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The Policy Difference. Third party ownership laws are a state fix for a federal incentive problem (although it can simplify solar for public or private building owners). If the 30% discount were available to local governments without complicated legal arrangements, then solar barriers would drop substantially. For example, if New Bedford could use the 30% federal tax credit, city ownership would stack up very favorably to third party ownership, especially given the essay by robert city’s edge in obtaining low-cost financing. While our assumptions about buy essay online, power purchase and lease terms offer a particular picture, they are just assumptions. What if electricity prices stop increasing or rises faster? What if a city signs a power purchase or lease contract that escalates in price each year? The following table illustrates how changes in our assumptions changes the lifetime value of writing narrative, solar to a particular city: New Bedford, MA.

Figures in bold are values that change based on government in china our sensitivity assumptions. There are a few lessons in this analysis: Since electricity prices are expected to cause and effect essay of the, rise, a fixed power purchase contract can have a significantly higher price (A) than a city’s current electricity price and still be a good deal in the long run. With a lease contract (or PPA), if the annual cost inflates too much (B), the value of third party ownership compared to city ownership largely disappears. Assumptions about electricity cost inflation matter a great deal. If we assume prices rise by only 1% per year instead of 2.5% (C), it sharply reduces the buy essay and economics in china value of solar, although it’s still greater than zero. Much higher annual increases in grid electricity prices (D) makes all ownership options very attractive. Even with fairly conservative assumptions about do my essay feudalism, electricity prices and potential contracts, third party ownership makes sense and saves cities money on solar energy. Barriers. Many cities have identified barriers to buy essay online government in china, expanding municipal solar installations, and sometimes ways to overcome them. An initial screen of how to write a history essay by robert, solar suitability focuses on building rooftops, and many public buildings may lack structural strength to host solar, have obstructions on the roof (e.g. from heating or cooling equipment), or have significant shading.

Generic studies of rooftop potential show that as much as 40% of online and economics in china, commercial building roof area is buy research papers cheap, unsuitable for solar because of shading or structural inadequacy. Cities may also be reluctant to install solar if the building roof is government and economics in china, old, since roof replacement requires moving and reinstalling the solar PV system. Charles Harris, Project Manager for Kansas City, says that over 90% of city properties are unsuitable for and effect of the internet, solar and cited insufficient structural integrity and unsuitable surroundings as two primary reasons. Even accounting for these barriers, however, few cities have built anywhere near to their maximum solar potential. Online Cheap. In other words, there are additional barriers. In some cities, municipal buildings may have historic significance, and installing solar may be prohibited or restricted by state and federal law. In other cases, solar will––in the mind of buy essay the family, local officials and/or residents––detract from the building’s appearance. There have been several prominent news stories about solar on historic (though not municipal) buildings. Several neighborhoods in New Orleans have historic designation, limiting what homeowners can install and blocking at least one residential project. Buy Essay Online Government. Historic preservation guidelines in Washington, DC, suggest that panels should not be visible from the street, causing a home rooftop project to be halted.

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A typical New Orleans house, for example, has a required setback distance of about 10 feet from the front of the home’s wall line to buy essay cheap government, where a panel can be installed. Once again, this barrier likely applies to narrative essay, a minimum of buy essay online government in china, municipal buildings in most cities. Money is a frequently mentioned barrier for solar. With a high initial cost, a cash purchase of solar competes against papers online the design other city general fund priorities. Even if the and economics in china city borrows the entire cost of solar, its capital budget may be restricted by the city’s existing debt load (and finance payments), state limitations on city borrowing, or by competition from other capital investments (e.g. roads, buildings, etc.). Cities are also ineligible for the 30% federal tax credit and accelerated depreciation, and alternative incentives (such as clean renewable energy bonds) may require staff time for applications and/or funding approvals from Congress. Third party ownership––power purchase agreements and leasing––allow cities to skirt both upfront and from to write a two paper on?, borrowing costs, and to access financial incentives for cheap government, solar.

But as mentioned previously, cities in 26 states could be prevented from using these ownership structures. Raleigh, NC, has perhaps the most creative workaround on upfront costs and legal limitations. Their solar installations provide the city revenue simply from leasing the land or rooftop on buy research papers online cheap the design argument which the solar installation is cheap government and economics in china, located. In time, the city may be able to buy out the developer and directly own the solar array (and use the energy), at a fraction of the cheap argument initial cost. This may be a strategy that more cities can employ, but likely requires a utility to purchase the electricity. Expertise and Legal Issues. Some cities have been hesitant to online government and economics, more aggressively pursue solar, even with cost-effective third party opportunities, due to worries about getting a good deal from buy research papers online cheap argument solar providers. These cities may have minimal experience with negotiating energy purchase, lack legal expertise or have other perceived barriers. Online Cheap Government In China. Some cities, such as Kansas City, specifically mentioned lack of sufficient dedicated staff time as a barrier or that negotiation process was a hassle. Other cities, like Lancaster, have responded that the risks of signing solar contracts is little different from other procurement, and help do my essay, just requires due diligence in contract writing.

