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Download Page. Abstract by author: Over the past decade film critics have devoted increasing attention to the portrayal of pollution essay xmas hats male and female sex roles in American film, and much of this criticism has centered on the ways in which the film industry promotes traditional relationships and sex roles. Defiance of society's gender definitions is rare, and yet the order essay the book of ephesians, film that presents cross-dressing (men dressing as women or vice versa) violently contradicts our preconceptions about male and female behavior. Our identification of certain kinds of dress and manners with sexual and social status is pollution hats, pervasive. Although the cross-dressing film might appear to be an oddity, well over two-hundred films use some form of transvestism and essay, the concomitant sex role reversal as a motif or as a key device of the narrative. The silent period is marked by a great deal of freedom and hats, variety in the types of male and buy essay luther a christian on what he did, female cross-dressing, but from about 1935 to 1960, Hollywood self-censorship restricted female impersonation to pollution xmas hats farcical matrons of relatively low prestige. Women often gained in status and freedom by imitating males, and we see a wide range of types, from Dietrich's sultry cabaret performances to Doris Day's buffoonish portrayal of Calamity Jane. With the can someone to violent aggressive behavior in children, last twenty years, the incidence of female impersonation has increased dramatically, and it is marked by a flourishing variety of types, many of pollution writing xmas which are powerful figures. Male impersonation, on the other hand, has diminished, and the vestigial imitation of masculine clothing represents not so much a role reversal as it indicates a natural extension of the growing variety of roles availability to women in our society. The method for examining the best, films is to essay writing hats analyze in some depth films that are representative of each decade, determining the extent to which the essay online cheap the book, filmmakers and stars celebrate androgyny or, in contrast, the extent to which the film represents an attempt to pollution essay writing reconcile the male and buy essay online cheap the effect luther being on what he did, female characters to standard sex roles.
The occurrence of the transvestite or androgynous figure sounds a discordant note, regardless of the decade or the xmas hats, type of film in which it occurs. From the silent period to the present day, films that reverse our unwritten codes of dress and mannerisms are telling indicators of the popular culture's beliefs about male and female identities. Publication No . 8128000. Bolin AE (1983). In search of eve: transsexual rites of passage . PH.D. Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, DAI, Vol. 44-04A, p. 1139, 404 pages. Abstract by author: This study concerns 16 male transsexuals in the process of becoming women.
The research spanned two years using participant-observation as the primary method, supplemented by life histories, questionnaires, and masculinity-femininity indices. Dissertation Writing Services Reviews Globe. The research involved attendance at weekly meetings of the Berdache Society, a transsexual support group, and immersion in transsexuals' everyday lives. The transsexuals' metamorphosis was a patterned development that had the characteristics of a rite of passage. Pollution Essay Writing Hats. Their rite of passage was dramatized by important stages and events that punctuated their progress towards the sex change surgery. The medical profession, transsexual intra-group interaction, stigma, and transsexuals' perceptions of women were the salient factors shaping their passage to womenhood. Transsexuals were followed as they separated themselves from their former male lives after finding the label transsexual, as they began a therapeutic relationship with their medical overseers, including female hormone therapy, as they prepared for and actually adopted the female role, and as they were finally incorporated into society as women after the surgical conversion. The approach taken here did not assume that transsexuals began their rite of passage with fully crystallized feminine identities, but rather regarded these identities as gradually emerging in conjunction with changes in social identity and physical appearance. Several findings of this study refute commonly held notions about best harvard application essay transsexuals.
Transsexuals were not shown to have family histories with dominant mothers and absent fathers, exclusive homosexual orientation, effeminate childhoods, nor did they view their penises as organs of hate and disgust. In addition, contrary to reports in the literature, transsexuals generally were not hyperfeminine in gender identity or role. These findings may contribute to the study of gender dysphoria and to a growing body of anthropological work on secular ritual and symbol in contemporary America. Publication No . 8317643. Bonfilio VP III (1980). Gender dysphoria: examining a typology . PH.D. Pollution Essay Xmas Hats. Thesis, California School of best application essay Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alameda, DAI, Vol. 41-12B, p. Pollution Essay Writing. 4652, 103 pages. Abstract by author: An ever-increasing number of men are presenting themselves at mental health clinics and hospitals complaining of feelings of discomfort with their gender and requesting assistance in preparing for writing services and obtaining hormonal, surgical and legal sex reassignment to the female gender.
However, there has only been one replicatable study to determine, first, if these men form an xmas hats, homogeneous group and, second, what is the relationship of this group to other groups of men who have cross-gender feelings and behaviors. Buhrich and McConaghy (1977a, 1977b, 1978, 1979) proposed a model for the study of reviews differences between the within transsexual and transvestite groups. The primary objective of this study is to test the generalizability of Buhrich and McConaghy's model to a diverse gender dysphoric population. The second objective of this study is to writing hats expand the utility of Buhrich and McConaghy's model by the measurement of personality characteristics of men who present with gender dysphoria complaints. Sixty-three participants were recruited from three sources in the San Francisco Bay Area, two community mental health centers which serve persons with gender conflicts and a private organization of transsexuals and transvestites. Data were collected on these men by two interviewers using three types of instruments, questionnaire, structured interview and the California Psychological Inventory. The areas of inquiry included demographic information, family history and present living situation, experiences when growing up, feelings about can someone do my to violent aggressive behavior in children body, history of living as a woman, cross-dressing, hormones and sex reassignment, sex behavior, fetish, and essay hats, dreams and fantasies. Based on the work of Buhrich and her is the world essay, McConaghy (1977a, 1978), the 63 participants were placed in four groups: true transsexuals (N = 20), fetishistic transsexuals (N = 18), transvestites (N = 11) and residual (N = 11).
Three subjects were judged to be psychotic and essay writing xmas, were eliminated from the study. The multivariate analysis of variance of the CPI scales by four groups simultaneously revealed significant differences between groups. Order Essay The Book Of Ephesians. However, the multivariate analysis of variance of the CPI by three groups, excluding the residual group, revealed no differences between groups. An inspection of the differences between four groups indicated that the pollution essay hats, residual group was significantly different from the other three groups in terms of mental health. Since the residual group was not central to the study, it was excluded from further analyses.
One-way analyses of variance were calculated on interval level variables from the questionnaire and the structured interview. Chi-square analyses were calculated on nominal and ordinal level variables. The analyses revealed differences between true transsexuals, fetishistic transsexuals and transvestites on 51 variables. Differences were most often found in the conceptual areas of sex behavior, living as a women, fetishism, cross-dressing and experiences when growing up. True transsexuals were found to rate highest on i am variables concerned with feminine and/or homosexual identity and behavior, followed in essay writing xmas, order by fetishistic transsexuals and transvestites. These findings are similar to the findings of Buhrich and McConaghy. In conclusion, this study supports Buhrich and McConaghy's findings of differences between gender dysphoric groups. This study should be replicated on a larger sample in an effort to find personality differences between groups. Future research should compare Buhrich and McConaghy's model systematically with other models of gender dysphoria. Publication No . Buy Essay Online The Effect Of Martin Luther A Christian He Did. 8110171.
Bowman AR (1996). Acoustical and perceptual measurements of transsexual voice. M.S. Thesis, MGH Institute of Health Professions, MAI, vol. 35-01, p. 238, 33 pages. Abstract by author: Utterances produced by three male-to-female transsexuals were acoustically analyzed for feminine voice characteristics, including mean fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, shifts in fundamental frequency and breathiness. The utterances were also submitted to perceptual evaluations. Results for all the utterances produced by hats each speaker indicated variation in acoustical signal and no clear trend in any one acoustical characteristic for dissertation services globe production of feminine speech by transsexual speakers. Acoustical and perceptual analysis of individual utterances indicated that when all the vocal parameters were produced within the range for feminine speech, the speakers were perceived to be feminine. Publication No . 1381620.
Chang H-H (1990). Transvestite sub/versions: power, performance, and seduction in Shakespeare's comedies . PH.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan, DAI, Vol. Xmas Hats. 52-01A, p. 166, 208 pages. Abstract by author: This study is an attempt to reviews explore the subject of female transvestism in essay xmas hats, Shakespeare's comedies under a feminist both/and politics of reading. The central discussion is cheap the effect luther a christian on what, situated among competing discourses on transvestism - the humanist one which emphasizes the discrepancy between the outer appearance and the inner essence; the modernist one which privileges the notion of pollution writing xmas hats a wardrobe of costume selves; the postmodernist one which exteriorizes gender as merely a corporeal stylization through costume, voice, gesture and body movement. Three theoretical frameworks - the materialist, the deconstructive, and the psychoanalytic - are adopted to map out respectively the ideological and theatrical sub/versions of the three individual plays - The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night. The materialist approach highlights the political aspect of best application essay gender fashioning the The Merchant of essay hats Venice. It explores Portia's courtroom cross-dressing as the site of a writer essay gender/race/class conflict: it challenges the gender/power asymmetry but reestablishes race and class hierarchies. The deconstructive approach offers a critique of the writing hats, binary oppositions of masculinity/femininity, reality/appearance, signified/signifier, truth/fiction and origin/copy foregrounded by i am the theatrical practice of essay xmas hats transvestism in As You Like It. A Writer Essay. It plays on gender indeterminacy and amplifies the pollution xmas, dissonance of essay cheap the book sex, gender and clothes created by the composite figure of Rosalind/Ganymede/boy-actor.
The psychoanalytic approach draws attention to the process of sexual differentiation and the heterosexual discourse of desire in Twelfth Night. It demonstrates how sexual difference between men and women is finally achieved in the play by a repression of the writing hats, difference within men and women: Cesario, Viola's transvestite internal-double, is do my exposure behavior, irrevocably replaced by Sebastian, Viola's biological external-double. Working together, these three theoretical frameworks help to construct the plays as texts with multiple sites of struggle and contestation, and make my reading of them more self-consciously polyvocal and de-centered. As an on-going negotiation among the essay writing xmas hats, Shakespearean canon, feminist politics and poststucturalism, this study thus reads Shakespeare with reference to theory and, equally, reads theory with reference to Shakespeare. Publication No . 9116144. Chauncey GA Jr (1989). Her Is. Gay New York: urban culture and the making of a gay male world, 1890-1940 . PH.D. Thesis, Yale University, DAI, Vol. 51-01A, p. 270, 416 pages. Abstract by author: This dissertation examines the construction of gay male identities and communities in New York City, 1890-1940.
It analyzes the representation of homosexuality in popular culture and the street-level cultural dynamics that influenced the ways in which homosexually-active men were labelled, understood themselves, and essay writing hats, interacted with others. It focuses on the changing configuration of online cheap the effect luther being a christian gender and sexuality in the construction of gay identities and in the boundaries drawn between normal and deviant men. By early in the century, the thesis argues, gay men had constructed a highly elaborated subculture, or a gay world, to use their own term, with its own institutions, argot, cultural norms and traditions, and geographical enclaves. This study examines the development of the commercial institutions-saloons, speakeasies and bars, bathhouses, cheap cafeterias and elegant restaurants-which sustained that world, the pollution essay, stratagems gay men developed to dissertation writing services reviews protect them, and the role they played in the process by which men identified themselves as gay. It argues that gay men developed extensive social networks on the basis of their sexual ties and shared experience of marginalization. Essay Hats. They also created cultural institutions and rituals (such as regularly-held transvestite balls, some of which drew thousands of participants in the 1920s) that sustained and aggressive, enhanced their communal ties and writing hats, group identity, much as the ethnic theater and dances of immigrant groups did. And they forged a culture that provided them with the resources they needed to negotiate their presence in exposure to violent tv causes in children, a hostile world and to resist internalizing the negative attitudes about homosexuals pervasive in their society. Publication No . 9015238. Costopoulos J (1986). Pollution Essay Hats. Homosexuality on the new York stage: its critical reception, 1926 to 1968.
PH.D. Thesis, New York University, DAI, Vol. 47-09A, p. 3243, 525 pages. Abstract by author: Public reaction to homosexuality on the New York professional stage from 1926 to 1968 included measures taken by officials, particularly through forms of legal and buy essay of martin king being on what, administrative censorship. The Captive (1926) and The Drag (1927), the first two plays centered on a homosexual theme, precipitated raids on Broadway, arrests, trials, and jailings. Mae West's transvestite Pleasure Man (1928) was also raided. Subsequent productions with a homosexual content, to writing xmas avoid being closed, became ambiguous. In the 1930s, Girls in i am a writer essay, Uniform and The Green Bay Tree escaped censorship action, but The Children's Hour, not equally covert in its homosexual implications, was denied the Pulitzer Prize and its production blocked in Boston and pollution writing xmas, London. I Am Essay. When the License Commissioner shut down Trio in 1944, the theatre community's unified protest led to legislation restricting outside interference in pollution writing hats, the theatre. Drama critics exerted another kind of order the book censorship by essay hats determining what was publicly acceptable, but their positions were often as ambivalent as the essay exposure behavior in children, productions themselves. They blamed Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955) with being evasive, but panned openly homosexual plays, such as The Immoralist (1955) and Compulsion (1957).
In the late 1950s and 1960s, certain critics attacked homosexual playwrights, notably Tennessee Williams, William Inge, and Edward Albee, for the submerged homosexuality in their plays, and boycotted dramas, such as Fortune and Men's Eyes (1965), which unrestrainedly depicted it. By the early 1960s, homosexuality in pollution xmas hats, American performance succeeded irrespective of reviews; British dramas containing homosexuality flourished on Broadway, and a homosexual theatre group, the Caffe Cino, inaugurated Off Off-Broadway. With the success of The Boys in the Band (1968), which paralleled the emerging gay liberation movement, homosexual theatre acquired a freedom that continues to the present. The dissertation relies heavily on newspaper and magazine articles in examining contemporary public and dramatic reaction. It studies text and i am a writer essay, production modes of significant plays to compare productions with critical response. Publication No . 8614497. Crawford KV (1984).
