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See the Campus with a Student as your Guide. The student group UC Riverside Ambassadors leads tours of the 2013 campus throughout the year. Guests get an up-close look at the beautiful campus, learn about its history#8212;and its future#8212;as our students show off buildings, the park-like grounds, and dynamic new facilities. Prospective and newly admitted students and their families can reserve a 50-minute tour of the campus throughout the year. Click here to schedule a new tour date and time. Campus tours are conducted daily during the academic year and on a reduced schedule during winter break and summer. Reservations are not required. Online Cheap The Darkest. Note: Groups should refer to the group tour schedule below. The campus tours are a two hour program the includes a walking tour that encompasses the main part of the campus including narration on the history and traditions of the University, and a 60 minute interactive presentation provided by 2013 an SDSU admissions representative. Scarlet. Tours are conducted by the SDSU Ambassadors. The Ambassadors, current students specially trained to provide tours, welcome the opportunity to share their university experience with prospective students and their guests.

For more information, contact the SDSU Ambassadors at astronomy essay (619) 594-6868, or by e-mail at order essay online Monday through Friday tours will be offered at 10:00 A.M. and 2013 1:00 P.M. All walk-in tours depart from the Prospective Student Center in the Student Services building, located at the base of the clock tower (see the Campus Map). Regular Spring 2006 tours will begin Monday, January 23, 2006 and papers online cheap body the nacirema summary end on astronomy 2013 Friday, May 5, 2006 . During SDSU's spring break, March 13-17 , only one tour per day will be offered at 10:00 a.m. Papers Online Ritual Among The Nacirema Summary. No tours will be offered on astronomy March 31 (the campus is closed for Cesar Chavez Day). SDSU At a Glance Saturday Tours: Tours will take place from 10 a.m. - 1:00 p.m. on the following Saturdays: February 4, March 4, and May 6. SDSU At a Glance will include information sessions (Why SDSU?, admissions and housing information), a walking tour of campus, and a Greek house tour.

Tours will begin at the Prospective Student Center. Reservations are required for these selective tours. Call 619-594-6336, or e-mail, to sign up (be sure to the world indicate the day you will be attending and the total number of guests in your party). University of California at San Diego. UCSD is a large UC campus, with 25,964 students, of which 20,679 are undergraduates, on its 1,200 acre coastal site in astronomy contest, the San Diego County city of La Jolla. It is a relatively new campus.

Its ultra-modern buildings have some of the most unique architectural designs in the UC system. Most notable is the Geisel Library, which has starred in the world, films and TV. UCSD is one of the premier research universities in 2013, the country. It has five Nobel laureates on Organizational Nestle Research Paper its faculty. It ranks first in the UC system and fifth nationally in federal RD funding. It has one of the country's two national supercomputing centers. It has always been at the forefront of computer research. It is also home to astronomy essay contest 2013 the world-renowned Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Its oceanography program ranks first in the nation. It has a medical school, ranked among the top twenty in the nation, and highly-ranked biological sciences programs. Its neurosciences program is ranked number one nationally. It has been ranked seventh among public national universities. Its graduate programs overall and the quality of its faculty have been ranked tenth nationwide. Its Department of Bioengineering has been ranked third, and its School of Engineering has been ranked ninth among public universities. Essay. It is one of the most competitive UC's to get into. The average GPA of incoming freshmen is 3.98, with an astronomy contest, SAT 25/75 percentile of 1130-1360.

Out of 41,330 applicants, 17,269 were admitted, of which 3,874 enrolled. (See here for the freshman profile.) The student:faculty ratio is 19:1. Organizational Nestle Vs. Kraft Research Paper. Though it is a large university, it is divided up into essay, six small undergraduate colleges, each with their own philosophies, requirements, classes, and residence halls. The cost of attendance is typical for a UC: $6,681 for fees, $9,421 for university housing room and board. The campus is cant scarlet letter themes located in up-scale suburban La Jolla, north of the city of astronomy contest 2013, San Diego. Apple - Essay. It is right on astronomy the coast, with miles of buy research papers online branding, warm beaches nearby. Regular Tours (for individuals and families) are conducted daily at astronomy 11:00 a.m., Monday through Saturday except for holidays and holiday weekends. Reservations are highly recommended.

You will receive tour details automatically upon your e-mail or online reservation. Essay Online Cheap Muse. On the phone reservation line, please listen to all options before making your reservation to avoid dates tours are not offered. Note: Due to the high volume of visitors, regular campus tours conducted during the week of April 10-15 will be offered twice daily at 11:00 am and 2:00 pm. If you plan to visit the campus during this time, please be sure to indicate which time you plan on attending the tour when making a reservation via the essay contest website, phone, or email. Tours Departure Location: Tours depart from the lower level of the Price Center in the Theater Lobby. Please allow enough time prior to the tour for her is, traffic, to stop at the Visitor Information Booth, purchase a parking permit (on weekdays), get information, park, and walk to the Price Center Theater Lobby by 10:45 a.m. Tours depart promptly at 11:00 a.m.

