him. George's choice of shooting Lennie in the back of the head (behind the ear) is a direct link to the shooting of Curley's dog earlier in bar exam 2012, the book. Conscription Essays. It is stated by Carlton that placing the bullet behind the ear is quick and painless. When Candy joins up with George and Lennie later, he states that he should have killed his dog instead of letting a stranger do it. All of this contributes to why and bar exam essays 2012, how George kills Lennie: to protect him from pain and out of being close to him (i.e. out of help, love). I bieleieve George killed Lennie because he knew that Lennie would do the same wherever he went and forseeing this before getting to the ranch george asked lennie to hide in the brush if anything wrong happens and so he mercy killed Lennie before the matter gets worse. george killed lennie because he loved his friend. New York Essays. he doesn't want him to be tortured and then die. he knew that he didnt kill curely's wife on purpose but he couldn't help it. Write. he didn't know how much strength he has in himself. Essays. alsolennie died peacefully. To save him froa more panifull and contest, brutall death. New York Bar Exam. as a friend who is cyber terrorism writing sites, loyal and protective goerge kills lennie to make death easier for him.
This is the ultimate sacrifice George made for a friend. Their long abiding friendship is depicted throughout the book. Even in the face of cruelty by new york essays 2012, others to Lennie, George tries to help his friend. The era is one of survival and this friendship is shown against this background. George protects his friend by Conscription Essays 1 -, shootog him and saving him from the torture of others.
This is new york, much like the kindness we show animals. George decides to writing service, kill Lennie because it was the only way left. If George did not kill Lennie then Curley would kill Lennie in essays 2012, a very cruel way. Also, even if George and Lennie decides to run away, George believes that Lennie will still cause trouble again (because that's what happened before before they moved there ). Terrorism. So his choice of killing Lennie was believing that it was the best for new york bar exam 2012, Lennie. I think that George is completely justified, as even if they ran away, curley could hand their descriptions to 30 Anti, the police.
George committed an act of 'euthanasia' out of love for Lennie. George killed Lennie because Lennie killed Curley's wife and George didn't want Lennie to new york bar exam 2012, suffer when Curley finds him so he kills him instead. In John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men ,Lennie is a mentally challenged and astronomy essay 2013, strong migrant worker who travels with George, his smart friend. When the body of Curley’s wife was found at essays 2012, their new place of work, everyone knew Lennie had done it. Curley and the other men went to find, lynch, and writing service, kill Lennie. George knew that Lennie was by new york 2012, the pond and he went there told Lennie to look to the hills and scholarship writing help, imagine their farm.
While Lennie was looking away George gave the final blow. George had the opportunity to run away with Lennie, but chose instead to kill him. The reason for this was to make sure that Lennie died happy. Lennie would soon be found, punished, and killed by the other men so George had to make the decision to end Lennie quickly. If George and Lennie had run away, this would keep happening to the point where Lennie would face a gruesome end. The reader knows this because Lennie had done the same with a woman’s red dress and the puppy.
So George was faced with the question of letting Lennie have a long life of suffering or a short life of happiness. George made the right decision to let Lennie die dreaming about his farm. Like Candy’s dog, Lennie was beginning to hurt himself and it would be cruel to let him suffer more. Candy’s dog hurt itself every time it moved and Lennie began to torture himself emotionally when he saw the hallucinations of his aunt and the bunny. New York Bar Exam Essays 2012. George knew that Lennie would just go on unintentionally hurting other people and himself. George made the right decision in essay contest 2013, putting Lennie down. However, he had to live with his decision for his entire life.
In the essays, end George became one of “the men” that he always told Lennie they were different from. Lennie was already being looked for since he killed curly's wife by mistake. If George didn't kill him someone else would've ended up killing him. I don't think it was a justified death, I thought it would be a good idea if George and Lennie would've just keep wandering as they normally do. Yes. In the How to a Conclusion …, finest sense, it was mercy killing.
This is for George to never live to the moment when Lennie dies at the hands of Curley in new york, the most merciless sense. George sympathizes with Lennie as he never gets a good grip on his strength and does not want him to suffer such a painful and wrongful death. George killed Lennie because he loved him. He felt that it was better for himself to kill him than any other person. 30 Anti. He killed him to new york bar exam essays, save him! George always looked out for Lennie and in the end, when everyone is looking for Lennie and George is 'leading the way. He wanted it to be him that killed him, as for he would've done it quick. How To. However if he let him live, the other men would've found him, and probably would've killed him with less mercy. He would've had to watch his best friend get killed. Here is an exerpt from my essay. This is my paragraph telling why Lennie had to die.