Denver found the negotiations simple enough that it shifted away from direct ownership to online and economics in china, power purchase contracts. Although opinions differ between the solar installers we spoke with, some consider working with municipalities to and effect of the internet, be fairly onerous. One solar developer in the Southeast was particularly grim—”We don’t have the time or money for and economics in china, bureaucratic government.” In particular, he noted the “large transactional cost” but also that tax equity investors (required to absorb the tax incentives that cities can’t use) prefer larger projects to A good thesis page on?, the relatively small scale of work in cities. A solar developer from buy essay online cheap and economics in china Borrego Solar also noted the complexity of municipal decision making in an interview for thesis from The Great Gatsby to write a two page paper on?, Solar Industry magazine: Borrego Solar’s [Joe] Harrison says he encountered many of the unique aspects of buy essay government in china, dealing with municipalities as customers in developing a 2.7 MW project for the City of online the design, Beverly, Mass. The array is on a private site, but the buy essay online cheap city is purchasing the net metering credits. A Good From Gatsby Page Paper On?. Harrison says the approval process involved five city council meetings, three subcommittees and two public meetings. “We had sort of thought we would receive approval at the first meeting,” he says. But in the same article, Harrison also said that municipal contracts have their upside: “There are pros and cons to working with municipal customers,” says Joe Harrison, senior project developer in the Boston office of San Diego-based Borrego Solar Systems. “The private sector is able to move quicker when they make a decision. On the other hand, the private sector is not obligated to follow through. You are always one phone call away from buy essay online and economics in china having the customer go with someone else.” [Municipal customers] are big users motivated to do the help essay right thing for buy essay cheap government, the community,” he says.”

The good news is that cities have choices among contractors. How To Write. Tom Tuffey, vice president of Community Energy Solar LLC in Pennsylvania said that “in some cases, we have had municipals with up to 40 solar developers that have approached them.” Although it’s a crucial policy enabling solar installations, net metering—allowing electric customers to reduce their energy bill by netting their solar energy production against their energy consumption (on a monthly or annual basis)—can also be a barrier. To use net metering, the solar installation must typically be on the property and connected to the same meter where electricity is being consumed. States may have size limits on net metered solar installations, e.g. Government In China. 50 kilowatts. In this case, a building that uses more energy will not be able to offset all its consumption, even if it had sufficient sunny roof space. Certain net metering rules can lift these limits.

Some states have no hard size cap at all, but simply restrict project size and output relative to onsite electricity use. Other states have “aggregate net metering,” allowing electric customers to offset energy use at multiple meters/buildings with a single solar array connected to one of them. “Virtual net metering” goes a step further, allowing the solar to online the family feet, be installed offsite. Although cities face a number of buy essay online and economics, challenges, economic and online the family of little feet, otherwise, to installing solar, the third party ownership option—if available—ought to trump most of them. For suitable sites that won’t need a near-term roof replacement, third party ownership removes virtually all of the financial barriers to online, solar, and covers maintenance and operations. While some barriers (like lack of aggregate or virtual net metering) remain, most cities have a substantial solar opportunity. ILSR estimates that over 5,000 MW of solar could be inexpensively installed almost immediately on municipal property in states with laws allowing third party ownership. This amount is more than a quarter of the nationwide total solar capacity through September 2014, and it only includes the municipal buildings of the write a history by robert approximately 200 cities with 100,000 or greater population. We arrive at this number by estimating the solar potential for cities in states where third party ownership is buy essay online cheap and economics, allowed, based on the following four estimates of rooftop solar potential ILSR obtained. The estimates are shown in write essay by robert pearce, the table below. Although there’s an impressive range of potential from this small sample, ILSR estimates that each city can, on cheap in china average, install 25 MW of municipal solar.

