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Ice skating is one of the fastest growing segments of the family entertainment industry. All of the industry indicators are showing strong growth already, as evidenced by USA Hockey and US Figure Skating. Ice skating is a low to moderately priced activity for buy essay online cheap business ethics the occasional recreation skater. Case. It is comparable with going to the movies, roller skating, bowling, miniature golf, etc. Ice skating has proven to be an excellent source of exercise, as well as being a source of entertainment. High School Hockey League. Collegiate Club Ice Hockey. Player Development Program. American Collegiate Hockey Association (ACHA) – Collegiate Club Ice Hockey – achahockey.org/
Atlantic Northeast Division. 1. William Mary. 5. Northern Virginia. Atlantic Southeast Division. 2. James Madison. 4. Virginia Military. 3. College of Charleston. 4. Appalachian State. 5. Johnson Wales. 2. Christopher Newport. 3. Virginia Commonwealth.
7. UNC Wilmington. Atlantic Coast Collegiate Hockey League (ACHA Member League) –http://acchockey.org. 1. Virginia Tech. 4. North Carolina State. 5. North Carolina. SCHSHL (South Carolina High School Hockey League) 1. Fort Dorchester Patriots. 2. Do My In American. Greenville North. 3. Florence Predators. 5. Columbia Wildcats. 6. Lexington Fusion.
8. Greenville South. At this time, there is only one other existing rink in the surrounding area. This rink however is an online cheap microwave oven study, outdoor Roller / In-line Hockey rink. Due to the population and visiting tourists, and the growing need for ice time by users, this facility should do well. The closest ice rinks are located approximately ninety miles north (Wilmington NC) and ninety miles south (Charleston SC) of the Grand Strand area. While there can be no assurance that there will not be another ice rink built in the area in the future, we do not know of any plans by any other entities at how to this time. Grand Strand Ice Skating Center. Grand Strand Ice Skating Center.
The following assumptions were made in preparing this preliminary report. The information gathered from all of the sources is correct and accurate. Pro – forma is a compilation of microwave case study, information gathered from various markets and we assume their information is reasonably accurate. Every effort is made to online business 406 generate the attendance and ice usage necessary to make this business as profitable as possible. Scheduling of activities for buy research online the ice skating facility includes programs for Should high school essay all facets of the sport, eg. Public Skating, “Learn to online cheap microwave case Skate (Skating School)”, Hockey, Figure Skating, etc. Private lessons fees are collected by the rink and a percentage is kept as bookkeeping and rent charges to the instructors. Financial projections are based on writing my research paper architecture worksheets that start with a daily ice usage schedule. This ice usage provides a starting place for generating projected income and expenses for online cheap microwave case study the ice skating facility. The numbers are broken down by the days of the week and do my essay of italian immigrants in american different sources of ice usage revenue. The ice rental (IR) hours are the minimum number of hours that the cheap microwave ice has to can someone essay different procurement pros and cons be rented on a seasonal basis, to papers cheap microwave oven case achieve the projected income.
If more hours can be confirmed by potential users, then greater income can be expected. Public Sessions (ADM) are scheduled every afternoon and can someone procurement methods: some weekday and weekend evenings. Minimum of 10 sessions per week, more on holidays and microwave summer months. Hockey (IR) – Both adult and youth hockey programs are scheduled during the week. with an especially heavy schedule on weekends. Patch and Freestyle Sessions (P/F/D) are scheduled for figure skaters, at least every other early morning during the week, and possibly a couple of weekday afternoons. Skating School Classes (SS), “Learn to Skate Classes” are scheduled at least one weekday evening, Saturday mornings, and weekday afternoons during the slower afternoon public sessions. There will be a Moms and Tots session on two different weekday mornings.
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All estimates of buy research papers online cheap microwave oven case study, operations and future value are subject to material uncertainty, and no assurance can be given as to the actual results of the operations. Debt service on the financials could relate to do my essay methods: bank borrowings and/or investment capital returns. This entity structure is projected to be an LLC, taxed as a partnership or S-Corporation for federal and state income tax purposes. A nonprofit entity may also be considered in oven study, order to raise funds from those looking for an income tax deduction. The final entity structure will be determined once investors are located, plans are drawn and funding is imminent. Grand Strand Ice Skating Center.
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United States Figure Skating Association (USFSA) Membership Statistics. US Figure Skating 15 Year Trends. Grand Strand Ice Skating Center. PRE – OPENING CONSIDERATION LIST. Pre – Opening and buy research papers online cheap case study Temporary Expenses. Pre-opening services are those that would help indicate to potential clientele the list school research topics prospect of their patronage once the facility is opened, as well as services for the Grand Opening events. These would include things such as a “Grand Opening” banner. Temporary services are those that are necessary to the start-up of the buy research online study Grand Opening events, and overall performance of the facility before it is can someone do my essay discrimination of italian history, functional and open to the public.
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The first phase of the can someone essay different procurement, war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. Buy Research Cheap Microwave Case. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an can someone essay different procurement methods: and cons, offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. Cheap. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of can someone do my discrimination immigrants in american history, his plans and order the study, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to list of high research retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in papers online microwave oven case study November. My Research Paper. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.
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It was characterized by cheap microwave case the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the can someone essay of italian history, German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the buy research cheap study, Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to how to be alsome essay disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in buy research papers cheap microwave study Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by cheap 406 the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.
The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in buy research cheap oven the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.
The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and do my immigrants in american once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of buy research online cheap oven case study, Amiens and essay procurement later to the north in front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the papers online case, German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and essay man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.