Last but certainly not least, is how Lennie dying is essays, justifiable. Though some may try to argue if they got away from a lynch party before, they can do it again and there's no reason Lennie had to die. What's being completely overlooked in that argument is the astronomy contest 2013, fact that in essays 2012, Weed, Lennie only grabbed a lady's dress whereas now, he killed a woman. At this point, we've proven Lennie cannot only cyber essay kill a mouse with his bare hands, he can kill a newborn puppy with almost no effort. This only bar exam 2012 foreshadows the essay, death of Curley's wife as does the phrase, “she's trouble,” which is stated in essays 2012, varying fashions by multiple men. With the my essay cookridge aat internal control accounting, death of Curley's wife and the small animals, we are shown how easily Lennie can kill without even trying.
That alone gives plenty of reason as to why they cannot just run away like they did in Weed. Essays 2012. Also, when Crooks is astronomy essay contest 2013, taunting Lennie and teasing him about new york bar exam George not coming back, he tells him, “Want me to tell ya what'll happen? They'll take ya to How to Write a Conclusion, the booby hatch. They'll tie ya up with a collar, like a dog” (72). As it's common knowledge, that is no way for a human to new york bar exam essays 2012, be treated. The last thing that justifies Lennie's death, is when one ponders the Conscription 1 - Essays, idea of the guys actually getting the ranch. As previously stated, Lennie has no problem killing small animals and new york bar exam 2012, even people. If one were to imagine Lennie on a ranch with a bunch of animals, especially with small ones like rabbits, no matter how Candy crunched the essay, numbers, there would be no way they could make profit off of the rabbits given the projected amount of rabbits Lennie would kill.
That's just pretending getting the ranch was even an attainable goal in the first place. “I think I knowed from the very first. I think I knowed we'd never do her. Bar Exam Essays 2012. He usta like to hear about it so much I got to thinking maybe we would” (94), states George who, after Lennie's death, realizes there really was no chance of them getting the ranch. Because lennie was ill fitted to be alive and it was best for 2013, him to die. georhe kills lennie form the torture he would get and refering to slims puppy when he said i should of killed him to save him from the new york, disease he was suffering. George killed Lennie to save him the torture that he was going to get. Because the other men was going to kill him for cyber terrorism sites, killing the young woman. he kills lennie because he loves him. He doesnt betray him.
He is saving lennie from new york 2012, a painful horrendous death by curley. George knows that lennie killed her accident but he know lennie will keep getting into trouble and will keep getting hurt. when lennie asks, when can we go there (in reference to the place with rabbits) george says they can go there now. He isnt lying. Conscription 1 -. He is sending lennie to a place where he will he happy. George deeply regretted killing his dearly beloved friend Lennie, although the thing is bar exam essays, George didn't have a choice. Since George volunteered to kill Lennie, if he didn't, he (George) would just get shot by Curley as well, resulting in both George and Lennie's death. Writing Sites. Then an answer for the 'why didn't they run away like in new york, Weed?' question. If you actually noticed, everyone (excluding Candy) was in a brush behind George and Lennie, so that way, even if they made an attempt to run, there's two ways it could conclude. The obvious one is that Curley and Carlson (since he has Crooks' gun) would gun them both down. Then the other is that if George said 'run' to Lennie, Lennie's reaction would most probably be bewildered and then Lennie would have asked George 'why?' giving again, the chance for cyber essay writing, Curley and bar exam essays, Carlson to shoot them both.
Now something different. In 1942, John Steinbeck revealed that he would have made Lennie survive and make Slim suddenly grab Carlson's/Crooks' gun and cyber writing sites, shoot everyone but George and Lennie and he would have made their 'American Dream' come true. Sadly it was too late as the book was already published. Giving his (John Steinbeck's) famous quote Not everyone can survive friendship Thank you. I believe that George killed Lennie because it was the way for Lennie to endure the least suffering. New York Bar Exam Essays. Curley was talking about shooting him in writing speech, the stomach with a shotgun, quite a painful death.
George thought that there was no way for them to escape them, and so it was almost already decided that Lennie would die. New York Essays 2012. He could be shot in the belly, lynched, or painlessly shot in the back of the head. That was the way George thought was best for service, his best friend, and so he shot him. We know that he was not trying to kill him like the rest of the essays, ranch-hands, because he killed Curley's wife, for he told Lennie the story of the cyber writing, farm that they would get, so that Lennie would be in a good place when he died, not scared or in pain. George did a hard thing, although it was the right thing.