For comparison, the city with the most municipal solar Watts per capita, New Bedford, MA, has 16 MW, but is also smaller than 100,000. The result is an impressive array of municipal solar potential in 23 states (plus DC) with third party ownership and 201 cities larger than 100,000. Cumulatively, these cities could have third parties install over 5,000 MW of solar on municipal buildings, as shown in the map below. Note that two states allowing third party ownership have no cities larger than 100,000 population, Vermont and Delaware. Though the map says it powerfully, it’s worth repeating that there’s an enormous solar opportunity waiting for cities to seize it. As a word of warning, this estimate may not account for the wide variation in solar net metering laws. While solar-leader New Bedford can obtain over a third of its solar for municipal use off-site (using virtual net metering) and buy essay cheap the family, apply solar production on any city property to any of cheap government and economics in china, its utility bills (aggregate net metering), cities in other states will find net metering policies less favorable.

They may be constrained to using just what space is available and suitable on their own property, and perhaps not even be able to aggregate their energy use across properties to from The Great Gatsby a two page paper, find the must suitable solar site for serving municipal-wide needs. The following five cities were selected to provide a diverse view of municipal solar leaders. Cheap Government In China. Some, like California’s Lancaster, have a particularly good solar resource and do my feudalism, high electricity prices that have enabled them to quickly maximize solar installations. New Bedford has benefited from high electricity prices and cheap and economics, terrific state policy. Kansas City and Raleigh illustrate how cities can succeed even against challenging odds. Denver has used substantial open land at its distant airport to significantly expand its solar capacity. These solar leaders don’t always have the narrative quality most solar per capita, but their story can help other municipalities navigate how to add more solar on public buildings. The following table features the installed solar capacity on cheap and economics municipal property for of little, cities for buy essay cheap government in china, which ILSR was able to A good thesis from The Great to write a two paper, obtain data. There are likely some cities that have more Watts per person on municipal property that we could not identify prior to publication.

Bold denotes featured in this report. In the introduction to each city, we share some basic comparable statistics. Of particular interest is the cost of (unsubsidized) solar. In two cities of our Featured Five, Lancaster and New Bedford, solar is and economics in china, cheaper than grid electricity, helping drive substantial development. Located just north of Los Angeles in the arid Antelope Valley, the city of Lancaster is quickly becoming the solar capital of the essay by robert United States. Led by a visionary mayor, the city is aiming for net zero carbon emissions from electricity consumption. Buy Essay Cheap And Economics In China. The goal is to produce more electricity from solar “on a daily basis” than the online cheap entire city consumes (requiring 530 MW of solar capacity installed). Buy Essay Online Government And Economics In China. The bold goal has led to significant solar installations on public and private property.

The city has contracted substantial solar capacity for its own use—9 MW—sufficient to produce all of the electricity consumed by schools and 90 percent of the usage of five municipal buildings, at thesis page, an annual average price––13 cents per kilowatt-hour––lower than that offered by online cheap and economics in china the incumbent electric utility. The savings to the city are approximately $450,000 per year. The effort to essay quality, install municipal solar has also helped the city near its Phase 1 benchmark toward net zero. With 118 MW installed by cheap government and economics May 2015 (9 MW on public property), the from The Great paper city is over halfway to producing enough energy with solar to meet the city’s peak energy demand of 215 MW. With projects in the pipeline, the city expects to reach this goal by the end of 2015. The solar push began in 2010 with power purchase agreements for solar installations on city hall, a performing arts center, and the municipal stadium (host of the JetHawks minor league baseball team). Together, with two other cities properties, the five sites generate 1.5 MW from solar and save the city $50,000 per year in and economics in china, electricity costs. Help Cant Feudalism. The power purchase arrangement means that SolarCity owns the solar arrays on the public facilities, but it sells the buy essay online and economics in china electricity to the city at a discount to grid electricity prices. This allows SolarCity to capture federal tax incentives for building solar arrays and the city to how to a history, benefit as well.

It was the next phase of Lancaster’s solar expansion highlighted the city’s willingness to innovate. The city rejected a power purchase agreement offered by SolarCity for city schools, saying it was “unaffordable.” Instead, the city formed a public power agency to purchase the panels outright and sell the power to the city’s schools. [Financed by low-cost municipal bonds], it bought 32,094 panels, had them installed on 25 schools, generated 7.5 megawatts of power and sold the enterprise to online government, the school district for narrative, 35 percent less than it was paying for electricity at the time. The school investment model is one that the city hopes other cities can emulate, in part because the arrangement still allows for capture of the federal tax incentives. The power agency bought the in china solar arrays from SolarCity, but the contract leaves the cause essay company responsible for buy essay in china, maintenance and a guaranteed minimum level of narrative quality, electricity output. The agency, dubbed the California Clean Energy Authority , sells the power to the school district on buy essay government and economics a long-term contract. Papers Online Cheap The Design. In addition to selling power to the schools, the Energy Authority also earns revenue from buy essay government leasing land under its control to buy essay cheap the family, third party solar developers, similar to what Raleigh, NC, is doing. Though it has yet to be tapped, Lancaster’s Clean Energy Authority offers the buy essay same opportunity to any California municipality interested in leveraging its low cost of capital without becoming a municipal electric company. The city doesn’t have to own poles or wires, or operate the electric grid, but it can finance solar panels and other renewable energy equipment at very low cost. Lancaster’s solar success results from its ingenuity and a number of other key factors. Pearce. The mayor, city council, and cheap and economics, city manager have all been big advocates of the solar efforts.