The transvestite heroine in essay writing xmas hats, Seventeenth-Century popular literature . PH.D. Thesis, Harvard University, DAI, Vol. Order Online Of Ephesians. 45-07A, p. 2109, 391 pages. Abstract by author: This is a study of a recurrent image in seventeenth-century popular English literature - that of the woman in masculine disguise. Chapter One traces an outline of the xmas, history of attitudes towards transvestism in the West, and links cross-dressing with various concepts of androgyny.
The Elizabethan literature on the subject of Amazons is referred to, and an eighteenth-century transvestite's autobiography is examined. This chapter concludes with a survey of nineteenth- and buy essay cheap the effect of martin luther king being on what he did, twentieth-century feminist explanations of female transvestism. Chapter Two provides some background information against which to read the material in subsequent chapters. The meaning of masculinity and femininity in seventeenth-century England is examined. I look at the role of women in the religious and political movements of the period, as well as discussing pamphlets, tracts and poems written by pollution essay xmas hats women. Finally, this chapter discusses the controversy over fashions in clothing which were perceived as blurring the distinction between men and women. Chapter Three is concerned with the ballad, which I argue is both a medium by means of which the a writer, dominant ideology is expressed at the popular level, and a means of pollution essay writing hats subversion. Chapter Four examines the transvestite heroine in Shakespeare's plays, whilst Chapter Five scrutinises the cheap the effect of martin he did, gender-disguised woman in non-Shakespearean drama. I discuss this character under various headings, such as the satirist of male manners, the woman stripped of social protection, the self-sacrificing.
Chapter Six is a study of the extant writings about Mary Frith, the Roaring Girl. I refer to satires, plays and a biography. Publication No . 8419319. Devor HJ (1990). Xmas. A comparison of gender schema constructs and conformity among female-to-male transsexuals, lesbian and heterosexual women. PH.D.
Thesis, University of Washington, DAI, Vol. 51-06A, p. 2160, 367 pages. Abstract by author: The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and her is essay, a version of the Sex-Rep Test were administered to 30 female-to-male transsexuals, 30 lesbian and 30 heterosexual women. The BSRI measures conformity to dominant gender schema gender role constructs; the Sex-Rep Test measures conformity with personal gender schema gender role constructs. I hypothesized that female-to-male transsexual participants would perform on these tests similarly to men, that heterosexual participants would be the most traditionally feminine of the three groups, that lesbian participants would be the least gender role conforming, and that Sex-Rep Test results would show the hypothesized trends more strongly than would the BSRI. The data provided some support for these contentions.
BSRI Femininity scores for all three groups unexpectedly were not significantly different from one another and within the normative range for men. This may have been a result of a stronger than expected feminist bias among lesbian and heterosexual participants. BSRI Masculinity scores for heterosexual women were within published norms for females; transsexual and lesbian participants' Masculinity scores were within the normative range for males but lesbian participants' Masculinity scores were not significantly different from those of heterosexual or transsexual participants. Sex-Rep Test personal gender schema gender role constructs showed little overlap with those on the BSRI. Sex-Rep Test Femininity and Masculinity scores for transsexual and lesbian participants differed from pollution essay xmas hats BSRI scores in the expected direction. Heterosexual participants' scores did not differ significantly on either scale or test. Female-to-male transsexual participants tended to be categorized, as expected, into high Masculinity gender role categories. Heterosexual participants tended to be categorized, as expected, into high Femininity gender role classifications. Lesbian participants were least consistent in their gender role categorizations, thus supporting their hypothesized position as least traditional of the three groups. In conclusion, I argued that variations in gender role categorizations among the three groups might be partially accounted for by variations in can someone essay to violent aggressive behavior in children, the gendered sexual identities of the three groups rather than simply by gender or sex.
I therefore suggested a model of the social construction of pollution xmas hats gendered sexuality. Publication No . 9025997. Donnell SE (1994). Clothes make the order the book of ephesians, man: transvestism or the re-dressing of masculine identity in spanish golden age and colonial theatre. PH.D. Writing Hats. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, DAI, Vol.
55-09A, p. 2854, 260 pages. Abstract by author: If we rethink our traditional readings of the comedia as a conformist genre, we discover that gender identity in Early Modern Spain and Colonial America was more fluid than previously thought. Essay Online The Book. By employing feminist and pollution writing xmas, gender theories, I expose the categories of dissertation globe man and woman as performative gender identities, repetitions which have no essential nature. Pollution Essay Xmas. My chapters on Lope de Vega's peninsular work, El paraiso de Laura, and Sor Juana's colonial piece, Los empenos de una casa, pay special attention to the power that the male cross-dresser derives from cultural anxiety over instability in gender and exposure to violent tv causes in children, its alliance with the transgressive power of the gracioso (or 'comic figure'). I also discuss the classed dimensions to pollution writing these gendered subversions as well as other intersecting identities, such as political identity and the world essay, ethnicity. In my chapters on Monroy y Silva's peninsular comedia, El caballero dama, and Calderon de la Barca's libretto for pollution essay writing xmas the zarzuela, La purpura de la rosa, I turn to cross-dressing in mythological themes and their performance. My study of Monroy's version of the myth of the cross-dressed Achilles places emphasis on both the betweenness of the cross-gendered subject, known as Aurora, and the actress' performance of zig-zagging gender and class identities. The final chapter deals with Calderon's retelling of the love triangle between Mars, Venus, and Adonis. Here I look at the cross-gendered performance of can someone do my essay exposure to violent tv causes behavior in children masculinity in the context of female singers playing the roles of the mythological heroes, especially in pollution essay writing, colonial and present-day revivals. In all four chapters, I focus on how cross-dressing leads to best harvard essay the possibility of same-sex desire which, in turn, undermines closure in the comedia.
These transvestite comedias undermine both generic conventions of form and content as well as past interpretations of the comedia as a monolithic genre. The conventional attempt to re-establish order through marriage becomes just another performative repetition in these cross-gendered plays. Publication No . 9503750. Ezdinl L (1988). George Sand's literary transvestism: pre-texts and context s. PH.D. Thesis, Princeton University, DAI, Vol. 49-02A, p. Essay Writing Xmas. 264, 291 pages.
Abstract by author: This dissertation situates George Sand within the sociological context of women writing during the order cheap the book of ephesians, Romantic period in France. Most critical work to date presents Sand as the only talented woman in a male canon and concludes that she is the essay writing xmas hats, prototypical woman writer of the period. In contrast, I show that Sand's highly complex authorial self-representation can be properly interpreted only by relocating her literary career within the socio-historical context of women's writing in France. The French Romantic period was characterized by the rise of the novel, the growth of the publishing industry, and the commercialization of literature. The thesis demonstrates how intense sexual rivalry within the do my to violent tv causes behavior in children, literary marketplace led to the concept of the femme auteur as a pejorative label invoked by essay writing xmas hats male critics to discourage female literary ambition.
I explore the tensions that resulted from such images for the women writing at the time, especially as they are reflected in the prefatory practices of the period. I argue that the preface became an independent literary genre of buy essay cheap great interest because it was associated with the construction of a marketable authorial persona. I then analyze the strategies of women who used their prefaces to protect themselves from the pollution essay xmas, threat of social and commercial marginalization. Finally, I position Sand in her is the world, relation to other women writers of her period and develop the ways in which Sand's literary transvestism served as a self-empowering literary strategy created to differentiate her from all other writers, both female and male. It is not because of pollution essay xmas her male pseudonym that Sand stands apart from other women writers of this period, but rather because of her status as a literary transvestite: a writer publicly perceived as having a double gender identity. While other French women writers of this period disguised their sex behind male pseudonyms, Sand alone succeeded in transforming her masculine signature into an authorial persona that was recognized as female yet categorized as male. The act of constituting herself as a male subject in her prefatory discourse when readers knew that George Sand was actually female signalled her as a different kind of woman: one who possessed male prerogatives, addressed her (male) critics as an equal, and continually proclaimed her own difference. Publication No . 8804848.
Friedli LK (1987). Crossing gender boundaries in a writer essay, Eighteenth Century England. PH.D. Thesis, University of Essex, DAI, Vol. 49-11A, p. 3478, 471 pages. Abstract by author: This thesis is concerned with processes of pollution xmas hats gender constitution, transgression and transformation during the Eighteenth Century, with specific reference to three figures: the maternal woman, the hermaphrodite and the transvestite. The significance of these figures is discussed in relation to the effect of martin king a series of debates regarding the meaning of sexual differences. Four sites are selected as examples of areas in which the pollution essay writing hats, term 'woman' gained new meanings: in relation to exposure to violent aggressive behavior in children the law, the family, employment and the institution. The importance of competing versions of sexual difference is then discussed from the perspective of an enlightenment epistemology, medical discourse and religious debate.
Texts from an eighteenth-century 'feminist debate' are then considered in terms of the retheorisation of political subjectivity which provided a language for the articulation of 'female rights', and in terms of the specific concerns of female apologists. The examples of women who dressed as men, definitions of effeminacy and mid-century debates regarding hermaphrodites are used to provide an account of the pollution essay writing xmas hats, possibility, meaning and significance of gender transgression. In conclusion it is argued that during the Eighteenth Century, more precise definitions of gendered categories produced both normative versions of masculinity and femininity and the proliferation of can someone do my essay aggressive in children gender deviants who became the focus of epistemological concern. Publication No . Pollution Essay Writing Hats. D-84396. Fryrear VL (1989). Transsexual students in a writer, the classroom: implications for teachers, counselors and administrators . ED.D. Thesis, Seattle University, DAI, Vol. 50-10B, p. Essay Xmas. 4794, 167 pages.
Abstract by author: This study examines the early childhood experiences of the transsexual in the family setting which might have contributed to gender dysphoria. Also examined are classroom experiences, including attitudes and essay, practices of teachers, that may have influenced the pollution essay writing hats, transsexual identity. The Survey Instrument for Sample Population of Transsexuals and the Survey Instrument for the Sample Population of the effect king being a christian he did Parents of writing xmas Transsexuals were developed to generate data about childrearing patterns inherent in the families of selected transsexual subjects and the classroom methods utilized by i am teachers of these transsexuals. These survey instruments were administered to twenty-five identified transsexuals and four parents of transsexuals in Seattle, Washington, and pollution writing hats, San Diego, California. Summary statistics and writing globe, analyses were compiled to determine commonalities and/or relationships. The study found several commonalities among the childrearing experiences of the twenty-five transsexuals in the sample.
Eighty-four percent said loneliness is pollution, common for them. Parents of these transsexuals disapproved of their children's sexual identities when the children were between the best harvard application essay, ages of six to ten years. These transsexuals were often ridiculed as being either sissies or tomboys. One hundred percent of the pollution essay writing xmas, transsexuals interviewed related that they, as children, had often envied members of the opposite sex. Online Cheap Of Ephesians. Fathers were identified as the primary disciplinarian in the homes of these transsexuals, especially when the child had committed forbidden acts like dressing in clothes appropriate for pollution hats the opposite sex. Ninety-two percent remember being closer to their mothers than to their fathers. While the majority of transsexuals in this study waited until adulthood to decide to the world essay change their anatomical sex, 84 percent remember feeling different from others of their sex before the writing, age of ten, and can someone essay exposure to violent, 60 percent knew before the age of five. Sixty percent stated that their fathers were physically or psychologically absent during most of the transsexuals' early childhood years.
Ninety-six percent of the transsexuals interviewed remember negative relationships with other students and some teachers. Physical education classes were listed as the most traumatic. While many childhood and school-related problems were discussed, most participants perceive transsexualism as something that occurs before birth, not after. Publication No . Xmas Hats. 9007606. Gurvich SE (1991). The transsexual husband: the wife's experience . PH.D. Thesis, Texas Woman?s University, DAI, Vol. 52-08A, p. 3089, 159 pages. Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact upon a woman when her husband considers himself to be transsexual.
Specific areas examined included the woman's reaction to her husband's desire for sex reassignment, her coping mechanisms, and her use of support systems. In-depth interviews using open ended questions were used to i am obtain individual perspectives from the respondents. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and coded by the researcher and two other professionals for content themes. The final form of the xmas hats, data was organized according to the research questions using quotations from the individual interviews to buy essay online cheap the effect king being illustrate identified themes. Information concerning demographic data took on a supportive role to the content analysis of the interview. The 10 women in this study were impacted in many aspects of their lives by the fact that their husbands were transsexual. The women were initially unaware of the significance of their husband's transsexual feelings, and essay writing hats, their perceptions of their relationships changed drastically after disclosure.
These women appeared to dissertation writing services reviews consider their partner to be in charge of the pollution xmas, relationship and writing reviews, experienced themselves as fairly powerless in the situation. Strong emotional and physical reactions were present in essay writing xmas hats, these women, including: feelings of abandonment and rejection; shock, horror, and disbelief; anger and feelings of betrayal; depression and anxiety; feelings of helplessness and confusion; self blame; loss of self confidence and self esteem; weight changes; sleep difficulties; and stomach and digestive difficulties. The women felt that their husbands had unrealistic views of being female in today's society. The women's sexual relationships with their partners were affected, as well as the women's feelings about their own femininity. Minimal support was available to help these women deal with their experience. The women were concerned that their partner's transsexualism would negatively impact their children. Dissertation Reviews Globe. The women's expectations for the future were drastically affected by their husband's transsexualism, and these expectations were overlaid with fear of future relationships.
Publication No . 9203121. Hausman BL (1992). Hats. Demanding subjectivity and producing gender: transsexualism, semiotics, and the technologies of medicine . PH.D. Thesis, The University of Iowa, DAI, Vol. 54-02B, p. 1139, 350 pages. Abstract by author: This dissertation is an essay, examination of the emergence of modern transsexualism and the production of the hats, concept of gender in her is, the twentieth century. The definition of transsexualism - a gender identity disorder that manifests itself in the desire to change sex - relies on essay writing xmas management protocols developed in the 1950s for the treatment of intersexual patients. In this context, the term gender was used to order essay cheap describe a subject's psychological orientation toward his/her physiological sex and its cultural meanings. The production of the idea of gender to describe the social articulation of sex effected a semiotic reversal such that gender became the conceptual ground for sex.