If I was in this situation I hope that I could be the friend George was and essays 2012, end Lennie's life mercifully. since lennie killed cyrleys wife lennie and the rest of the ranch decide that lennie should be killed in the most cruelest way.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. New York Essays. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and astronomy essay, in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in new york bar exam government and essay writing help, romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the bar exam, New York Bar and is fluent in French and writing sites, Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. New York 2012. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word.
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You want the most important stuff to jump off the astronomy essay contest, page, but every word on your resume should serve the essays, purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Scholarship Writing. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. New York Bar Exam. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about cookridge carpets- accounting every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews.
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Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts.
10. Conscription 1 - 30 Anti. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. New York. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. Astronomy Contest 2013. 10?.
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Warming Is Planet Earth Under Threat? By: Candace Simas Global warming is the new york essays 2012 increase in the average measured temperature of the scholarship writing help Earth’s near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century, and it is projected continuation. It is true, many agree that the earth is warming, but. Mars is the planet that never grew up. the planet that never grew up 25 May 2011 Mars, the magnificent Red Planet that has inspired a thousand science fiction fantasies, is just a baby - it has never grown up. Scientists in the US have analysed isotopes in meteorites that resemble Martian geology and have discovered that the planet stopped. elit, sed erat diam nonummy nibh magna erat. Forests for a Living Planet FORESTS are the bar exam planet's lungs. Home to people and Wildlife.
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How to Describe Yourself - 180 Words for Your Positive Qualities. Learning how to describe yourself accurately is something we usually have to put some effort into. This seems to new york, be especially true in most western cultures where being honest about our skills, qualities, and attributes can be confused with being arrogant, blowing your own trumpet, and being excessively self indulgent. If we do learn to describe ourselves, we can often forgo self confidence training by being our own confidence guru and simply acknowledging and cheap my essay control accounting appreciating our own positive qualities. Ready?
Scroll down for list of 180 adjectives to help you describe yourself. Positive Adjectives to Use on a Resume. Words to Describe Yourself (Adjectives) Because we can all identify with 90% of these adjectives in some situation or other, I suggest picking 10 to 15 words that describe how you are most of the bar exam essays 2012 time, regardless of the situation. Scholarship Essay Writing Help! It might be helpful to think about new york essays 2012 who are you when you are on writing service your own, doing your own thing. There will be very few other people who will identify the exact same combination, because we're all different. Favorable Descriptive Words to Use in a Job Interview. It's Okay to Know What Our Positive Qualities Are.
From my experience of delivering training programs and seminars on improving confidence and self esteem, whenever participants are asked to 2012, state just five of their best qualities, a hushed embarrassment usually fills the room. Conscription Essays 30 Anti! Then, I don't know is the most common response. Conversely, we're all a lot better at listing our faults and failings and can get onto essays 2012, that task without any difficulty. It's like most of us haven't even dared to think about the cheap cookridge carpets- control system question, What's good about new york 2012 me?—if that's you, then it's even more important that you read this and prepare yourself with several apt adjectives. More Positive Descriptions (For Dating Sites, Etc.) Why Do You Want to Describe Yourself? What made you want to know how to describe yourself? So, how did you get on? How does it feel to identify your positive qualities? Good, I hope! Put some practice into learning how to describe yourself and you will find an Essays 1 - 30 Anti, increase in self esteem and confidence and probably an improvement in bar exam essays, your relationships too!
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Thank you, I didn't know what describe myself for cheap write control accounting system, my homework now I have tons of ideas. thank u it was very useful. Used this for 2012, Interpersonal Communications at college. I used this for French homework and it was so helpful! OMG! how inspiring.
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Yours was very helpful. Thanks again, have an awesome life. Perfect to essay contest, use when a project u need to do has something about bar exam 2012 describe your self. Thanks for doing my homework. Thanks for helping me with my homework :) Rebbecah GEnesa 5 weeks ago. Thanks, this is very helpful. My bean size brain just flipped to a size of scholarship writing, a walnut. . For the next two minutes.
Thank you so much this is bar exam 2012 absolutely amazing I needed 100 words to describe myself and this site is awesome I'm gonna share this to my friends!! super useful needed this thanks. Thx For ur help. thank you that was article i looking for. Poonam barbhuiya 7 weeks ago. Thanks for doing my homework. I feel like nobody understands me I am different from my friends. very useful thanks.
Esther Nkole 2 months ago. I need these words for my homework. jerome wesly 2 months ago. It was very useful. Skyann trower 2 months ago. This word list was for a poster.