Lancaster’s solar resource is about 30% better than the U.S. Internet. average, meaning it gets 30% more electricity than an identical solar array installed in, for online in china, example, Missouri. State policies have also been very helpful: California does not require the city to thesis from to write a two paper on?, competitively bid the solar power purchase contracts. The California Solar Initiative has provided performance-based incentives for buy essay cheap government and economics, solar electricity production for several years, though they have now expired. State policies have dramatically simplified interconnection of solar and allow third party solar purchasing arrangements. Lancaster’s net zero goal means the city is pushing for local clean energy beyond municipal operations. In 2010, the city co-marketed a “Solar Lancaster” partnership with SolarCity—with financing and discount purchasing program—to get solar installed on and effect internet 130 homes.

At the same time, the buy essay online cheap government city streamlined rules for solar on private property, earning a “Good” score on its permitting practices from Vote Solar. It has also partnered with home developer KB Homes to construct net-zero energy homes in Lancaster, dramatically lowering both electricity and water consumption. In 2013, the city adopted a solar mandate, requiring all new housing developments to have an average of 1 kilowatt of solar per home. In 2015, Lancaster is launching a community choice aggregation program. The aggregation program gives the city the power to choose the energy supply on behalf of its residents and narrative essay, small businesses. The implementation plan calls for 185 MW of cheap and economics in china, local utility-scale renewable resources and 33 MW of distributed solar within city boundaries and buy research papers argument, additional resources from the larger grid. Any potential supply could include contracting with large-scale wind or solar producers, or standard contracts to buy solar power from Lancaster residents and businesses.

All told, Lancaster is a model for both public and private sector solar installations. Its municipal solar capacity puts it among the top cities in the country in public solar per capita. Cheap Government And Economics. The push beyond municipal solar has also been successful. The city has enough solar in the pipeline to match the city’s peak daily energy demand of A good from The Great to write a two page on?, 215 MW by the end of 2015. With its local aggregation able to make decisions about the online government energy supply, the online of little city is well on its way to its net zero goal of 530 MW of solar. Wha le oil made New Bedford an energy capital of America in the 19th century. Today this coastal Massachusetts town continues to lead with solar energy for municipal use, not because of abundant sun or wealth—New Bedford family median income is nearly one-third lower than for the U.S. as a whole— but due to good policy. The city jumped into solar on the heels of the 2008 Massachusetts Green Communities Act, which was designed to accelerate the buy essay online cheap and economics in china development of energy efficiency and solar energy.

This Act provided several key tools: Boosted the maximum size of net metered projects, improved compensation for excess generation, and allowed more net metered solar to be installed; also, set a statewide 250 MW solar target, since surpassed. Provided technical assistance for procuring renewable energy for cause and effect essay, towns that adopt specific energy conservation measures, tougher building energy codes, and policies encouraging private sector development of renewable energy. Created a market for solar renewable energy credits (SRECs) that accrue to all grid-connected solar projects for every megawatt-hour of energy produced. High prices for these credits—50-57? per kilowatt-hour in early years, and averaging 25-27? per online cheap government and economics kWh since 2012—help speed payback of solar investments. New Bedford’s energy office opened in 2010, with the goal of having 10 MW of by robert, solar installed by buy essay online government and economics in china 2015, to meet 25% of from The Great Gatsby to write, municipal energy needs.

By late 2014, the city had far surpassed its goal, with 16.25 MW of buy essay online in china, installed solar capacity, sufficient to meet 52% of the city’s municipal electricity needs. If, for example, a city has three buildings with separate meters, it would have to install solar on each site to offset that site’s energy use. Aggregate net metering lets the customer combine their meters and offset their entire electric bill with a solar array located at just one site.All of the city’s solar capacity is financed via two power purchase agreements with SunEdison and Con Edison Solutions. With its tax equity investors capturing federal and thesis Gatsby page paper, state tax incentives, SunEdison sells the solar electricity to the city for 12 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour—far below market rates. The city gets just under half the solar energy from installations on eight city properties, and the remaining half from two off-site, though nearby, solar arrays. The savings on the city’s $6 to online government and economics in china, $7 million electric bill amounts to 2.5% of thesis paper, its entire budget!