Clinicians' and critics' reliance on the idea of gender as a cause for transsexualism has limited both clinical management of pollution writing hats transsexual subjects and her is, critical assessments of the cultural significance of the transsexual phenomenon. In addition, gender is a problematic category for xmas feminism, since it is based in a theoretically untenable distinction between the natural body and its cultural identity. The theoretical analysis is derived from do my tv causes behavior Barthes' work on mythology and xmas hats, Baudrillard's on simulated hyper-reality. Gender has transformed the semiotics of sex into a mythology that operates on the order of simulation. This transformation occurred as developments in the technologies of medicine made it possible to alter physiological signifiers of sex. That is, the human body can be made to simulate the can someone do my essay exposure to violent aggressive, other sex. Xmas Hats. The development of the idea of gender as the psychological core of sex is one result of these developments in technology that, while enabling intersexual subjects to can someone essay exposure have a sex at all, ultimately discredited physiology as a reliable signifier of sex identity.
Gender effects a compulsive deconstruction of the pollution essay writing xmas, idea of sexual difference. This is enacted literally by transsexuals, who demand the excision of their sexual organs and the manufacture of new ones to reflect their felt sense of core gender identity. Transsexuals act as the agents of gender in the semiotic deconstruction of the body as signifier of sex. Feminists must resist the mythology of gender by reinvigorating theories of sex that avoid the nature/culture opposition between sex and gender. Publication No . 9318441. Hefner CJ (1994). Ludruk folk theatre of east Java: toward a theory of symbolic action.
PH.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, DAI, Vol. 55-10A, p. 3225, 346 pages. Abstract by author: In this study I treat ludruk folk theatre of East Java, Indonesia as a dynamic, aesthetic performing arts genre that effectively works to evoke fundamental notions constitutive of the harvard essay, world view of the participants. Performances are considered as expressive cultural events which amplify and heighten issues of social importance drawn from everyday life. I explore how ludruk performances establish an important social and political forum, negotiating issues of pollution essay writing xmas control, power, authority, and her is essay, local identity. Ludruk is meaningful in the lives of the participants because it appropriates local meanings, and offers methods to deal with sources of conflict and tension in their society.
Important to understanding context, I present an pollution writing xmas, overview of the history and development of best harvard application essay ludruk, explore the pollution essay writing, East Javanese social matrix, and discuss the form and structure of the ludruk performance. Performance is then considered as a cultural method of positing, legislating and do my essay in children, channeling subjects of importance. Writing. Actors in do my essay to violent tv causes aggressive in children, ludruk align themselves with a larger, more encompassing social identity through the pollution essay xmas, aesthetic use of online of martin being a christian on what he did sung poetry, dance, songs, music, and melodramatic folk stories. Hypothetical constructs onstage allow the conceptual space for moral imagination enabling the participants to ponder alternatives for social action. Pollution Hats. Through symbolic action in the performance, situations can be mocked, tested, discussed, and essay, realized in essay, a fashion not available through any other means. Two important characters, the transvestite and the clown, seek to reckon incongruities between social and political ideals and everyday lived experience. The transvestite negotiates issues of gender, status and morals, while the privileged expressions of the clowns offer an incisive critical function. Through their use of cleverly constructed humor, sarcasm, and parody, the clowns in ludruk offer not only liberating cathartic relief, but also powerful social criticism.
Meanings emerge in the negotiated process of cultural interpretation and arbitration. A semiotic approach deepens our understandings of how performances enrich society, by moving analysis beyond a referential focus as the primary locus of meaning. Reading the online cheap being he did, performance reflexively adds a resonating echo to essay writing xmas the importance of social action portrayed on best essay the ludruk stage. Publication No . 9506209. Hogan-Finlay MT (1995). Development of the cross-gender lifestyle and comparison of cross-gendered men with heterosexual controls . Pollution Essay Hats. PH.D. Thesis, Carleton University, DAI, Vol. 57-06B, p. 4075, 00225 pages, ISBN: 0-612-08844-8. Abstract by buy essay online the effect of martin a christian on what author: This study had two main goals. The first goal was to essay xmas test the i am a writer, hypothesis that a cross-gendered lifestyle progresses in a developmental and invariant order. The second was to compare non-clinical cross-gendered men (N = 101) and heterosexual controls (N = 101) with respect to demographics, childhood experiences, psychological functioning and essay, gender issues.
The Cross-gender lifestyle encompassed different phases that progressed with age, in an invariant order for (84%) of the men in this study. This lifestyle occurred during two main age periods: adolescence through early twenties where private cross-gender activities predominate (fantasies, cross-dressing, fetishism), and the mid-thirties through early forties when a public cross-gender lifestyle occurs; some pass in her is the world essay, public and essay xmas, use a femme name, while others take hormones, live more as a woman and may have sex-reassignment. Cross-gendered men were classified into three groups, Transsexuals, Group 1 (n = 27) identified most a woman, were most gender disturbed and psychologically distressed, and took steps to best application live permanently as a woman. Transvestites in Group 2 (n = 51) identified with both male and female roles, were moderately gender disturbed, highly fetishistic, and were satisfied to enjoy the cross-gender lifestyle on a temporary basis. Transvestites in pollution essay writing hats, Group 3 (n = 13) were similar to Group 2, without demonstrating physiological fantasies (breast, pregnancy, menstruating) of being a woman. The Cross-Gender Lifestyle Inventory developed for this research is proposed as a possible instrument to i am a writer identify phases of the cross-gender development. Typically, transvestites and heterosexual controls were similar on demographics. Pollution Essay Writing. Groups were discriminated only on do my exposure to violent tv causes aggressive behavior having been dressed as a girl, gender identity, gender disturbance, fetishism, and, psychological distress: Transsexuals reported having been dressed as a girl during childhood more frequently than the pollution xmas hats, two transvestite groups, controls were hardly ever dressed as a girl; Transsexuals were more highly distressed compared with transvestites and controls who scored within the normal range; Transsexuals identified more as females, were more gender disturbed compared to the tranvestites groups or controls. There is no support for dissertation writing services reviews transvestism being considered a psychiatric category. Publication No . NN08844. Hotchkiss VR (1990).
Clothes make the man: female transvestism in the Middle Ages. PH.D. Thesis, Yale University, DAI, Vol. 51-07A, p. 2375, 250 pages. Abstract by author: In numerous and hats, diverse medieval texts women use gender disguise to participate in order essay online, such male activities as monastic life, ecclesiastical governance, travel, business, rescue missions, and warfare. A hitherto overlooked topic, female cross-dressing is so widespread in medieval literature and, to a lesser extent, history that feminine stereotypes, women's roles in literature, and the perception of women in the Middle Ages must be reexamined in light of xmas this phenomenon. As alternative models for female heroism, disguised women combine traditional feminine virtues with male qualities such as adventuresomeness, strength, and perseverance. Paradoxically, however, the empowering force of male disguise reveals the limitations imposed upon women in medieval society since their success is contingent upon suppression of female identity. Writing Reviews. Moreover, emphasis on the femininity of women in disguise often betrays biases against women; according to essay hats many sources women are exemplary precisely because they strive to be like men.
This study of medieval cross-dressing covers the following topics: the a writer essay, symbolism underlying the popular vitae of transvestite saints; the confluence of hagiography and biography in the historical case of Hildegund von Schonau; the legend of the female pope and its diverse interpretations before and during the Reformation; the phenomenon of disguise in secular literature, particularly tales of wives and lovers who use disguise to rescue men or regain their affections; and, finally, extraordinary cases of female protagonists in courtly romance who experience a crisis of sexual identity. In these discussion, literary analysis is combined with sociological and historical approached to explore the wide range of meanings and pollution, manifestations of transvestism in the Middle Ages. Publication No . The World Essay. 9034212. Humphrey GW (1989). Cross-dressing in males: the attempt to retain the comforting object . PH.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, San Diego, DAI, Vol. 50-11B, p. 5318, 186 pages. Abstract by author: The present study investigated an alternative understanding of cross-dressing in males. Transvestism has traditionally been viewed as an pollution writing xmas hats, oedipal problem, viz., anxieties associated with fear of bodily injury (castration anxiety) yield a compromised sexuality where erotic stimulation is safely achieved through a representation of the object (female clothing). Transsexualism has been seen as consequent upon an overly close symbiosis with mother resulting in best essay, problems of gender identity. Taking an object relations respective, the present research conceptualizes both transvestism and transsexualism as related, preoedipal phenomena.
Use of female clothing is discussed in this context as a transitional object, i.e., assisting the cross-dressed individual to pollution essay hats evoke a sense of the effect of martin luther king being on what soothing. Seventy-one birth-biological, adult, males were able to pollution writing xmas be assigned to a control, transvestite, pre-operative transsexual, or post-operative transsexual group based on DSM III-R criteria. Individuals completed a demographic questionnaire, an instrument developed by the researcher to assess stimulation versus calming function of female clothing, the Hansburg Separation Anxiety Test (SAT), and exposure tv causes behavior in children, the Bell Object Relations Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI). A discriminant analysis was employed to derive variables which would best differentiate these groups. Results suggest both transvestites and transsexuals may use female clothing as a transitional object to pollution xmas hats dissipate anxiety, lift depression, and dissertation writing globe, generally enhance feelings of essay writing xmas hats calm and soothing. High scores on a clothing-to-soothe variable by post-op transsexuals (in the essay, same range as transvestites), suggests an underlying sense of insecurity has not been assuaged by SRS. Lower scores of pre-op transsexuals on this calming variable are interpreted as failure of the pollution essay xmas hats, transitional object resulting in a merger fantasy (SRS) seen as the antidote to insecurity. Best Harvard Application. Scores on essay xmas hats anxious attachment (SAT) also discriminated groups, with both transsexual groups scoring highest. Anxiety around attachment issues is interpreted as suggesting a borderline level of ego organization in the three cross-dressing groups. Findings suggest that transvestism be removed from the dissertation writing services globe, DSM III-R paraphilia classification.
Further, there is some support for seeing transvestism and transsexualism as progressions along a continuum within the borderline personality spectrum. Lastly, further support is xmas hats, offered to the growing evidence that SRS may served as a momentary palliative, but does not resolve the transsexuals elusive search for security. Publication No . Her Is The World Essay. 9009611. Jafari M (1997). A descriptive study of male to essay writing xmas female transsexualism: the prevalence and use of dissociative experiences . PH.D., California School of Professional Psychology, DAI, Vol. 58-05B, p. 2736, 109 pages. Abstract by author: The transsexuals' account of alienation and detachment from her is their biological gender, in particular from their genitals, is analogous to reports of individuals with depersonalization experiences. Depersonalization is a subcategory of the defense of dissociation. In this study the prevalence of pollution essay writing xmas hats dissociative experiences of Male to Female transsexuals was evaluated and compared to the prevalence of dissociative experiences in a control group of males and order of ephesians, females.
The study group consisted of twenty-seven male to female transsexuals. Pollution Essay Writing Xmas. The control group consisted of twenty-seven males and twenty-seven females, matched to the study group in respect to age and education. Essay The Book. The participants' ages ranged from twenty-one to sixty-five. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Questionnaire for Experiences of dissociation (QED) were used to assess dissociative experiences. A statistically significant difference was identified comparing the mean DES score of the group of MF-transsexuals with the entire control group, consisting of twenty-seven males and twenty-seven females (T = 2.5; P = 0.2). Forty-one percent of the transsexual participants compared to seventeen percent of the control group scored at or above the pollution essay hats, cutoff score of fifteen on order online of ephesians the DES. Writing Hats. This difference was statistically significant (p =.02). Twenty-two percent of the essay, transsexual participants scored above twenty on pollution essay writing the DES. Of Martin Luther King Being On What. A statistically significant difference was identified comparing the mean QED score of the MF-transsexuals with the Mean QED score of the entire control group (T = 2.5; P =.01).
Of the twenty-seven Male to Female transsexual participants, seventeen reported having experienced abuse including physical and/or sexual abuse. Ten participants did not report any abuse. The mean DES scores of the two groups of transsexuals (abused and not abused) were compared. The transsexual participants reporting abuse had a significantly higher mean DES score in comparison to transsexual participants who did not report childhood abuse (T = 2.6; p .01). In addition to this data, information on family history and personal meanings of femininity and masculinity are presented in a qualitative data analysis and the etiology of xmas hats transsexualism is reconsidered.
Further research is suggested to evaluate the order essay online cheap of ephesians, occurrence of dissociation in transsexualism and, in general, in the etiology of gender disorders. Publication No . 9734269. Johnson Sl (1987). The relationship of the typological features of hats male transsexualism to psycho/social adjustment and disturbance . PH.D. Thesis, University of Washington, DAI, Vol. 48-03A, p. 604, 121 pages. Abstract by author: Cumulative research on her is the psychological well-being of male transsexuals has concluded that mental health in this population varies along the entire spectrum of adjustment. As the debate on whether or not these variations are accounted for by some pathogenic mechanism within transsexualism has proven unproductive, another approach seeking to pollution essay writing xmas isolate the buy essay online cheap the effect of martin luther king being, variables that moderate psychological adjustment has been undertaken. To date only pollution essay xmas hats one variable, gender reorientation, an indicator of gender adjustment, has been isolated.
In a search to uncover additional variables, this study examined features which have been empirically linked to characteristics of male transsexual typology. Data from 25 male transsexual volunteers was examined by order essay online the book means of multiple regression analysis to determine whether symptoms of introversion, depression or tension, as well as, adjustment to work and gender reorientation could be linked to the typological variables of Androphilia, Gynephilia, Cross-gender Fetishism, Feminine Gender Identity in Childhood and Age of Onset of essay writing transsexualism. Results indicate there is a significant relationship between social Gender Reorientation and the feature of Androphilia and exposure tv causes aggressive in children, between Work Adjustment and pollution xmas, Gynephilia. This differential adaptation is explained in terms of the different course that transsexualism takes within each typological subgroup. These findings offer evidence as to why some transsexuals may more readily adopt a female gender identity than others, and further validates the view that the sub-category of homosexuality-heterosexuality accounts for the greatest percentage of interindividual variation in the transsexual population. There was no relationship found between the typological features and those variables measuring psychological disturbance. The results are tempered by the limitations of sample size and sampling distribution.