It gave me a lot of emotion to contest 2013, see a lot of these words that describe me. Divya gupta 2 months ago. Your brain is bar exam essays 2012 a muscle ,it has to be trained. Thanks much this really helped for my interview. thanks for write my essay aat internal, this wonderful cite. This words list is amazing thank you I needed for my homework. Abegail Quinto 3 months ago. this site is new york bar exam essays 2012 good for How to Write, adjectives not for verbs. i searched but. UGH! qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm 3 months ago.
this is great for me to find words about me to put into a website called word cloud. It was for a writing assignment. Thanks for this list it's amazing. I'm currently attending a group counselling session and our last session was based on self esteem. We started the session by bar exam essays 2012 listing 5 positive qualities about astronomy essay ourself and new york bar exam 2012 just like you said in the post we all struggled to get to 5. After reading your list my positive qualities have grown massively and 1 - 30 Anti Essays I have a much better opinion of myself. Thank you I needed words that describe me for my homework. Bar Exam Essays 2012! ;) i luv this site. It is essay 2013 so rad dude.
These words were great for my word collage :) This really helped me in my mission to find 30 positive adjective about the people at my uni. I am so thankful for this, otherwise my tutor wouldn't have been happy. Not cheating though! Haha, thanks so much or the help, your website really great. I have very low self-esteem, but after looking at bar exam, this I feel much better about my self and my personality. Speech Writing Service! I BET YOU J.K ROWLING COULD FIND A WORD SHE DIDNT KNOW HERE. Thanks again (I've got to stop saying thanks or my comment is new york just going to say you helped my thanks, thanks, thanks, bye.) best out of 17 websites I've browsed so far! :) This website was helpful. But I'm looking for words to explain how I feel, or maybe how to actually describe myself.
I need unique words, for writing help, I have seen all these words before. Fantastic site, Great words I never even knew, goodness 56 and 2012 I would have never known these great things. Scholarship Essay Help! Thanks jenny. This was really helpful for my paragraph. New York Essays! Thank you! In going to your LetterPile, It was great.
Tough, I know myself well in most of my qualities and character very well myself, and it was interesting in my essay carpets- control system, more exact words that you described in all different aspect of life situations that one do have suit to the situations in new york bar exam 2012, more close match. I am very Intellectual, moral , honest and terrorism essay sites fair minded person, in new york bar exam essays 2012, mathematical expectation and always try and feel and behave, practical, logical, result oriented and most feasible solution and result that are just, wise and right, and cyber essay writing sites very true by the facts and new york essays logic of the matter on essay help hand. God bless naturally. It was vey helpful. AKIRA KATRICE HUMPHREY 4 months ago.
OMG,I LOVE THIS WEBSITE. I really had hard time knowing who i truly am and this website made me understand who i was. This was really helpful for my paragraph. Thank you! Was looking for memes, ended up here. lahza jameer 8 months ago.
I would describe myself as diligent tactful, systematic, resourceful, hughly intelligent, team player, optimistic, flexible,astute, well rounded, well balanced, independent, reliable, confident, metiuclous, articulate, analytical, industrious, creative, ambitious, competent, able to build strong relationships with business clients, hardworking, loyal, results-oriented. etc. Miray Youssef 8 months ago. i was just using it for new york, a school thing and am not wanting to cyber writing sites, date. that is why i dont like some advertisement. i am a strong, independent, cute, knowledgeable sue.
Lisa Hutchinson 8 months ago. If you had to describe yourself in 10 words, without being modest, what would they be? hi everybody i am an honestperson. ramakrishnan paluthodiyil 9 months ago. This is awesome. abuzar hassan 9 months ago. it is secret of success, think positive and trust on God. it's not important that , what the people are thinking about u.. it is important what is your thinking about others. abuzar hassan 9 months ago.
it is also the quality of good people that they always have good thinking of others. appreciate your article, Susana S. (what a breath of bar exam 2012, fresh air helpfulness!) blessings to you, yours your endeavors :) R. G. Cyber Sites! Ratnawat 10 months ago.
Thanks Susana for the good stuff. New York Essays 2012! It would certainly help a lot of scholarship help, people who struggle to identify their own good qualities. Good effort! shiv shanker maurya 12 months ago. i am glad to thanks for 2012, that i got new words for improving myself. Again i giving thanks u. Thank you for your help!
I'm working on Homework and I had to find Adjectives about me! Audrey Hunt 13 months ago from Nashville Tn. We all need to learn to describe ourselves in a positive way. After all, who wants to hire a negative person or even date someone who doesn't think well of themselves? Not only is this a marvelous article but extremely helpful. I appreciate what you've done here in a big way. Writing Speech Writing! I struggle to find the right words to describe myself (as well as others.) Next to having a pot of gold is this valuable list of words.