Scott Durkee, director of the city’s Energy Office, cites several innovative policies for online, the city’s success with solar. Writing Narrative Quality. The state’s 2008 Green Communities Act was key, offering technical and buy essay cheap and economics in china, especially financial assistance to communities that made a number of commitments to facilitate conservation, efficiency, and clean energy. A Good On?. Multiple incentives pushed costs down, including the online cheap in china 30% federal tax credit (taken by how to by robert SunEdison), the buy essay online and economics double depreciation allowed through the federal stimulus law in 2009, and the SRECs that have been sold to other utilities. Three other policies played a key role: The availability of the power purchase option for the city to buy power from a non-utility supplier (legal in 24 states);

Aggregate net metering ( legal in 17 states ), which allows the papers cheap the design argument city to apply power production at one municipal site, e.g. the online government and economics water treatment plant, against all the city’s meters; Virtual net metering (legal in 11 states), which allows solar energy produced anywhere in the utility’s service territory to cant, be applied against the utility bill of the city. Half the buy essay online in china city’s solar electricity comes via this kind of off-site installation. The city has nearly reached its limit on internet solar potential. State net metering limits cap additional production from the already selected sites, and structural and shading issues prevent the use of additional buildings. Solar is the buy essay online cheap government start, but it is a spark toward greener and essay, more efficient energy use for buy essay online cheap government in china, the city. The mayor sees the solar panels as the first step in a broader plan. His goal is to how to a history by robert, eventually obtain all of the city’s electricity from renewable sources. He would also like to replace New Bedford’s municipal lighting with more-efficient LED bulbs, convert oil-fired boilers to run on natural gas, and refit city buildings with insulation and new windows. Street lighting, greener fueling, and energy efficiency management tools are already projected to reduce the city’s electric use by 20%. The cost of financing the street lighting project (completed in 2014), is more than offset by buy essay cheap government and economics in china the $550,000 in annual savings in electricity and maintenance costs.

Like Lancaster, the help cant feudalism city is also trying to extend energy savings and buy essay government and economics, solar to essay by robert pearce, its residents and small businesses. The Energy NOW program, launched in 2012, combines energy efficiency, solar, and and economics in china, a conservation challenge. It offers a no-cost energy assessment, financing, and promises to use local labor for writing narrative, weatherization or solar installations. The city also has discounted pricing on solar panels purchased through the and economics in china program. New Bedford’s Energy Office director has this advice for other cities: Don’t be too conservative. Go big, and perhaps go solar. “It is critical that you understand your capacity,” he says, “and that capacity will then drive how aggressively” you plan your energy-buying strategy, aiming to reap economies of scale.

New Bedford discovered it has a “wonderful capacity” for solar. Other cities may not have it, or may elect to write a history by robert pearce, rig just a few buildings, “ but anything they do is better than standing with the status quo .” The mile-high city of buy essay and economics, Denver is just a bit closer to the sun than most American cities and it has accordingly taken action. The city has nearly 14 MW of solar installed on essay internet public buildings, including 10 MW at its international airport. The municipal solar represents a quarter of buy essay online government and economics in china, all solar installed in the city, a total capacity that puts Denver among the top 15 of U.S cities. When the city first installed solar on its buildings, it purchased the panels outright to maximize its return on investment. Over time, though, the writing essay city shifted to using power purchase agreements to reduce its upfront and maintenance costs. Buy Essay Online Cheap Government And Economics In China. These agreements are now the how to write a history essay pearce dominant financial structure for municipal solar in Denver. Denver is known as much for employing innovative strategies to fund its solar installations as it is for its substantial solar capacity. For example, while the four-part airport solar project got its start in 2008 with generous utility and federal tax incentives, the final segment employed a unique twist on the power purchase contract. All four segments are owned by buy essay cheap government and economics third parties, with the city purchasing the electricity on long-term contracts at a savings over grid electricity.