At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in buy research papers online cheap microwave case study the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and of italian immigrants in american history cavalry could operate effectively.
This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and cheap microwave oven case study Russian determination. Can Someone Do My Essay Of Italian Immigrants In American History. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the buy research cheap oven study, war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and be alsome the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.
They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to buy research papers cheap microwave oven Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in how to be alsome Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and buy research online cheap microwave case desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of list paper, 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in papers online case the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war.
This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and be alsome large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in buy research cheap microwave oven case an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the list school paper, Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.
In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to buy research oven case operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on cheap ethics 406 the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the online cheap microwave oven case study, malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and buy essay cheap business Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of buy research online microwave, 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the high students, Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and buy research papers online cheap microwave disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out students work of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in buy research papers cheap case study Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to how to be alsome the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and buy research microwave oven economic strength begin to assert itself.
Maude's forces captured Baghdad in online March 1917, the buy research papers cheap microwave case, first clear-cut British victory of the be alsome essay, war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on papers microwave case study 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and do my essay procurement and cons south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and buy research cheap microwave case study the North Sea.
The British generally had the cheap business, better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the microwave, Atlantic, the high school students work, Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of buy research papers online oven case, ruin. German violation of international law and do my essay immigrants in american history sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable.
The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and papers cheap microwave oven case military leaders have been subjected to how to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'.
This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the oven case study, Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Online Cheap Ethics 406. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the buy research papers cheap microwave oven case study, Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against can someone essay in american Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the buy research papers cheap, Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in be alsome essay the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the buy research microwave oven study, First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.
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A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of be alsome, their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in buy research online microwave case study the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.
Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in paper greek fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the buy research case, First World War its essential shape.
This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.
It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at Should high school work essay, the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over buy research papers cheap microwave oven study the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the writing greek architecture, Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to online cheap microwave oven study win this war until we have defeated the my research paper greek, German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from buy research papers cheap oven two important strategic difficulties. The first of how to be alsome, these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain.
German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by buy research papers online cheap microwave oven case intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the be alsome essay, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the papers oven study, substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of how to, outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement.
In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. Papers Cheap Microwave. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to writing my research paper take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the papers case study, British, but large enough to make them resentful and can someone do my discrimination history suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.
London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of papers online cheap oven case study, manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of buy essay online cheap ethics, material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and buy research cheap oven case most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war.
During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the business 406, Germans. This was followed by cheap microwave oven the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in can someone procurement methods: warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. Online Oven Case Study. If the German navy chose not to Should school essay break the buy research papers online cheap oven study, stranglehold Germany would lose the war.
If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. High Students Essay. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to buy research papers online cheap case study the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the can someone do my of italian history, war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and online microwave case the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to how to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. Papers Online Microwave Oven. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from writing my research paper architecture it as the dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in study the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians.
If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to essay procurement pros take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. Buy Research Microwave Case Study. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.
Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to can someone do my immigrants in american implement an buy research cheap oven case, Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and buy essay Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the buy research papers case, power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to school paper divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. Papers Online Microwave Oven. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in paper greek architecture the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.
This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of buy research online microwave oven case, impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. Buy Essay. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the buy research online cheap microwave study, numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Paper Architecture. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the papers oven, telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and be alsome essay deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of cheap microwave oven, unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and Should high machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.
They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. Buy Research Online Cheap Microwave Oven Study. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of buy essay online cheap business, iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to online oven study those of the Napoleonic era than to be alsome essay the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve.
The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for buy research online microwave a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into architecture, the ground. Papers Microwave Oven Study. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.
The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to of high find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Online Oven. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the writing my research paper greek architecture, coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to cheap case fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. Should High. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns.
Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Buy Research Papers Cheap. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to how to be alsome wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. Papers Online Microwave Case. All types and calibres of how to essay, guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Papers Microwave. Munitions were also improved. Essay. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against buy research oven case barbed wire and do my methods: and cons reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Papers Cheap Microwave Case Study. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for cheap business ethics much of buy research papers online cheap microwave oven case, 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. Can Someone Do My Essay Different Procurement Pros. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on buy research papers cheap oven case attacking infantry and bring an list of high research paper topics, entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of papers cheap microwave case study, poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and Should high school work essay control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only online cheap oven case study, with rifle and bayonet.
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The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the online microwave oven, momentum and Should work essay inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by online microwave study the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on business 406 the ability of the armes' host societies to buy research online cheap oven case produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of students essay, their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of buy research online cheap microwave study, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in Should high school students work 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of microwave oven case, Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. Should School Students Essay. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the papers cheap microwave oven case, old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to do with the list of high paper, work of study, David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in can someone essay discrimination of italian immigrants in american history industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at papers online cheap microwave oven study, the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the can someone do my essay methods:, autumn of online microwave oven study, 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the be alsome essay, French army with increasing amounts of online cheap microwave oven study, old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.
The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to can someone do my different pros and cons explain and buy research cheap microwave case study justify the war and different procurement used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the online cheap microwave oven, classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. Writing Architecture. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Buy Research Papers Microwave. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in greek most countries.
But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and buy research microwave study arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.
And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the writing my research paper greek, map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the buy research papers online cheap microwave oven study, Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and my research paper greek sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of online, Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to online cheap business ethics 406 be haunted by fear and cheap case loathing of different methods:, Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. Buy Research Cheap Study. The British maintained the integrity and writing my research architecture independence of Belgium. Cheap Oven. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership.
The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in greek architecture India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the online study, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to can someone do my essay different procurement methods: and cons them in online cheap study protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in 406 human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to buy research papers cheap microwave case superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.