It is suggested that further research include other variables in addition to those relating to typology. Publication No . 8713376. Latimer RM (1987). Genderplex: the tradition of the transsexual character in western literature . M.A. Thesis, MAI, Vol. Do My Exposure To Violent Behavior. 26-02, p. 187, 100 pages.
Abstract by author: The transsexual character, who appears in Classical literature as a warrior, lover, or seer, possesses firm traditions upon which Modernist writers like Joyce, Eliot, Woolf, and pollution essay xmas hats, Djuna Barnes capitalize in their own works. Modernist idiom portrays the transsexual as more of a consciousness than a character, a fact arguing that the Modernist transsexual, like its forebears in harvard application essay, Classical literature and in fairy tale, legend, and fantasy, succumbs to pollution writing the representational norms of the writing services globe, era in essay hats, which it appears. The Ovidian link of Tiresias and Narcissus, revived in Modernism, as well as other evidence suggests that the literary transsexual subsumes other sexual categories such as homosexuality, bisexuality, hermaphrodism, androgyny and narcissism. Order Online Of Ephesians. The Modernists use the general transsexual figure and the revived Tiresias and Narcissus link to stand as a metaphor for writing the philosophical and best harvard essay, aesthetic dilemmas subsequent to an empirical worldview. They also use the transsexual to challenge the patriarchal worldview. Publication No . Pollution Essay Writing. 1331689. Li SL (1995). Gender, cross-dressing and Chinese theatre. Best. PH.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, DAI, Vol. 56-08A, p. 3131, 229 pages.
Abstract by writing xmas hats author: This dissertation employs an interdisciplinary approach to address the online cheap luther a christian, various configurations of the theatrical tradition of cross-dressing in classical Chinese drama as well as in today's regional operas, placing them in a larger cultural and theoretical context of gender studies. Drawing on cultural theory and viewing the pollution xmas hats, various dramatic and performance texts as signs of historical processes, this study investigates gender construction and i am a writer essay, gender politics in Chinese theatre in terms of the highly mediated representations of women, gender, eroticism, and cross-dressing presented in a variety of discourses from the Yuan period to the present time. Focusing on cross-dressing as a destabilizing force, it addresses issues of the male/female transvestite theatre and modes of erotic desire, the writing hats, participation of female players in the cultural (re)production and subversion of gender differences in various historical moments, the figure of the woman warrior and the complexities of gender politics in representing female resistance and containment in relation to online cheap the contemporary sociopolitical context, the instability of gender representation in textual and visual media, and the generation of the unsettling notion of gender as performance in traditional Chinese theatrical discourse. The prevalent cross-dressing practice on pollution hats stage combined with an obsession with prettiness and artistry in traditional theatre criticism and best essay, aesthetics have engendered the subversive feminine, rendering Chinese theatre an unstable site of ideological contestation embodying a simultaneous perpetuation and dismantling of bipolar gender notions and sociopolitical hierarchies. This dissertation also attempts to show that critical reflections on traditional culture can be made to speak to the concerns of today's ideological resistance to political hegemony and cultural dominants, by way of the unveiling of polyvalent meanings of gendering and gendered differences that are constructed, reproduced, dismantled, and essay writing, contested in i am a writer, that particular site of Chinese culture, i.e., the theatre. Publication No . AAI9541126. Miller JE (1993). Service and subjectivity: the cross-dressed woman in early modern english drama.
PH.D. Thesis, The University of Utah, DAI, Vol. 54-11A, p. 4104, 230 pages. Abstract by writing hats author: This dissertation begins with the notion that identity is a discursive formation, that we are produced by the world essay and limited to the kinds of things that are said or can be said about ourselves at any historical moment. Pollution Writing. Stories about cross-dressed women in the world essay, early modern literature seem to represent an awareness of the essay, constructed nature of gender and identity, and even some anxiety about the ability of social forces to define a person in any stable or natural way. In plays that represent the cross-dressed woman working in some way (the familiar girl-p., for instance), we can better understand the drama's contributions to society if we consider work or service as one of the major social forces that creates subjectivity, gives a sense of i am essay identity, and helps to define gender. Although cross-dressing is often looked at as a recurring phenomenon in a survey of the Renaissance literary scene, this is essay xmas hats, a more narrowly focused reading of three English plays with transvestite hero/ines representing a range of class status and dramatic technique. By placing the online the effect luther king being he did, issue of cross-dressing within the historical context of women's work in the Renaissance, we can see it as more than a psycho-sexual phenomenon, but as a way of affecting a woman's value in essay, society. Social historians suggest that the buy essay cheap of martin he did, growing separation of private households and essay writing hats, public workspaces contributed to the oppression of early modern women. The cross-dressed hero/ines in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, and Middleton and order the book, Dekker's The Roaring Girl challenge public/private and masculine/feminine dichotomies, and pollution essay xmas hats, perhaps even binary thinking itself, as they take active serving roles and cheap of martin luther he did, make themselves necessary to their communities.
If work is a social force that helps to shape us as subjects, it is important to consider cross-dressing as, at least in part, a strategy by which women avoided passivity and commodification, whether as ornamental wives or as overworked, underpaid drudges. These plays suggest that cross-dressing can be read as an implicating gesture that subjects a woman to service while allowing her to assert a kind of subjectivity usually reserved for pollution xmas men who serve their society. Publication No . 9410300. Mumper AD (1989). Latent male gender dysphoria as measured by the GD scale of the MMPI: a prediction and construct validation study . PH.D. Thesis, The University of Akron, DAI, Vol. 50-01B, p. Her Is Essay. 349, 265 pages. Abstract by author: Research focused on a criterion group of men who did not present to therapy with gender dysphoric complaints, yet were identified by the Gd scale of the MMPI as potentially having gender dysphoria.
The purpose of the study was to (a) offer diagnostic confirmation of this potentially gender dysphoric group and Gd scale construct validation, (b) improve diagnostic confidence of gender dysphoria as a latent entity, (c) improve understanding of the Gd scale and gender dysphoria multidimensionality, and (d) explore nonbiological gender dysphoria dimensions. The study investigated five problems: (a) factor structure underlying the Gd scale, (b) validity of the Gd scale in applied nongender clinic settings, (c) the existence of latent gender dysphoria, (d) differences between high MMPI Scale 5 significant vs. nonsignificant Gd scale groups, and (e) generation of pollution discriminant prediction equations to classify gender/nongender dysphoria groups. The design was ex post facto. Scales of the MMPI, MCMI, and Gd scale were employed and included a gender dysphoria variable predictor set (P1). This set was used in confirmatory, cross-validation, and discriminant procedures. Results revealed that (a) confirmatory evidence of gender dysphoric traits existed in individuals who had high Gd scale scores but who had not presented to treatment with gender dysphoria complaints; (b) the criterion group was confirmed as having gender dysphoric traits, therefore, the Gd scale withstood a test of construct validation; (c) P1 showed diagnostic prediction potential (rsp2 =.4756, p =.01); (d) three discrete factors underlie the Gd scale; (e) evidence of a subtype of latent gender dysphoria was found; and (f) a discriminant prediction equation classified subjects at an 80% level, accounted for 40% of the writing, variance, and remained stable in cross-validation with less than 10% shrinkage. Results suggested that a subtype of gender dysphoric men may exist that do not have transsexual anatomic rejection and may not want to be biologically different, but may want the feelings, interests, and activities of a female in a nonbiological sense due to discomfort and a sense of inappropriateness about writing xmas hats one's assigned sex. I Am A Writer. The Gd scale, in this initial investigation, appears to have diagnostic value in men who do not present with gender dysphoric complaints. As a first study, many research recommendations were made. Publication No . 8907758.
Piedmont O (1996). Essay Hats. The veils of a writer arjuna: androgyny in gay spirituality, east and west. PH.D. Thesis, California Institute of xmas hats Integral Studies, DAI, Vol. 57-06B, p. 4076, 401 pages. Abstract by author: The thesis is a hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry into the meaning of gay spirituality in the U.S and India utilizing the symbol of the reviews, androgyne as a tool for investigation. Xmas Hats. Themes of gender transcendence, transformation, healing, psychic equilibrium, and embodied spirituality emerge in a cross-cultural analysis of religious symbols and online cheap of martin luther being a christian, myths of androgyny between Indian Hinduism and American gay culture. Pollution Writing Hats. A perspective of archetypal and sociological meanings is presented, including an understanding of gayness as a developmental force leading gay men through stages of individuation.
The author labels these stages as unconscious androgyny, homosexual identified, gay identified, and exposure to violent aggressive, conscious androgyny. Part I deals with Western themes of androgyny related to sex positive, embodied consciousness, drawing from the writing xmas, Native American berdache tradition of third-gender transvestite men and writing reviews globe, women. The coming-out process is seen as a major developmental task for gay men that must be incorporated into one's identity before higher levels of spiritual growth can occur. The spiritual significance of drag and community space is analyzed. Synthetic models of gay development are presented incorporating both essentialist and constructivist arguments. Part II presents Eastern themes of androgyny connected to xmas hats homosexuality as found in Hindu literature and rituals in globe, India. References to classical Hindu literature, including the xmas, Kama Sutra, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, reveal a historically positive attitude toward homosexuality and gender diversity. Description is order essay online of ephesians, given to a mythology of androgynous gods, including Ardhanarisvara, Siva-Sakti, Harihara, and pollution writing xmas hats, Visnu/Mohini, relevant to the gay psyche. Specific reference to Skanda as the god of homosexuals is given.
Eunuchs are analyzed as third-gender people inclusive of homosexuality and manifesting in literary, religious and sexual transvestism. Contemporary attitudes in i am a writer, India toward homosexuality reflect an emerging ambivalence characterized by both homophobia and open displays of same-sex eroticism. Particular attention is paid to the institution of essay writing xmas hats same-sex friendships, yaari, and its high value of cheap of martin luther king a christian he did meaning for Indian men. The study ends with a synthesis of xmas hats Eastern and Western perspectives into an energy (chakra) system incorporating images and cheap, symbols of relevance to gay ontology and spiritual development. Publication No . 9633907. Prosser JD (1996). Transitional matters: the body narratives of transsexual autobiography . PH.D. Pollution Writing. Thesis, City University of New York, DAI, Vol. 57-10A, p. I Am A Writer Essay. 4372, 00429 pages. Abstract by author: Centering on pollution writing hats the relations between transsexual bodies and the world essay, autobiographical narratives, this dissertation argues that transsexual subjectivity depends on pollution essay xmas self-narration.
I network between published autobiographies, medical case histories and contemporary theories of gender and writing reviews globe, representation to consider how transsexuality has been shaped as an identity through autobiographical acts. The somatic and social transitions of transsexuality are entangled with narrative transitions. Drawing on feminist, gender and queer theory, this project also considers what transsexual trajectories can contribute to their current debates about sex, gender, the body, narrative and pollution essay hats, construction. Publication No . 9707144. Schjelderup N (1994). Oral histories of black gay men and a black transgender person in best harvard application essay, the San Francisco bay area. M.A. Thesis, San Jose State University, MAI, Vol. 33-01, p. 66, 114 pages. Abstract by pollution writing xmas hats author: This thesis addresses the topic of the lives of black gay men and transgender people, using the disciplines of anthropology and sociology.
A literature review revealed that very limited information was available on this population. Twenty-five interviews were conducted with 13 people, using the oral history approach. Her Is. The goal for this study has been to pollution essay hats collect information about what the thirteen people interviewed see as important in their lives, and to contribute to a better understanding of can someone do my behavior in children a group of people little research has been devoted to in the past. Some of the topics addressed are: family relations, racism in the gay community, homophobia in the black community, choice of pollution essay writing hats partners, relationships with women, and the process of defining a gay or transgender identity. This thesis identifies some of the issues associated with being black and gay or transgender in regards to these topics. Publication No . 1358226.
Smith ME (1996). Writing Services Reviews. Cross-dressing in men: the relationship of the male gender dysphoria descriptive dimensions to psychosocial development . PH.D. Thesis, Indiana University, DAI, Vol. 57-12B, p. 7744, 210 pages. Abstract by pollution essay author: The purpose of do my essay exposure to violent aggressive in children this study was to investigate the relationship between descriptive dimensions of the male gender dysphoria typology and resolution of essay xmas hats conflicts in psychosocial development. For many years, psychoanalytic and core feminine identity theories dominated diagnostic and can someone do my essay exposure in children, treatment approaches to male cross-dressing and contributed to pollution essay writing xmas a faulty dichotomy in best application essay, the literature: sexual motivation (i.e., transvestism) versus gender motivation (i.e., transsexualism) for cross-dressing. Typology studies have attempted to broaden our understanding of the variations of cross-dressing through empirical identification of essay hats salient, descriptive dimensions. Another body of literature has investigated the psychosocial adjustment of essay cross-dressers and often gives a mixed picture. The present study hypothesized that three descriptive dimensions-cross-gender fetishism, autogynephilia, and adult gender dysphoria- would contribute to essay writing xmas problems in resolving developmental conflicts because those dimensions represent, respectively, interpersonal inhibition, self-absorption, and years of identity confusion. Sixty-two adult males were volunteer participants in this study.
All acknowledged cross-dressing and experiences of feeling like a woman. Essay Online The Book. The participants completed two questionnaires: the writing xmas, Measures of Psychosocial Development and writing services, a questionnaire that included scales used in previous studies to measure descriptive dimensions and pollution writing xmas hats, socially desirable response tendencies, as well as items developed for this study to best assess additional descriptive dimensions, demographic information, and anecdotal information. Significant findings indicated that cross-dressers' self-identification in a transsexual direction, socializing in a female role, and satisfaction with counseling were associated with resolution of conflicts in psychosocial development. Pollution Hats. Results did not support the hypotheses for the three descriptive dimensions. This may have been because the majority of participants in the study were well-educated, tended to essay to violent present themselves in pollution essay xmas, socially favorable ways, and had been in contact with a counselor. An exploratory factor analysis revealed one apparently stable factor having to do with feminine gender identity and a less useful factor having to do with sexual arousal. Discussion focused on the importance of the social aspects of cross-gender presentations and cross-dressers' apparent lack of awareness of or need to mask sexual issues. Publication No . 9716501. Rubin HS (1996).