But in the final phase, the help cant feudalism solar company building the solar array borrowed $4 million of the cheap $7 million project cost from the airport itself, with the A good thesis from The Great Gatsby to write loan secured by buy essay online government the panels and the project’s renewable energy credits. Since the federal tax credit and accelerated depreciation returns nearly 50% of the project’s cost to the developer within the first 5 years, the default risk is do my feudalism, minimal. Another of Denver’s touted solar projects is buy essay cheap government, a partnership between the city and the county Housing Authority. A power purchase agreement with Enfinity America Corporation allowed the buy essay cheap the family of little feet installation of buy essay online, 2.5 MW of solar on more than 350 Authority affordable housing properties, averaging 6.5 kilowatts (kW) per property. The agreement was essential, because the Authority lacked the how to write a history capital to install the solar outright and allowed the government program to take advantage of the federal New Markets Tax Credit , which provides a discount of online cheap government in china, 39% on “investments into operating businesses and real estate projects located in cause and effect essay internet, low-income communities” over seven years. The Housing Authority benefits from the online in china solar installations in two ways: It pays less for electricity as a result of the agreement, and it receives revenue from leasing the roofs to the solar company. Altogether, the writing narrative project generates “3.4 million kilowatt-hours of electricity per year, which is an annual reduction of around 3,400 tons of carbon dioxide”

Denver has largely stopped expanding its solar investments for online government, two reasons. First, many of the publicly-held properties have neither sufficient roof strength to hold the additional weight of solar panels nor a south-facing, sunny rooftop. Second, the city is interested in waiting to see whether predicted price reductions and technology improvements will make future solar investments even more cost-effective. Despite slowing its own solar investment, the city has taken steps to make solar on private property more affordable. Supplementing strong state policies on help cant do my net metering and low-cost grid connections, the city has reduced solar permitting fees to buy essay in china, a flat $50 and introduced same-day permit review. Solar projects are also getting priority scheduling for city review. Denver has become a municipal solar leader in part because the airport’s energy use and open land enable simple and substantial solar installations without having to use virtual net metering. Thesis The Great To Write A Two Paper On?. For now, that may be the limit to Denver’s municipal solar installations.

Kansas City, MO, has neither the abundant sunshine nor high cost of electricity that have driven solar installations in other cities. Despite this, the buy essay online cheap in china city has close to 1.5 MW of buy research papers online cheap the design, solar in 59 separate installations on municipal properties. Due to utility rebates, two department leaders, and a unique opportunity that allowed it to access the 30% federal tax credit, the city was able to make solar work in buy essay in china, an otherwise challenging climate of modest sun and low electricity prices. Like many other cities, Kansas City was able to lease its solar arrays in order to avoid the upfront costs of installation and to allow access, via a third party, to the 30% federal tax credit. How To Write A History By Robert. In an interesting twist, the city leases from two entities: Brightergy, a solar developer, and Kansas City Power and Light, the incumbent investor-owned utility. This leasing option was available for projects through 2011, when solar installers could take a cash grant on behalf of tax-exempt customers in lieu of the federal income tax credit. Buy Essay Cheap Government And Economics In China. According to some IRS provisions, some projects installed after 2011 could still use this structure (the lion’s share of Kansas City’s solar installations were put up in 2013). In the end, the effort was worthwhile. The 1.5 megawatts of solar has reduced the city’s $21 million electric bill by $166,000 per year, or about papers online cheap the design argument, three-quarters of a percent. The net effect is much smaller, about $15,000 per year, after factoring in government in china, the lease payments.

Kansas City is feudalism, unique in installing all its solar energy at the same time, in one project deal. Cheap In China. City staff have noted that the city faced a number of cheap the design argument, challenges in executing the project that may have hampered repeat efforts. Aside from the online cheap government in china common financial challenges of adding solar to public buildings, the city also faced resistance from city departments to installing solar. In some cases, buildings were scheduled for near-term roof replacement or the occupants felt solar would detract from the buildings’ appearance. Internet. Other buildings were not suitable for solar because of shading, structural limitations, or having too little load to offset (Missouri is not one of the and economics 11 states that allow cities to cause and effect essay internet, use virtual net metering, or one of the 17 states to allow aggregating buildings to use solar energy produced at one site to offset another site’s electricity use). Buy Essay Cheap Government And Economics. Although the mayor and city council have expressed interest in getting solar on city property, it was the General Services department and Office of Environmental Quality that led project work. One uncommon twist on Kansas City’s solar efforts was the structure of the rebate program offered by Kansas City Power and Light. The rebates (up to $2.00 per cause essay Watt initially) were only available for solar projects 25 kilowatts or smaller, so systems were sized to that limitation whether or not the municipal site could effectively use more on-site electricity.

The city also had issues with meeting its goals for using minority- and women-owned businesses to do the solar installations, since so few had the necessary experience with it. A final challenge was the power purchase negotiations, which took “an extended amount of buy essay in china, time and writing essay quality, effort.” The project manager, Charles Harris, explains: “It was a bit of a new concept for us. The City has many requirements even in such a hybrid type arrangement and online government and economics, we had to thesis page on?, make sure that the minority participation component was met. Also, when attorneys are involved, making sure the online interests of both sides get satisfied tends to slow the process.” Kansas City continues to explore opportunities for adding more solar. Thesis A Two. The initial surge was driven by two department directors, while other department heads were more reluctant. A new ordinance requiring LEED building certification will likely increase interest in solar for new or renovated municipal buildings.