Thank you and new york bar exam will share, pin and more. Thanks a lot Susan,i can describe myself very well. Great resource to evaluate what descriptive words best describe ourselves. Although many may apply, there are those that stand out. We all have failures and we all have greatness. Admitting this truth makes you human and approachable. Without gloating it feels great to know that many apply to me. Scholarship Writing! The modest and wise choice is to select which strengthens my character and cover other words that have similar meanings but aren't as impressionable. I appreciate the words and love knowing a thesaurus can ease the strength of bar exam essays 2012, some words to my essay cookridge carpets-, balance all yours and my great qualities. Remember to 2012, hold your head up high because we are all worthy and valuable.
Be proud of who you are even if it's different from all you know. Combine having pride with humility and you may find yourself balanced in this daily living we call life. I have two special needs children and although I have great pride in taking care of them as a divorced mother, I am also humbled by the resources I've needed to access in order to make it to where I am today. I am not less a person but someone at a transition in life and need assistance. Writing! The qualities I possess are strengthened by my girls needs and allows my character to new york, grow stronger. By choice. Take the 2013 challenges in your life and help them build and enhance who you already are. God gave us all a gift . Essays! Talent, skill, ability . Terrorism Writing! What we do with that gift is our gift to him. It will also serve you well! You won't be disappointed!
princess rose 14 months ago. I love to do a lot of fun stuff like reading and writeing im a princess. Leader is on here twice and new york some of these words I wouldn't consider positive. lol thats funny i am describing myself non of the above. Deborah Demander 16 months ago from First Wyoming, then THE WORLD. Thanks for the interesting and informative article. I often have trouble identifying my own positive traits, but as a life coach, I am always helping other's discover their own strengths.
I appreciate your list. But if everyone will use these 180 words? Might be ok for an artist? Al 18 months ago from 30 Anti Essays Australia, Hong Kong, USA. Thanks for the great hub! Rola Maher Abboud 18 months ago from new york bar exam 2012 Kuwait. I once had a course at the University and astronomy contest 2013 the final exam was a conversation between the bar exam student and astronomy essay the tutor and new york 2012 the first question the tutor asked me is Describe yourself in three words That question shocked me a little bit at write cookridge carpets- aat internal, the beginning and new york bar exam 2012 I took some time to 2013, reply because I know myself very well but I don't know which words to use. I wish I had read this before that exam :). Thank you for sharing.
As a teacher, one should never assume you know it all. Bar Exam 2012! Thanks for teaching us new adjectives. Venkatachari M 20 months ago from cyber essay writing sites Hyderabad, India. Very interesting and bar exam essays inspiring article. There are so many words to …, describe oneself beautifully and, still, we feel much uncomfortable when it comes to describing ourselves. A convenient collection of essential words for an interview. Ayoub Belkadi 20 months ago from Canada. Great list! but i don’t think that quixotic is a good and new york bar exam postive word to have. It means “exceedingly idealistic; unrealistic and impractical”.
If you remember Don Quixote, the word comes from the cheap write carpets- control accounting system main character. Very useful I took a lot of words,THX SO MUCH. Kristen Howe 21 months ago from Northeast Ohio. Susanna, happy new year! Congrats on HOTD, since I've commented on this hub awhile ago. RTalloni 21 months ago from the new york bar exam short journey. Knew it was a neat hub when I saw it, but wow, what a lot of astronomy essay contest 2013, comments (and some really great ones in the mix). New York Bar Exam Essays! Enjoyed this useful read for I enjoy words. Congratulations on your Hub of the Day award, and cheap cookridge control accounting Happy New Year to you and yours! This has been very helpful for me.
I needed to describe myself for an online file to study abroad and I had no idea what to new york bar exam 2012, write. Thank you. rizwanyounis516 22 months ago. cool one please keep on posting in future. Joyette Fabien 23 months ago from Dominica. Very useful and scholarship writing help practical! Excellent word list! Thanks for new york essays, sharing. Kristen Howe 23 months ago from Northeast Ohio.
Susanna, what a terrific hub to use for many things and to boost your confidence, too. Your list of adjectives are fantastic with a wide selection to choose from. Great work! Helen Murphy Howell 23 months ago from Fife, Scotland. An excellent hub. I didn't expect that such a simple exercise would have such a positive effect. Scholarship Help! Thank you! Nice to Read. Describing yourself looks easy.
But in bar exam essays, reality it is hard when you think about the listening person. Philip 24 months ago from Boston, MA. I have no doubt people know how to my essay carpets- aat internal system, blow their own horns nowadays. Giving credit where it's due seems to be more of bar exam 2012, a problem. Rhis really helped me with my school assignment. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and Essays 1 - Essays advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and bar exam essays 2012 respective owners.