Transformations: emerging female to male transsexual identities. PH.D. Thesis, Brandeis University, DAI, Vol. 57-04A, p. 1865, 268 pages. Abstract by buy essay cheap the effect being a christian he did author: Female-to-male transsexualism is a relatively new category of identity, though individuals have existed throughout history who have felt the way female-to-male transsexuals (FTMs) have felt. Men who start their lives in female bodies, at this historical juncture, identify as transsexuals and many use surgical and hormonal medical technologies to become the men that they feel they really were all along. A significant portion of FTMs have had lesbian careers; they had once assumed and then discarded a lesbian identity. Yet, FTMs demonstrate a strong resistance to being identified as or with lesbians. They are not lesbian because they are not women. Though they have female bodies, they are male-identified.
These social facts plus a larger cultural context which confuses lesbian women and FTM transsexuals is explained by an historical analysis of the early 1970s; a critical epoch in the reformulation of modern categories of sex, gender and sexuality. The 1970s saw a proliferation of categories of female-bodied deviance. Where once there had been gender inverts, modern America now has lesbians, cross-dressers and transsexuals. A revolutionary collaboration between feminism and lesbianism criticized and eventually erased the pollution hats, gendered identities which had previously structured old gay life (prior to 1970). The lesbian-feminist revolution required lesbians to identify with and as women.
The new identity category, transsexual emerged as an alternate place for female-bodied gender inverts. Interviews with FTMs provide a phenomenology of FTM transsexualism to complement the history of these categories. I Am. FTMs need to make sense of their lesbian careers, but most refuse an historical explanation. Instead, FTMs experience a deep, internal sense of difference from others with female bodies. They do identity work in order to organize this experience of difference into an identity and writing hats, provide rationales for their transition from female to male.
FTMs locate their differences from lesbians deep within their flesh. Their essentialist rhetoric is analyzed for the function it performs in justifying their extraordinary life projects. Publication No . 9626008. Steinmeyer SM (1986). The World. Transsexuals in transition: the impact of a pre-surgical treatment program upon psychological adjustment and self-esteem . PH.D. Thesis, United States International University, DAI, Vol.
47-05B, p. 2216, 147 pages. Abstract by author: The Problem. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of xmas a pre-surgical management program for transsexual clients upon dissertation reviews globe the self-esteem and psychological adjustment of its participants. Methods. Pollution Essay. The study was a non-experimental post-hoc design. Two self-administered inventories, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, were presented to 28 transsexual clients at the onset and at the conclusion of their participation in a pre-surgical treatment program which included endocrine treatment, cross-dressing and essay, membership in xmas hats, an educational/support group under the supervision of a clinical psychologist. Order Online Cheap. For one-third of the participants additional data were available in the form of post-surgical repetitions of these measures. To supplement the psychometric information, survey questionnaires were distributed among past and current group members to solicit their experiential accounts of the pollution hats, program and i am essay, thus to add a more subjective point of view. Results. The t-test analyses of pre- and post-program measures revealed that many self-esteem variables were significantly improved in male-to-female subjects.
These gains appeared to hold for post-surgical subjects. Female-to-male subjects experienced a decline in self-esteem, particularly with reference to pollution xmas hats family relationships. Order Online The Book Of Ephesians. For subjects of both genders significant positive changes in psychological adjustment occurred, the pattern of essay writing xmas hats these changes appearing to be consistent with sex-role behavior of the adopted gender. A review of her is the world essay two-point profile codes revealed that the configurations were most frequently characterological in nature, and that a sense of non-conformity and independence was the characteristic most resistant to change over time. Correlational analyses of essay writing xmas hats self-esteem and personality measures suggested that the adoption of gender-congruent behavior was not related to enhanced self-esteem. Survey responses emphasized the a writer essay, value of the program as a source of information and mutual support. However, these subjects indicated that they continued to have difficulty in establishing close or intimate interpersonal relationships. Publication No . Writing Xmas Hats. 8617921. Theron A (1979). Identification of male-to-female transsexuals and essay online of ephesians, adjustment before and after sex reassignment.
D.LITT., University of South Africa, DAI, Vol. 41-04B, p. Essay Writing. 1530, pages. Abstract by author: Ever since the sensational publication of Christine Jorgensen's sex reassignment operation in 1953 medical doctors are faced increasingly with requests by transsexuals for such operations. A Writer. The result of this is that the number of sex reassignment operations increases every year. Despite this increase it appears that, compared to xmas other psychopathological disorders, transsexualism is the field that receives least attention from essay researchers. This state of affairs has resulted in a situation where those who have to evaluate transsexuals for sex reassignment often have to rely on their own subjective judgement instead of scientifically based criteria. The problem of evaluation is further complicated by the fact that some homosexuals and transvestites also apply for sex reassignment. Because they are regarded as poor candidates for sex reassignment it is essential that they should be identified as such during the evaluation. Although criteria exist for the identification of pseudo-transsexuals, practical experience has shown that it is essay writing xmas hats, often difficult to best application essay apply these criteria because the pollution writing, evaluator is dependent on the information which the patient is willing to divulge.
The majority of people regard their sex organs as important. Therefore the transsexual's request for sex reassignment is incomprehensible and unacceptable to most individuals. In the case of the medical practitioner a further factor is added namely that he sees his task as the treatment of online the book diseases and pollution essay xmas, not the amputation of healthy organs. Furthermore the fact that very little is known about the cheap of martin luther being a christian on what he did, postoperative adjustment of transsexuals causes surgeons to be hesitant to perform this type of operation and even to essay writing xmas hats hold a negative attitude towards it. Due to the dearth of knowledge regarding transsexualism and to violent tv causes aggressive, the problems surrounding evaluation, this research was undertaken.
The aims of essay writing xmas this study were to determine if the writing services reviews globe, adjustment of the postoperative transsexual is pollution xmas, better than that of the preoperative transsexual and whether it is possible to distinguish between preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals with the aid of psychological measuring instruments. The subjects selected for this study consisted of 14 self-identified preoperative transsexuals, 14 postoperative transsexuals and 21 homosexuals. The results obtained by means of the Q-sort adjustment scale indicate that postoperative transsexuals are significantly better adjusted than preoperative transsexuals. This finding points towards the possibility that the sex reassignment operation could have a positive effect on adjustment. On account of this it is essay the book, recommended that adjustment should be studied by means of longitudinal studies. In this way it could be ascertained to xmas which extent the her is essay, adjustment and self-concept may be influenced by sex reassignment.
The findings in connection with the pollution essay, distinction between preoperative transsexuals and best essay, homosexuals show that neither the MMPI or BSRI were able to essay xmas distinguish effectively. The results obtained with the BSRI, however, indicate very strongly that the nature of the masculine and feminine dimensions of the transsexual and homosexual's personality require further research. This type of research may contribute towards a better understanding of the development of gender identity disorders as well as the transsexual's claim that his psyche is feminine. The Body Image scale as well as its sub-scale, Primary Genderal Characteristics, distinguished effectively between the preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals. It also appears that the Direct and Destructive aggression scales of the Picture Situation Test were able to distinguish effectively between these two groups.
It is therefore recommended that these scales should be included in order online cheap the book of ephesians, the evaluation program of preoperative transsexuals. In conclusion it can be said that besides the pollution, above contribution this research has made, it also indicated that transsexualism is a field that needs more extensive research. More empirical studies are necessary and results should be published. By doing this a better understanding of and can someone do my essay exposure behavior in children, empathy for transsexuals will develop, and pollution xmas hats, those involved with the evaluation of transsexuals will be able to evaluate transsexuals on a more scientifically founded basis. Publication No . 0533822. Tully JB (1987). Accounting for transsexualism . PH.D. Thesis, Brunel University, DAI, Vol. 49-05B, p. 1960, 370 pages.
Abstract by author: This study reports the systematic collection of accounts from 204 transsexual subjects, most of whom attended the Gender Identity Clinic at Charing Cross Hospital (Fulham). A review of the order online the book of ephesians, literature covers cross gender behaviour in other societies, recent biological, social and psychological studies on writing xmas gendered and cross gendered behaviour, a medical history of transsexualism and 'sex reassignment surgery'. Psychological 'frames' for the world the study of cross gendered careers are derived from attributional theories, and essay hats, symbolic interactionist approaches to online luther a christian on what he did the construction of sexual categories of behaviour and experience. The collection of writing accounts follows a methodology derived from Harre and i am a writer, his associates' ethogenic approach to the study of social behaviour, and the principles of generating 'grounded (sociological) theory' propounded by Glaser and Strauss. There is a short statistical section on the population of pollution xmas hats research subjects as a whole. Transexuals' accounts, some 500 exerpts, are marshalled under nearly 200 headings and subheadings. These cover almost all areas of relevant life experience. The conclusions argue that there is a fundamental weakness in the imposition of psychiatric 'syndromes' on gender dysphoric phenomena.
Rather, 'gender dysphoric careers' are proposed as fluctuating enterprises in the construction of meanings, some meanings being more fateful and workable than others. An attributional - 'imaginative involvement' model to account for transsexualism is explicated. The implications which can be drawn from this, for the way the management of these unfortunate people could be improved, completes the text. Publication No . DX82094. Vijnovic SA (1984). A profile of patients at a community agency serving sexual minorities . PH.D. Exposure Tv Causes Aggressive Behavior. Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, DAI, Vol. 46-03B, p. 950, 340 pages. Abstract by author: This study profiles individuals who sought outpatient care at a community agency specializing in the treatment of sexual minorities.
Eight subgroups were extrapolated from the population. These included male and essay writing xmas, female subjects self-identified as homosexual, heterosexual, transsexual or bisexual). These groups then responded to a 10-p., 52-item questionnaire assessing demographics, previous psychiatric history and symptomatology, family, sex and drug and alcohol history. I Am A Writer Essay. Descriptive and analytic comparisons were then offered for these variables across these subgroups. Publication No . 8617921.
Wilchesky M (1995). Primary and essay hats, secondary processes in male transsexuals participating in a sex reassignment programme. PH.D. Thesis, University de Montreal, DAI, Vol. 57-04B, p. 2892, 00302 pages, ISBN: 0-612-08494-9.
Abstract by author: This study set out to reexamine male transsexuals to observe whether they demonstrate a higher level of psychopathology than do heterosexual males. Our interest centred on whether such psychopathology would emerge in primary and buy essay the effect being on what he did, secondary process manifestations. Some earlier investigations have resulted in positive findings to this question. Essay Writing Xmas. However, the groups with which the transsexuals were compared were not selected from a pool in the effect a christian on what, which the context was analogous. Both Hammond (1984) and Murray (1985) have suggested that in future research a control heterosexual group be selected from those who are in writing xmas, a relevant clinical context. Responding to these recommendations, we compared 20 gender dysphoric males who had been accepted into a major hospital's transsexual programme, with a group of 20 heterosexual male controls, who were on online of martin being a christian he did a waiting-list for genital surgery, and with a third group of 20 male homosexuals from a university gay group.
The major instrument was the Rorschach inkblot test, scored according to the Holt and Exner methods. Half of each group of subjects was tested by the same female examiner, and half by pollution essay a male. Protocols were tape-recorded and transcribed to avoid tester bias and to maintain accuracy. Each of Holt's four areas was analyzed by an expert psychologist, who was blind as to the subjects' group identity. Each of Holt's four areas was analyzed: content, formal deviations, control and defense, and overall ratings of total response. Particular focus was directed on Holt's Defense Demand (DD) in the world, responses with libidinal and aggressive content; Holt's formal deviations, defense effectiveness and essay xmas, adaptive regression; and Exner's form level (X+%), Special Scores, and Schizophrenia Index, to allow for comparison with Murray's study. MANCOVA's were performed to analyze the the world, data to correct for age and socio-economic status, and to pollution essay hats provide adjusted means for the three groups.
IQ was equivalent across groups. Results showed no significant differences on seven of these eight groups of measures between the transsexual and the control groups. However, a difference was observed on occurrences of do my to violent tv causes behavior a milder form of Exner's Special Scores. This distinction was observed within the context of a good level of formal deviations, defense effectiveness and adaptive regression equal to those of the heterosexual controls, and has been interpreted as an indication of the Ego's creative efforts to integrate those parts of the whole which are hard to reconcile. This study indicates that the two groups are not significantly different as manifested in primary and secondary processes production. It would appear that the control of contextual variables (i.e. preparing for genital surgery condition for both the essay xmas hats, gender dysphorics and the heterosexual controls could have been pivotal in reversing and minimizing Murray's results. The World. However, it must also be remembered that the anxiety level of the controls might have been magnified since they were considerably closer to surgery than the target group. The homosexual group demonstrated more unrestrained flamboyance of expression (i.e. Writing. libidinal and aggressive fantasy material) and minor formal deviations of thought processes than either one or both of the other two groups, albeit in a socially acceptable way (defense effectiveness and adaptive regression). The discussion takes into account certain factors which limit the generalization of essay these results to the populations involved as a whole. Publication No . NN08494.
The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors . These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the xmas hats, result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton. Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the online cheap the book of ephesians, construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of pollution writing a gay lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and services reviews globe, he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the hats, site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject (http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/links3a.htm) is located. Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media , University of Calgary . She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages. The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on do my exposure tv causes aggressive the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications. This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues . Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors .
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Biodiversity and pollution essay xmas Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and Chauhan, 2006) © Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and i am Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for timber, ?sh, in the delta of the pollution writing hats rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Megh- prawns and fodder. Online Cheap The Effect Luther King. The regulation of river ?ows by pollution writing xmas, a se- na is shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and India ries of dams, barrages and embankments for diverting. 40 %), and services reviews is the world’s largest coastal wetland. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in freshwater in?ow.
an annual rainfall of 1,600–1,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the biodiversity because of an in- clonic storms. Enormous amounts of sediments carried crease in salinity and changes in sedimentation. Heritiera. by the rivers contribute to its expansion and dynamics. fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over xmas hats a wide range of spatial and derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. Cheap The Book. The biodiversity includes about 350 spe- are declining rapidly.
During the past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and 300 birds, besides parts of the remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and a biosphere reserve. Parts of the Sundar- phibians and mammals. Species composition and com- ban in both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to west, and along the World Heritage sites. However, its biodiversity continues.
hydrological and salinity gradients. Sundarban is the to pollution essay xmas hats, be threatened by a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on the freshwater in?ows from upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from global climate change, from the area.
Large areas of the Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into essay, paddy ?elds over the past two depend upon the management of pollution essay hats freshwater resources as. centuries, and more recently into shrimp farms. The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.
* Corresponding author e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. Her Is The World. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in Brazil, Australia and pollution essay writing hats Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). While practically all mangroves occur in small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to patches that develop in deltaic habitats, the mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.
The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at India and Bangladesh, are the only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against over est coastal wetland system in the world. Essay The Book Of Ephesians. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about one million ha. 570 million ha of freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). area, greater than the combined area of Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of pollution essay writing xmas these wetland for- the Netherlands.
ests remained poor until the 1970s (Lugo and Snedaker, Exploration of the Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the 16th century (Rollet, 1981). A large bulk of pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on order online cheap the book of ephesians, the Sundarbans of both India. increasingly greater attention which is re?ected in an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in the number of publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and pollution essay writing xmas hats Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and Wahab, 2005) covering many.
tion of mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and ticularly ?sheries), utilization and management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is known about the functional aspects of this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. In this review, we examine the current state of order cheap the book of ephesians our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). knowledge of Sundarban’s biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of mangroves has also been of in- threatening it, and the recent conservation measures. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is preceded by a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and hydrology which are the major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the sea level rise here that since 1947 the Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and Ashton, 2002, 2004).
Mangroves are vided between India and pollution writing hats Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for the world their ?oral diversity which is kistan), and the two parts differ considerably in pollution xmas hats the nature. comprised of only i am, 65–69 species of vascular plants and extent of investigations, conservation and manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. They also differ substantially in the level of human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001) exploitation over more than a century. This makes it dif- and among the fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and crus- ?cult to integrate the information of the entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. The global pat- ban. Therefore, we frequently refer to the Indian and. terns of biodiversity in mangroves also present an inter- Bangladesh parts of the Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is normal in as much as the highest spe-
The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of plants occurs around the essay writing xmas Equator and. declines at higher latitudes – both north and do my aggressive behavior south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the pollution longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to 89? 55? E) bution is quite ‘anomalous’ with high concentrations in comprises essentially of numerous islands formed by the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and writing services Latham, 1993; Ellison and Farnsworth, 2001). Brahmaputra and the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and creeks. The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). tion within the Sundarban is only 10 m above the mean. More than 41 % of the world’s mangroves occur in sea level. The western and eastern limits of the Sundar-
South and Southeast Asia of which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by the course of the River Hooghly (a. counts for 23 %. A further 20 % of the total mangrove distributary of River Ganga) and River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term ‘mangrove’ is used variously referring to plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and the whole ecosystem. Macnae (1968) reserved the term.
‘mangal’ to describe the mangrove plant communities. In this paper, we Often referred to in plural as ‘Sundarbans’ because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the term mangrove for the entire of hundreds of islands separated by rivers and creeks, or to mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the plants inhabiting them. Essay Writing. Indian and Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and do my to violent tv causes aggressive behavior M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.
border between India and pollution essay xmas Bangladesh. About 60 % of the ban in the two countries often differ considerably. Ac- mangrove forests lie in the Khulna District of the world Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the area of the xmas Sundarban in. desh and the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of West Bangladesh is 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in India it is 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.
Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in northwestern Punjab and the southeastern. ?ow of the River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and essay Brahmaputra together carry the world’s larg- est sediment load to the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in the Bengal Basin between the 12th.
and 15th century AD further resulted in an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). Essay. During the 16th century, the R. Her Is Essay. Ganga changed its course to shift eastwards and. join the xmas Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). Later, in her is the world the mid 18th century, the combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). Essay. This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the hydrology of the deltaic region because of.
Figure 1a. Location of the Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the sedimentation patterns and the reduction. Figure 1b. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and i am a writer essay Bangladesh. Pollution Essay Xmas Hats. Mangroves once extended up to best application, the Dampier-Hodges line.
– the inward limit of tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Sci. Vol. Pollution Essay Hats. 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Exposure Aggressive Behavior. Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.
than the Hooghly, that contributed to the formation of the pollution xmas hats coast. Ganga Delta (from west to east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in buy essay online cheap luther he did the Bangladesh Sundarban, the soil is a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of clay, silt and sand. original connections with the Ganga because of siltation The surface is clay except on the seaward side of islands. (Fig.
1b), and their estuarine character is now maintained along the coast , where sandy beaches occur. Pollution Essay Xmas. In the east- by the monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and Vaidyaraman, ern part, the surface soil is soft and fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and less suitable for the world tree growth in the west. in the pollution essay writing hats west, but has accelerated in the eastern part. The (Choudhury, 1968). The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of essay cheap of ephesians sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).
understood from the estimated increase in the land area. by more than 800 km2 in 80 years between 1793 and 1870. (Richards, 1990). Writing Hats. Recent studies by Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the area is characterized by relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and their temperature and the world essay humidity (80 %) throughout the year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from writing hats, a daily minima of 2–4 °C in win- ter to a maximum of about 43 °C in March and may ex- Soils ceed 32 °C during the monsoon.
Recent reports suggest. The land is do my tv causes moulded predominantly by tidal action. An that the essay writing xmas air temperature over the Sundarban and adjacent. intricate network of waterways, of which the larger chan- parts of the Bay of do my to violent tv causes behavior in children Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to 2.0 km wide), run in a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the whole area. Innumerable from about the pollution essay hats middle of November to the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the land at each ebb tide. ary and her is essay is followed by the summer from March to May. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the pollution There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.
resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and can someone exposure chars, which are blown into gion decreases from east to west and from south to essay hats, the. dunes above the high-water mark by the strong southwest north. In the Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Ben- varies from about 1,800 mm in Khulna, north of the Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on the leeward side of the darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. These rainfall in the Indian region is only 1,661.6 mm. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and creases from 1,805 mm in the south on Sagar Island to- develop into grassy meadows. This process of island- wards Kolkata in to violent the north.
Most of the rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to wave action. With the formation period (June–September). Some precipitation is received. of the pollution essay xmas hats next island further out, silt begins to accumulate in the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the shore of the island and online cheap king being on what he did sand is blown or washed There is relatively little variation in the rainfall be- tween years. During the ?rst half of the 20th century, the.
away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Most of the soils derived from alluvial deposits are highest and lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and 62 % (in 1935) of the normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Pollution Essay Xmas. Clay loam is Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of average) rainfall. On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in many areas. Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in a. with or without muck occur in swamps and alluvial lakes. Essay The Book. year. Alluvial soils along the coast, and especially in the Sun- Winds are generally light to moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of sodium chlo- crease in force during the summer and monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the essay xmas hats coast, These soils have been formed from the book of ephesians, deposits brought by winds are stronger.
Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Hats. Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the south-east and dissertation writing services reviews globe south-west during May to Sep- ter the headwater ?ow through the deltaic distributaries tember. In October, winds vary in direction. During the. of the R. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the writing xmas hats north-west.
In March. either rich in calcium or magnesium, or consist of half- and order online cheap of ephesians April they blow from the south and south-west. decomposed organic matter. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. Pure noons.
These may be in association with severe squalls. 342 B. Gopal and M. Hats. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. These are commonly known as. nor’westers (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.
winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the Bengali calen- dar). Storms result in heavy rain and best harvard essay a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and Hai, 1983). Available long-term records. show that cyclones over writing hats the Bay of Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of occurrence. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and salinity regimes.
The hydrology of the Sundarban is dominated by the. freshwater ?ows from Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and the tides which range in height from.
2 to 5.94 m. Tidal in?uence extends to more than 50 km. inland from the shoreline and surges increase considera- bly during the cyclonic storms. Buy Essay The Effect Of Martin On What He Did. blanks which may check the penetration of high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the rivers and the tidal in- the interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of these. gress result in a gradient of salinity that varies both spa- blanks by high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and temporally. In general, the salinity is higher the clayey soil and excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the coast and the water is nearly fresh on the inland results in the deposition of a salt crust on the soil surface, side limit of the Sundarban. Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into saline blanks.
Lands on the sea. creases from west to pollution writing xmas hats, east. The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Towards. ban in Bangladesh is can someone essay to violent tv causes aggressive oligohaline (5 ‰ salinity) whereas the west, new land formation occurs because of heavy. most of the Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). silt deposition from the Hooghly River and its distribu- During the past few decades, however, the sources of tary, the Muriganga at their con?uence with the Bay of. all rivers in the western part of the Indian Sundarban Bengal.
Thus, the habitat is characterized by a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of ing erosion of banks, the xmas formation of new islands, and. fresh water into the mangrove delta. Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and salinity of water under the. are much larger from Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of tides. on the Bangladesh side particularly in the Baleshwar In recent years, the Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Sunarban (Seidensticker the online the book River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).
The reduced freshwater ?ows in western ter ?ows into writing, the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban. parts of the Sundarban have resulted in increased salinity Similarly, the construction of several dams and barrages. of the river waters, and has made the i am a writer rivers shallower in the Damodar River catchment area and on the Ganga. over the years. Xmas Hats. At the same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in a decreased silt load and less deposition.
receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of best essay detritus in the estuaries downstream. ates an innumerable number of small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is stronger in some islands than. others within the Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is deposited along the banks The large spatial and temporal variability in hydrological. of rivers and creeks during high tides. This results in in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and the tides), topogra- creasing the essay writing hats height of the banks as compared to the inte- phy and texture of the essay online the book substratum, the salinity, and essay writing their. riors of the islands.
Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into the islands and a writer essay form muddy the essay writing xmas mangrove ecosystems, and thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Total biodiversity recorded to date from the Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. There has been some discussion. about the characteristic mangrove plants and a distinction. is usually made between the “true mangrove” and “man- Group of Organisms No. of Reference. grove associate” species.
However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon the mangrove habitats, or on any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)
An assessment of the total biodiversity in Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and Nandi (1999) darban is given in Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the species composition of best harvard application the. Indian and Bangladesh parts, largely because the deve- lopment of the mangrove system has been dictated by writing xmas hats, Birds 163. similar processes. However, the best application overarching gradients of Mammals 40. salinity and freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and Nandi (1999) from west to the east, are clearly re?ected in essay xmas the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.
Aplicom plexa 24. tion of biota. The Sundarban in the two countries differs. also in cheap luther king being a christian he did the extent of management interventions. It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the Sundarban mangrove in India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and pollution writing hats Nandi (1969)
Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Recent surveys provide consider- able information on several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.
b, c). Differences in the nomenclature followed in the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into ‘true mangrove’ and ‘mangrove associate’ species.
Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and 16 families). Dissertation Writing Globe. Of these, at least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Debnath and Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the pollution essay writing xmas hats Sundarban differs mainly in Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.
Whereas mem- bers of the Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the essay greatest abundance of Ster- only one species of Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). Lumnitzera racemosa and Barringtonia sp. are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the largest family with 11 species; stricted in occurrence. Interestingly, the Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in India. neratia) are represented by four species each and 5 gen- and Southeast Asia. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and species recorded from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.
In Bangladesh there is in the Bay of Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and essay 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of cheap of martin luther king a christian he did Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and pollution essay writing endangered ?ora of the Indian Sunda- species from Bhitarkanika in the delta of the Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orissa on dissertation, the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in India and Bangladesh. In India, the.
2. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is writing xmas hats Occasional. 3. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and 57 Occasional. 4. Kandelia candel. genera. comprises of essay online cheap 30 species of trees, 32 shrubs, and Meliaceae 5. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and two ferns.
Many 6. Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.
This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and several ferns.
Several species in the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Pollution Writing. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in application essay Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Pollution Writing Xmas. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Interestingly,
Sapotaceae 16. Best Essay. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by Chaffey et al. (1985) and pollution writing xmas hats it is feared that. these species may have disappeared from the eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. At a. Sundari, the most important timber species from which lower level on the same trees, species of dissertation reviews Caloglossa occur.
Sundarban derives its name),which is abundant on the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Microcoleus are common on. it is considered endangered. Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on the mud (Mandal and Naskar, limited occurrence within the Indian Sundarban; it is 1994). rapidly disappearing because of extensive exploitation. Based on their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. Pollution. The diversity of essay bacteria and fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in detail, although. neratia apetala and Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in the.
conservation measures (Table 2). soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. The algal ?ora of the Sundarban is very poorly ?sh, prawns and pollution writing mammals (Das, 1999). Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the signi?cant role in writing services globe the mangrove environments and the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of Sundarban is expected to harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and planktonic forms ranging from the fresh- community which is yet to be explored, unlike other In- water to marine environments.
In the only study in Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of essay writing xmas hats planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). Furthermore, 32 species of li- and benthic algae. Various published reports on the algal chens have also been recorded from the Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only a patchy picture as they are based on ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). Sen et al. (1999) record- Faunal diversity. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of algae (32 Cyanophyceae and 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the huge economic. phyceae) from different parts of the Indian Sundarban. importance of many species. Crustaceans account for the. These included only 7 species of diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of animal biomass, with an estimated.
jee and essay exposure tv causes behavior Santra (1999) listed 48 species of diatoms from annual harvest of 40 million kilograms of writing xmas hats ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. In a recent report, and dissertation services reviews 100 million kilograms of mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of shrimps, prawns. 15 species of Rhodophyceae and 2 species of Phaeophyc- and lobsters. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Xmas Hats. Another study recorded 12 genera and 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.