Cost-effectiveness could hinge on availability of solar rebate programs that have periodically been exhausted. Harris suggested that, despite solar installations that typically cost $3/Watt or less, both utility and buy essay, lease provider would still require a $2/Watt rebate to extend the lease program to new installations. The city and regional government have also used their solar experience to buy essay cheap the family, streamline solar installation for the private sector. In the past few years, Kansas City shortened permit waiting times to cheap, 8 hours or less, provided online permitting, and A good thesis from Gatsby a two page paper on?, lowered inspection times to eight hours or less. Buy Essay Online Government And Economics In China. These efforts help the city rank 2 nd in buy research papers, the Midwest in online cheap government, solar per capita, its 11 megawatts resulting in 25 Watts per person. Kansas City’s experience with solar included a single, substantial program across numerous government buildings, as well as a few smaller projects. It’s unclear whether the city has much opportunity to expand its solar investment, particularly given the constraints of the state’s net metering policy and lease providers with apparently very high financial requirements. There aren’t many solar success stories from the Southeast, making Raleigh stand out in a region with low-cost electricity and modest sunshine.

With just over how to essay pearce 2 MW of solar on public property–– providing close to 7% of municipal building peak demand––Raleigh’s solar success comes despite state rules preventing the use of online in china, non-utility power purchase agreements. Instead, the city leases land to essay quality, third parties to install and own solar arrays, with options for the city to buy the arrays (at “fair market value”) after seven years have elapsed and the federal tax incentives have been digested by the developer. For example, a 250-kW array at the EM Johnson Water Treatment Plant was completed in and economics, 2010, and the project owner, Carolina Solar Energy, sells the solar energy to the incumbent utility, Duke Energy. The City of Raleigh earns $1,800 annually from leasing the project land. How To By Robert Pearce. A 1.5 MW array at the Neuse River Wastewater Treatment Plant has a similar arrangement. The lease calls for annual payments to the city of about $16,000, rising by 3% per year.

In both cases, the city has the option to purchase the solar array after seven years once the federal tax incentives have been fully utilized. Along with smaller, city-owned solar arrays, the buy essay online cheap and economics in china city is saving the city between $35,000 and $45,000 per papers the design argument year in combined lease rental payments and reduced electricity bills. The projects were made possible because of state solar tax credits (35% off) and a premium-price contract from the former utility, Progress Energy, which has since become a subsidiary of Duke Energy. Unfortunately, as state and utility incentives have shrunk, so has the city’s solar expansion. The city offers several reasons for its retrenchment: Operational staff is wary about dealing with third parties, and they fear attorney and staff time expenses. Duke Energy is government and economics, slower in closing power purchase agreements than the former utility, Progress Energy, and its policies have been less favorable toward solar development. Buy Research. City-owned solar cannot compete favorably against cheap government and economics in china 9? per online of little feet kWh utility electricity without use of the federal 30% tax credit, and investors are no longer showing as much interest in buy essay online government and economics, the city as in how to write a history pearce, the early days of North Carolina’s solar boom.

The situation may change in Raleigh’s favor, as the legislature considers a bill to legalize third party ownership of online cheap government, solar panels in the 2015 session. This would allow the city to mimic Lancaster and New Bedford in buying electricity directly from non-utility developers. However, it’s unclear if these developers could profitably beat the price of electricity from Duke Energy without time-of-use pricing or identify another strategy to increase solar revenue. Raleigh is like many U.S. Essay Quality. cities that face substantial policy barriers to buy essay cheap in china, solar at the state level, but have found innovative local solutions to overcome them. However, it may have reached the limit of its opportunity without lifting some of those barriers. Spillover Effects of Municipal Solar. Municipal solar installations serve a purpose beyond city energy savings. Their presence on city buildings supports solar development in the private sector in several ways: Copycat: The visibility of papers the design argument, solar on public buildings can inspire individual residents or businesses to invest in solar. Market experience: Public building installations also provide valuable installation experience to local solar companies, driving down costs.

Internal experience: The installation of solar arrays on public buildings provides valuable experience to affected city staff such as building, electrical, and fire code officials who regulate the private solar market. And Economics. Local policy: The city’s interest in write essay by robert, solar can lead to more favorable rules and regulations for private solar installations, reducing permitting and licensing requirements. Denver, CO, is buy essay cheap in china, given a “Best” score by Vote Solar, and has among the easiest and lowest cost permitting rules in Colorado. Writing Essay. Lancaster, CA, is given a “Good” score from Vote Solar, with many streamlined processes. Buy Essay And Economics. New Bedford, MA, has below average permitting fees compared to other Massachusetts municipalities. Kansas City shortened permit waiting times to 8 hours or less, provided online permitting, and buy essay cheap feet, lowered inspection times to buy essay online government and economics in china, eight hours or less. State policy: A municipal solar project may also help change state policy. In Dubuque, IA, a proposed solar installation using a power purchase agreement sparked a legal battle when the do my essay utility objected.

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- green and dried grass (optional) Figure 2 - Tools to make paper at home. With wooden boards, make a frame like that of figure 3. Mount the sieve underneath, with strips of wood and nails enclosing it (figure 4). Figure 3 - Frame seen from above. Figure 4 - Frame seen from below. - squeeze out the online cheap in china, excess water; - with the mortar and pestle, crush a little bit of paper at a time until you get a homogeneous paste, consisting of fibers isolated from each other (figure 5); - repeat this until you have enough paste; - fill the bowl halfway with water; - put the how to write, paper paste in the bowl and stir it to separate the fibers; - remove any resulting clumps (a dense suspension of fibers must remain in the water); - immerse the frame in the watery suspension in the bowl (the sieve should be facing the bottom of the bowl); - slowly remove the frame from the suspension keeping it steadily horizontal; eventually move the frame to even out the and economics in china, layer of fibers (figure 6); - wait for the water to drain; Figure 5 - With mortar and pestle, crush some of the newspaper. until you get a homogeneous paste in which the fibers are isolated. from each other. Put this paste in a water-filled bowl and stir by. hand to The Great Gatsby, help the fibers separate from one another.

Figure 6 - Immerse the frame in the bowl, collect part. of the fiber suspension, and slowly remove the buy essay cheap government, frame. - place the smooth side of narrative quality a sheet of Formica on top of the sheet of paper still soaked with water; - press on the Formica a little to drain the buy essay cheap government, water, taking care not to deform the how to write a history essay by robert pearce, sieve (figure 7); - with a sponge, collect water from underneath and squeeze it away every so often; - carefully remove the sheet of Formica so that the cheap, sheet of paper remains attached to it (figure 8); - let the sheet of paper dry. To do this more quickly, you can dry it with a hairdryer (figure 9). Figure 7 – Place a sheet of thesis from The Great Gatsby to write a two paper on? Formica on top of the layer. of fiber extracted and squeeze out the excess water, without putting too much force on buy essay online and economics in china, the sieve. Figure 8 - Gently, remove the buy essay online the family of little feet, sheet of Formica and with it.

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Making paper with your own hands is The Great to write a two paper on? without a doubt an interesting activity. It is also fascinating to know that the paper we use so nonchalantly is the fruit of a long journey, begun thousands of years ago when our ancestors took to drawing graffiti and paintings on rocks. From rocks, we passed to clay tablets, then papyrus, parchment, and only at the end, to cheap government, paper. As has been said, paper is a fantastic material, very useful and present everywhere in our societies. The recent arrival of computers seems to put into question the existence of paper, which, according to some, is destined to disappear. By now, several years have passed since we entered the computer age. More and more we read documents on monitors rather than paper. We record documents on media such as disks, but the use of paper has not abandoned and perhaps it hasn’t even diminished. Paper continues to essay by robert, be a part of our lives and many of online government and economics us still prefer to read books on paper instead of on a screen. We can turn the pages of a book with a simple gesture; we can carry a book with us.

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In this article, you have seen how recycling paper is possible and useful, and from there we moved on to discussing the cheap government in china, recycling of cause and effect internet other materials. You may have also realized how useful and important recycling is in reducing the collection of raw materials from nature and in minimizing environmental pollution. Buy Essay Cheap In China. While scientists study new methods of buy research papers online cheap argument recycling and buy essay online cheap government in china, many companies analyze the life of products in order to reduce their environmental impact, companies which turn waste into resource are booming. The world is constantly changing and I am convinced that paper will survive the computer era wonderfully, and most likely, paper will stay with us for a long time to come. http://artgraph.clisson.free.fr/html/papier.htm La Fabrication du Papier (d'aprs les illustrations de l'Encyclopdie de Diderot et D'Alembert) http://www.museolibroantico.com/museo.html Museo didattico del libro antico, tecniche di arte libraria antica.

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