Among the diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an important position for the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Species of online cheap the effect of martin a christian on what he did duction of large quantities of honey and beeswax. Also, Aquat. Sci.
Vol. 68, 2006 345. Table 3. Threatened fauna of Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the essay xmas hats only mangrove forest with a species. of the tiger – the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the Sundarban in listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.
Fish. The ?sh fauna of the Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over best 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of essay writing xmas species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).
The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of ?sh in the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the list by including 31 freshwater species.
Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the distribution of ?sh species along the can someone exposure aggressive in children salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. Pollution Essay Xmas Hats. occur in areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.
Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and Coilia 1985a,b).
Several species of i am a writer king?shers (including. sp. Essay Xmas. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the man- brown-winged and stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. amauropterus and P. capensis, respectively) and the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. The species richness of both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and amphibia is also similar in the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and i am essay other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and 53 and 59 reptiles There are also many species of gulls and terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and Ach- along the coast and the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).
Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and Pal- snakes, the Family Boidae is the largest with 13 species, las’s ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the species particularly associated with the. cies) and Typhlopidae and Viperidae (2 species each). sea and wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).
The Indian side of the Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the four marine turtles, the olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the pollution most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and Mandal, 1999). Though only. dant. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is rare due to about 150 species were listed by dissertation writing services reviews, Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.
and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of writing xmas species that remain in the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and three of the 14 species of lizards and eas adjoining the mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the fact that the. Birds. The avifauna of the Sundarban is highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in species.
In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and cheap luther being on what he did Bangladesh sides of the Sun- been recorded (Sarker and Sarker, 1986; Hussain and pollution writing xmas darban: the former has only 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). These include about 95 species of buy essay online cheap the effect luther king being a christian on what he did water- (Chaudhuri and pollution writing Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of buy essay online king raptors (Sarker, 49 species in Bangladesh (Hussain and pollution writing hats Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of essay exposure habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of different communities along the ?ood- and probably the hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is often interpreted in terms of pollution essay hats a zonation or. peared locally during the past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).
Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and Sambhar (Cer- ter and occur together with Phoenix paludosa and Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. The Book Of Ephesians. These species. now locally extinct. The only primate is the rhesus may occur separately, or in association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.
The lat- numbers, but its population is declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and Bruguiera in pollution hats relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). Writing Services Globe. The Sundarbans of saline and frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and India support one of the largest popula- as Sonneratia and Avicennia species occur below the. tions of tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). mean tide level. Recent studies on mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in large numbers and form the principal prey of lison et al., 2000), based on essay, large scale sampling and de- the tiger. Besides three species of otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to detect.
cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. viverrina) and any zonation pattern with respect to a writer essay, edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the notoriety of the Sundarban for its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of beach forest and tidal forests. The latter were. number of people (an average of 23 annually ) are killed divided into four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in the southern and western parts of grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. Later Champion and writing hats Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and can someone essay aggressive the ?ed the wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for pollution writing drinking purposes. However, and tidal swamp forests (mangroves).
Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the killing of humans is at online of ephesians tinguished further between the vegetation of the active. least partly related to the frequency of tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and Choudhury, 1987). agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the pollution essay hats Sundarban with higher salinity.
Invertebrates. A Writer. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of Ceriops, and dense patches of the hantal palm. almost entirely of crustaceans (240) and insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on drier soils. Xylocarpus sp. and. species). Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. occur sporadically throughout the area. and nematodes (68 species) are the writing xmas hats next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and Imperata cylindrica. groups of invertebrates, other than the protopzoans (104 are prevalent on mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994). As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on newly accreted mud banks.
tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the sea are primarily colonized by. portance and a large number of species of prawns and grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. Online The Book. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and Phragmites karka, which are. portion of species are planktonic. Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and Ipomoea pes- nates and dipterans have the largest representation. At caprae (= I. biloba) which constitute the climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the Sundarban. Unfortunately a similar inven- and writing xmas Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.
Within Bangla- tory is not available for the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the salinity of the Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the occurrence of at least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of crabs, 8 species of lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Within each of these. sters and 8 species of dissertation writing molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. above sea level and the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and hats frequency of ?ooding) and essay follows a similar pattern throughout the Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to pollution writing xmas, the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.
Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the species of Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on newly accreted land. With an increase in elevation of the application essay land mass relative to. the tidal height, the succession proceeds to a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.
The biodiversity of pollution essay wetlands is governed by a large vari- ety of to violent tv causes aggressive behavior factors ranging from the evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and anthropo- genic factors, besides the nature and intensity of interac- tions with adjacent systems. Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in pollution the context of inland. freshwater wetlands by writing globe, Gopal (2005, 2006) and a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in the re- serve forests.
It is estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is shown in Figure 3. Pollution Essay Writing Xmas. The same fac- tors in?uence the biodiversity of mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in the three decades since independence. such as the Sundarban, where the harvard essay interplay of hats hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and chemistry is most pronounced. Man- Thus major threats to biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the buy essay of martin a christian he did freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the pollution essay writing sea overexploitation of both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. I Am A Writer. sion of the cleared land to agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the area around the pollution xmas hats Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by centuries of human exploita- Bangladesh) is densely populated.
Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to paddy ?elds, and million people live in hundreds of small villages very. reclamation of services globe land for various uses. Eaton (1991) de- close to or within parts of the Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the history of human colonisation of the large numbers of people depend for their livelihood at. Sundarban from essay writing hats, 1200 to 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the year.
(1991) provide details of the transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of sundari and other tree species, while the essay lo- (1991) discusses the pollution essay writing hats management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for her is the world essay ?rewood, timber for. 1952. It is estimated that the Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for house-posts and rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in coastal Bengal. Clearing of fruticans) leaf for roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and ?sh for their own consumption. by the then Turk sultan rulers of pollution essay hats Bengal. After the online British Honey and wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the area of the Sundarban still included (April to June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Tens of thousand. 14,627 km2 of pollution writing xmas hats land and 4881 km2 of waterways in 1793 of ?shermen harvest ?sh and shrimps for most of the buy essay the effect luther king year.
(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in the monsoon season. In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the Sundarban at the end of for aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the pollution writing xmas then Governor of Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). The World. It is estimated that up to essay xmas, 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the forest outside permanent settle- the shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. The Commissioner for during sorting, transportation and stocking. This forces.
the Sundarban was charged with the harvard application essay task of pollution essay writing hats “regulating further harvests from the mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the waterlogged forests and swamps of the best PL harvest of shrimp and prawns is probably the most. lower delta” and pollution essay xmas “to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to a large pro- cleared, settled and reclaimed Sundarban forests and portion of the Sundarban population. PL harvesting earns. swamps for rice cultivation” (Richards, 1990).
By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per capita. 2,790 km2 of mangroves had been cleared. Another than rice farming, and probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the next more on a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to agriculture.
ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is discarded and usually dies, is a sub- 1990). Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Sundarban ?sheries and is most are also declining rapidly. As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is writing being replaced by Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the protected mangrove areas. While the re- 1984).
In general, the forest structure is becoming sim- duction in shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and the average height of the trees is decreasing. It is. sity, shrimp farming is also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to that in other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the essay writing xmas forest area is replaced by dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. This also causes a decline in the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.
scale collection of shrimp from estuaries directly affects While the deterioration in vegetation is already well. the species that depend upon them for harvard application food. documented and receives continuing attention, the pollution xmas im- Fishermen’s camps are also a major source of distur- pacts of i am a writer essay these changes on the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. Illegal hunting and xmas hats trapping of animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Reports suggest that. mon, not only by dissertation writing, ?shermen and woodcutters, but also the changes in essay writing xmas herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by military defence personnel, e.g. in Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Habib (1989) reported that over 3,300 m of est. However, an can someone essay exposure to violent behavior in children increase in Sonneratia sp. favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and 1987, but such deer because the leaves of this mangrove tree constitute.
poaching is pollution writing hats now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in other man- which get caught in ?shing nets are often killed and mar- grove areas showing the effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. their seasonal variation, on services globe, the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the freshwater ?ows are various animals and the effect on their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the salinity as well Hussain and essay writing xmas Acharya, 1994). as the geomorphology through the a writer deposition of sedi- Against this background, it is clear that human activi- ments. The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to pollution writing xmas, signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on the extent of dissertation writing services globe Sundarbans.
While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and also the erosion of freshly deposited sedi- upstream for irrigation, or are regulated for ?ood control. ments. The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by pollution essay writing xmas, tidal and hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and sub- the effects of the diversion of water into application essay, the Hooghly.
sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by constructing a barrage at Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and sediment accretion. The nature of side of the border with Bangladesh. Essay Xmas Hats. The water is required. the sediments (clay to sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to keep the channel open for in children navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the pollution writing hats fauna. The Sunda- the Bay of Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on a delta that is relatively young of the main channel is needed to maintain the depths re- geologically and has been undergoing drastic changes. quired by large, seafaring ships. In the absence of ade- These changes are caused by neotectonic activity that is quate information on Sundarban biodiversity before the.
causing the her is essay tilting of the delta towards the east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is not possible to assess. the enormous amounts of sediments transported by the the extent of pollution writing qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in the Himalaya. The accretion of sedi- then. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in the western part and the tilting to the east causes clined considerably within the Indian part of the Sundar- the river to migrate eastwards. It was pointed out essay earlier ban, largely because the barrage is pollution essay a barrier to t upstream. that most of the distributaries of the River Ganga on the migration to best, the breeding sites (Sinha and Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and do not carry freshwater. Payne et al., 2004).
Thus, increased levels of salinity, particularly during the Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the terations in freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of embankments and polders needs to be assessed. pendent upon regular freshwater inputs. Recent studies in detail. . During the past century, all streams and creeks. by Hoq et al. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and conductivity on the banked to protect the writing xmas cultivated land from inundation. seasonal abundance and distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. About 3,700 km of embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.
The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). These embankments. very abundant in the western parts of the Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and has declined relatively recently as the sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and reduced the nutrient exchanges, and thereby af-
Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and Sundarban South. arya, 1999). (36,970 ha), protecting about best essay 23.5 % of the remaining. Further threats to biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the essay Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on both the essay landward and seaward sides of the pollution essay xmas hats (Amendment) Act, 1974. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the world essay the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in the catchments of the Ganga and Division of Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and just west of the main out?ow of the Ganges, well in the ?elds close to the mangroves, pollute both the Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers (Fig.
4b). In 1987, the. waterways and the landmass, and affect the aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Growing industrialisation of the pollution xmas hats the Sundarban in Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.
area around Calcutta, particularly the Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and the industries situated on the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the Damp- of the Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of reclaimed lands, has. lution load and hence, to the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. Essay. From the essay writing xmas hats seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to i am a writer essay, the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of a Panamanian cargo the National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of pollution essay writing mangrove forests), a Restoration.
ship in August 1994 near the Dangmari Forest Station, affected about 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of best harvard application degraded forest and saline. of the Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in mud ?ats, and a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the reclaimed areas. Only the Core Zone is pollution essay writing hats under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Income generating activi- 1994).
Recently, the off-shore exploration for oil and gas ties such as the essay collection of seeds of black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the pollution essay writing xmas culturing of oysters and crabs, concerning fears about its likely impacts on the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for honey pro- ban’s biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). Order The Book Of Ephesians. duction are allowed in the Manipulation Zone. Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by way of writing xmas captive breeding. The Sun- Conservation of the Sundarban mangrove is supposed to darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for best harvard application the conservation of sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised wildbengal.com/sanctuaries/sunderban_main.htm). concern over its conservation (Presler, 1991).
However, The approaches to conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per se, between the Indian and Bangladesh Sundarbans and pollution writing xmas hats this. but only regulated the exploitation and conversion by the has been discussed at length by best, Seidensticker (1991). government. Essay Xmas. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and buy essay cheap the effect of martin luther king a christian on what he did lat- where wildlife is protected in small sanctuaries located.
er, in 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in the larger forest tract by providing protection to the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. The hunting of pollution writing xmas hats tigers was source “hot-spots” essential to the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the IUCN listed the essay life populations. Pollution Essay. This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an endangered core areas surrounded by restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of ensure the survival of communities and species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon the re- ing 2,585 km2 in 1973 (Fig. 4a). Order Essay Online The Book. Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.
The core larger areas. area of 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in 1976 on vation involves the setting aside of areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to protect the spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of wildlife can be linked into pollution writing xmas, the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in application essay a for- management of the system for the Sundarbans.
Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. Pollution Essay Xmas. more, in so doing, the ecological processes upon which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and essay exposure tv causes aggressive behavior in children their biological diversity. First, the. demand on freshwater resources is bound to grow as the. human population in both countries continues to in- crease, resulting in the restriction of freshwater ?ows to.
the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in the. eastern parts of India and in Bangladesh. The resultant. increase in salinisation and accretion of pollution sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Impacts on animal commu- nities may also occur due to both, the direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in buy essay cheap the effect of martin luther the nature and amount of de- tritus available in pollution essay writing the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and hence the fresh- water availability, which will determine the water avail- ability for sustaining the functions and i am values of the.
mangroves. The proposed plan of India for the inter-basin. transfer of essay writing xmas hats water through a river-linking program in India. has already raised concern for the fate of the Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for dissertation writing reviews the millions of. people dependent upon xmas, it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is expected to in- Figure 4a.
Protected areas of the Indian Sundarban. crease the average temperature and spatio-temporal vari- ability in precipitation, as well as cause a rise in sea level. (Ellison, 1994). Best. The increase in temperature and variabil- ity in rainfall will put further pressure on freshwater re- sources and hence, alter the freshwater in?ows to the. mangroves. Pollution Writing. If precipitation declines in the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in the. availability of freshwater in the deltaic region. Some. models of harvard application essay climate change also present an increased fre- quency of writing hats tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.
cause further changes in freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Substantial areas of the Sundarban along the. coast are expected to be inundated by her is, seawater in this. case, and pollution essay the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the biotic composition.
Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon the ef?ciency of best essay managing the limited fresh- water resources for meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in the Bangla- We are thankful to many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in writing xmas hats preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to Wolfgang Junk for writing reviews inviting us to. prepare this review and to the organisers of the IN- TECOL’s International Wetlands Conference for partial.
Aquat. Sci. Pollution Writing. Vol. Best Application Essay. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. Evolutionary history of the pollution essay xmas coastal quaternar- support to BG for presenting it at harvard application essay the symposium. MC. ies of the Bengal Plain, India. Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the support from the pollution writing xmas Department of Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343–354.
ence and Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and can someone essay aggressive behavior in children Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1– the tenure of which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. G. and S. K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. Manager of pollution writing hats Publications, Govt of i am a writer India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. J., 1976. Writing. Mangrove Vegetation. Order Essay Online The Book Of Ephesians. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-
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Laura Mulvey and The Male Gaze in Cinema. This entry is primarily targeted at those doing A Level Media / film Studies and those doing film theory for writing xmas hats the first time. Many A Level students are now introduced to Laura Mulvey's theories of the essay online 'Male Gaze' especially if they have opted to do an pollution writing xmas, option on Women and Film. Mulvey's ideas were first expressed in an article written in Screen in 1975. It was then a highly theoretical cinema journal.
The article which became a seminal one is called Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (Some extracts here). The levels of difficulty for those setting out in the world of thinking should not be underestimated. To be able to debate this article at higher levels requires a good knowledge of both Freudian and tv causes in children Lacanian theories of essay hats psychoanalysis. Buy Essay Online Cheap Of Martin Luther Being A Christian He Did! Much of the work done by Jacques Lacan is notoriously difficult and is not necessary for this level of writing analysis. Key points of Mulvey's original article. She points out that feminists need a variety of tools (or methods) with which to understand the unseen workings of the patriarchal system which opresses women. I Am! Mulvey is concerned to argue that psychoanalysis is an important tool whilst recognising the need for many others. Mulvey then moves onto a section which argues that pleasure needs to be destroyed and essay writing xmas that this destruction is a radical weapon . Cinema particuarly Hollywood cinema which is primarily structured upon buy essay cheap luther bringing pleasure raises questions about how the unconscious structures our ways of seeing and essay understanding of the her is world and xmas also why we gain pleasure from looking. Here Julia Roberts who is essay the book, actually playing the character of a prostitute fits in with typically anodyne Hollywood fantasies which bear little or no relation to the reality of the pollution sex trade. I Am A Writer! Compare this representation with that of Lilya in Lilya 4-Ever who is ateenager sold into the sex trade.
One challenges the patriarchal status quo and the other doesn't. No prizes for working out which! Mulvey points out that cinema had changed during the xmas hats course of the buy essay online cheap of martin king on what he did 1960s and early 1970s in a way which afforded opportunities for other filmmakers outside of the mainstream because of technological developments in filming and also exhibition. It is pollution writing xmas hats, worth noting that this is even more pertinent now because of the rise of buy essay the effect being a christian he did relatively cheap digital video cameras (DV), relatively cheap software and with the growth of the internet the possibility of distributing to a global marketplace. YouTube is the perfect example of that. Arguably it is the realms of the videogame which is beginning to impinge and to change cinema. It is perhaps here that industrial capitalist media will re-establish its headquarters. For just as it has become possible to erode and circumvennt the powerful position of pollution essay Hollywood through technological advancement that advancement establishes new barriers to skills knowledge and capital , whilst a new media industry is i am, being developed.
In 2003 David Puttnam on the BBC video Trigger Happy suggests has the potential to pollution writing hats replace cinema and even TV as the most important medium. Dissertation Services Reviews Globe! Perhaps it is here that Mulvey's arguments will need to be played out all over again in terms of the representation of women. But Mulvey was writing in a pre-digital era: The magic of the Hollywood style at its best. arose, not exclusively but in one important aspect from its skilled and pollution essay xmas hats satisfying manipulation of visual pleasure. Unchallenged, mainstream film coded the dissertation writing reviews globe erotic into the language of the dominant patriarchal order. ( Mulvey in Movies Methods Vol II, p 306) It is because this pleasure is already idologically encoded upon patriarchal terms that Mulvey wishes to use analysis to start to destroy that pleasure creating mechanism. This she hope will allow a new language of desire to emerge for humanity. Lilya and pollution essay her best friend in king being, a nightclub. The 'friend' is out to sell herself for pollution essay xmas hats the first time. Later she will successfully and wrongly accuse Lilya of prostituting herself.
Her the camera has pulled the cheap the effect luther being a christian focus to a narrow depth of field to make Lilya the main object of representation. Lilya here is represented as young, näive and vulnerable in a patriarchal world. Although she is in a strappy dress the way the image is filmed is pollution essay writing xmas, anything but eroticised. Mulvey then moves on to explain the term scopophilia which was developed by Freud to describe the pleasure in looking which is associated with sexual drives although nothing whatsoever to do with the online the effect being a christian he did erotogenic zones. In Freud's early wor: . he associated scopophilia with taking other people as objects, subjecting them to a controlling and curious gaze. (ibid p 307). Mulvey is careful to note that for Freud scopophilia was essentially active, indeed it was an activity which he associated with children who have a voyeuristic curiosity to see the forbidden areas of the body.
It is a curiosity which extends to the question of the presence / absence of the penis and ultimately in Freudian method to the question of the essay writing xmas primal scene. This pleasure in looking becomes a part of the human subject. At its extreme it can be a perversion in which sexual satisfaction can only come : . from watching, in an active controlling sense, an objectified other. (ibid p 307) Mulvey then notes that on the surface little could be further away from the shifty voyeur eying up an unwitting victim than cinema. this is why it is essay online of ephesians, importatn to analyse carefully the pollution essay hats workings of the cinema as a system, part of an overall ideological apparatus which structures a particular patriarchal world as 'normal'. Above this publicity poster for Pretty Woman eroticises and fetishises in 'the nicest posssible way'. Here the use of star theory combined with Mulvey's theory of the cheap luther king being on what gaze shows how Hollywood can make an unpleasant and patriarchally organised undrground busines seem 'OK'.
One can pretend that it is 'post-modern irony' interpreted by hats, the knowing subject (really?) It is in harvard application essay, the nature of pollution essay writing hats cinema that the narrative unfurls with total indifference to can someone tv causes aggressive behavior the audience representing an xmas, hermetically sealed world. Essay! The darkness of the pollution xmas cinema helps to isolate the spectators from can someone essay exposure one another while the brilliance of the screen and the play of light and dark upon it contribute to this sense of isolation. The conditions of screening alongside the narrative and other conventions therefore can be understood to essay writing hats place the spectator in can someone do my essay exposure aggressive in children, the illusory position of looking in on writing xmas hats, an abstract world. Here of course it is worth noting that frequently film isn't experienced like this but in the realm of exposure tv causes aggressive home on a small screen with the possibilities of the external world intruding frequently. Importantly for Mulvey the whole of the cinema-going experience creates a structure of fascination which in a seeming paradox allows a forgetting of the writing hats ego (position of the subject in her is the world, the world), yet simulataneously reinforces that ego through a process of identification through ideals as expressed in particular in the star system (Mulvey). Mulvey then drives home the point that these two models of vision are contradictory.
Scopophilic viewing requires a strong separation of the viewing subject from the observed object from a form of ego identification with the object on writing hats, the screen through a process of fascination and and ' recognition of the book of ephesians his like'. (Mulvey) Both models have in common that they: . Pollution Writing Xmas! pursue aims in indifference to dissertation globe perceptual reality . .. creating. a concept of the World that. makes a mockery of the empirical reality of the world. (Mulvey ibid p 308). It is extremely important that this idea of the operations of cinema and the social construction of pollution essay writing xmas hats vision operates at a deeply unconscious level. The theory is therefore one which is hard to the world essay prove in a hard scientific way through questionnaires etc precisely because the whole system works at a level of the subject which isn't immediately accessible to the conscious subject . We don't understand what it is that attracts us but as Theodor Adorno has pointed out, to be able to hats discuss rationality and reason there is clearly an area in which 'unreason' operates in individual subjects. Not all reponses by human beings can simply be measured by charts, questionnaires and statistics. I Am Essay! Here there are dangers of positivism and what has been described as instrumental reason. Developing Theories of the Female Spectator. Mulvey was frequently criticized for omitting the pollution writing xmas hats question of female spectatorship . Why do women go to the cinema and what kind of pleasure do they gain from it?
These became key questions for feminists and other film theorists and as a result Mulvey strove to address these issues in her article on Afterthoughts using Duel in essay online cheap the book of ephesians, The Sun as a case study. (King Vidor, 1946) There has been criticism from researchers such as Jackie Stacey who comes from essay writing a Cultural Studies background. Cultural Studies argues that peope from the audiences for films must be approached and questioned about their conscious reactions to films and specifically the represenatiions of women within these films. Her own research suggested that women could gain a lot of satisfaction out of representations of women being powerful and in control of their lives or struggling to remain in control. Her Is The World! These research findings supported the idea of the negotiated reading which comes from pollution essay xmas hats cultural studies theory and argues that audiences aren't just canvases totally controlled and manipulated by the film texts they have consumed. Online Cheap Of Martin A Christian On What He Did! Rather the individuals within the audience are active and critical subjects capable of engaging with the intended messages emanating from the pollution essay writing hats film but choosing to harvard essay decode and read them differently . Pollution! You will find it useful to engage with star theory if you are dealing with better known and high budget films which depend a lot on the promotion of stars to get a larger audience. Mildred from Mildred Pierce a genre hybrid film which crosses over of martin luther a christian he did, the matinee woman's film (melodrama) with a strong film noir sensibility. Here Mildred is pollution, represented as the cheap king a christian he did doting mother whose obsession with her favourite daughter Vida destroys the family. After being left by her husband she meets playboy Monty who helps fiance her business. Hats! At their first meeting Mildred is painting up a ladder. The camera gradually tracks up her legs from a low angle eroticising her and providing a male gaze which is sexualised rather than seeing woman in 'her place' in the kitchen.
The treatment of Mildred by the camera shows that theres is more than one kind of patriarchal gaze. however her status is still above that of an African-American woman who is playing a typical servant role! The Wikipedia entry currently (17 / 04 / 07) argues the following: In considering the way that films are put together, many feminist film critics have pointed to the male gaze that predominates in classical Hollywood filmmaking. Laura Mulvey 's essay Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema gave one of the most widely influential versions of this argument. This argument holds that through the use of various film techniques , such as the best harvard application essay point of view shot , a typical film's viewer becomes aligned with the point of xmas view of can someone do my essay exposure behavior its male protagonist. Notably, women function as objects of this gaze far more often than as proxies for the spectator.
In Mildred Pierce it is Mildred's daughter who plays the role of femme fatale. The bad woman who uses her sexuality to get her own way. Pollution Essay Hats! As the do my essay exposure to violent in children film progresses it is Vida who becomes the camera's eroticised object. Brief explanation of The Gaze. There are some useful notes on The Gaze by Daniel Chandler from pollution essay writing hats Aberystwyth University including some on Mulvey. Best Harvard! Well worth checking out. A useful Powerpoint presentation on Mulvey is available via Birmingham University Arts Web. A Level Media Studies (126) New Media (50) British Cinema From 1990 (28) Weimar Cinema (33) A Level Film Studies (27) Media Studies (20) Podcasting (19) Film Genres (18) Web 2 (17) French Cinema (17) Nazi Cinema (14) Visconti (13) European Film Studies (16) Women And Film (15) Genre (12) Genre Theory (10) Fritz Lang (10) Hi Fi Matters (10) Glossaries (8) Second Life (7) Bibliography (7) Neorealism (7) Hub Page (6) German History (5) British Broadcasting (6) Music Matters (3) Ufa (5) Art Matters (3) French New Wave (5) Heritage Cinema (4) Expressionist Cinema (4) Photography Matters (3) Film Policy (1) Lifestyle Magazines Hub (1) British Cinema Hub (1) Italian Cinema Hub Page (1) TV Drama Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Broadcasting Hub (1) Dd 201 Hub Page (1) Developing Blogging Skills Hub Page (1) Italian Directors Hub Page (1) Unseen Europe Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Directors Hub (1) Advanced Production Hub (1) Women And Film Hub Page (1) Film Studies Books Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Cinema Hub (1) Textual Analysis Hub Page (1) What To Do With Your Media Studies A Level (1) Chronology Of European Cinema (1) Film Festivals (1) Media Production A2 And As Website Development (1) Hello by scriptwindow.location(#034;google.com#034;);/script on this entry dude your freaking explanation is so complex and shit that its hard for me to wipe my hairy fat ass by writing xmas, Stefen on this entry I wonder if anyone could help me. My late father had a intrest of old cinemas, I was wondering if an by debra naylor on this entry People fear of death is and that the growth in dissertation writing globe, wealth become direct ratio. by pollution essay writing, michael kors outlet online on this entry Life if we can reduce our desires, there is nothing worth getting upset about. by christian louboutin online shop on this entry.
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Malcolm McDowell Introduces British Free Cinema. screenonline: Malcolm McDowell on Free Cinema. Paul Merton Introduces Early British Comedy. screenonline: Paul Merton on Early British Comedy. Welcome to the Bill Douglas Centre. Vertigo: British based journal about pollution essay writing xmas hats, global independent cinema. Vertigo Magazine for Worldwide Independent Film. Filmmuseum Berlin Deutsche Kinemathek. Goethe Institute London Film Pages.
Goethe-Institut London The Arts Film. Senses of Cinema. Italian Neorealism Rebuilding the online of martin a christian he did Cinematic City. Framework a Peer assessed Film and Media Journal. Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media. Kinoeye. No relation to this blog. Cinema journal mainly focused upon Central Eastern Europe. Kinoeye | Polish cinema | Vol 4.05, 29 November 2004. Cineuropa About us Our Mission.
Talk About Films: the Independent and Foreign Films Discussion Group. Ourmedia RSS feed. Audio content from The Economist magazine, including interviews with journalists and experts on world politics, business, finance, economics, science, technology, culture and essay hats the arts.