No check-in is required. Please wait in the lobby for your tour guide. Tour Information: Tours begin promptly at astronomy contest 11:00 a.m. and last 90 minutes. On weekdays, tours are followed by an Admissions Information Session conducted by a UCSD Admissions Officer. The session begins at 1:00 p.m. and continues for up to an hour. Admission information sessions are not conducted on Saturdays. In order to maintain an optimum learning environment and respect for privacy of online cheap apple branding, student residents, our walking tours do not include visiting classrooms or residence halls. You may view typical residence hall rooms or on-campus apartments at If you wish to attend a classroom in session; click here for the schedule of the available classes. Reservations for Regular Tours (for individuals and families). There are three ways to contest make a tour reservation: Use the Online Reservation Form Call (858) 822-1455 (message voicemail) and let us know the date of your visit and the number people in your company.

There is no need to her is leave your name. Astronomy Contest 2013. E-mail us at Please provide the papers ritual the nacirema date you wish to visit and number of visitors. There is no need to astronomy essay contest 2013 leave your name. Last update: 3/6/06, migrated from Geocities 11/09.

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ocr rs coursework Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the same. The Blair decade.

Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is astronomy essay contest 2013 a draft of a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation. Organisation of help essay scarlet themes, this chapter. Brown and astronomy contest Balls. Cameron and Gove. 2008 Education and Skills Act.

2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act. 2009 White Paper. 2009 Children, Schools and do my themes Families Bill. 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act. Other Acts relating to astronomy essay 2013, children and young people. 2007 Further Education and help cant letter Training Act. 2008 Children and Young Persons Act. 2010 Child Poverty Act.

IRPC interim report. CPR curriculum report. CSFC National Curriculum report. IRPC final report. CPR final report. Nuffield 14-19 Review. Building Schools for astronomy contest the Future. Academies and trust schools. Covert selection by faith schools. The National Challenge.

The inspection regime. 2008 NUT Conference. Gove's view of education. Education in England: a brief history. © copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in the world essay England: a brief history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for contest 2013 your own personal use, or for help essay scarlet use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the astronomy 2013 author is attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece. If you do so, please acknowledge it thus:

Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of buy research online cheap body the nacirema summary, extracts constituting a quarter or more of the contest original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the number after the essay cheap the darkest colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is available online. © Crown copyright material is astronomy essay contest reproduced with the help cant essay scarlet themes permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Chapter 11 : 2007-2010.

Brown and Balls: mixed messages. The new administration. Brown and Balls. Tony Blair was replaced as prime minister by former chancellor of the exchequer Gordon Brown ( pictured ). His new administration immediately announced that the education department would be split in two: the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) with Ed Balls as secretary of state, and the Department of Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) under John Denham. (Balls's official title was 'Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families', though he was usually referred to as 'the children's secretary'). There was some logic to this division. DCSF brought together all policy relating to children and essay contest 2013 young people: in addition to papers online apple branding - essay, overseeing schools, it shared youth justice with the Ministry of Justice, child poverty with the Treasury and the Department for Work and Pensions, children's health with the essay contest Department of essay, Health, and essay youth sport with the Department for Culture. Essay? It also took the 'respect' agenda from the contest 2013 Home Office. DIUS took science and help cant do my essay scarlet letter themes innovation from the astronomy contest Department for Trade and Industry and would be responsible for the development, funding and performance of higher education, both teaching and research; together with adult learning, including Train to essay com sites essay, Gain and basic skills.

It would oversee the £4bn adult portion of the Learning and 2013 Skills Council budget. One of her is, its main aims was the improvement of graduate skills. But there were complications in the arrangement. DCSF would set education policy for essay contest students up to the age of 19, but work with DIUS on 14-19 reforms. School pupils in order the darkest the 14 to 19 age group and sixth form college students would come under DCSF, but general further education college students and apprentices aged 16 to 19 were the astronomy essay contest responsibility of DIUS, though they would be funded via local education authorities. The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) thus had half its budget removed, putting its future in doubt ( The Guardian 3 July 2007). In the event, DIUS only lasted two years. Buy Research Cheap Branding - Essay? In June 2009 it was abolished and contest its responsibilities subsumed into a new Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), led by Lord (Peter) Mandelson. In his inaugural statement, the new children's secretary Ed Balls ( pictured ) said he would introduce legislation to raise the school leaving age to 18, improve school discipline, remove barriers to further expansion of the academies programme, and give teachers more scope to decide when pupils should be tested.

He announced that Leicester University chancellor Sir Peter Williams, chair of the Advisory Committee on Mathematics Education, would conduct a review of maths teaching in primary schools. An extra £265m over the next three years would be spent ensuring that children from disadvantaged backgrounds could benefit from at com sites anti, least two hours a week of out-of-hours group activities in term time. Secondary teachers would be given an contest extra training day a year, and a scheme to encourage graduates to online body the nacirema, teach in inner-city schools would be expanded beyond London. He also promised a ten-year youth strategy and a plan to tackle teenage pregnancy. A children's plan for the UK would be prepared and consulted on ( The Guardian 11 July 2007). In October 2007 the new chancellor of the exchequer Alistair Darling announced the three-year settlement for education. A 2.8 per cent real terms annual increase to £74bn in 2010 was higher than other departments but lower than in previous years.

Teachers' leaders pointed out that the budget for each pupil would rise from £5,500 in 2007-8 to £6,600 in 2010-11 but that this was still far short of the cost of astronomy essay, a private school education. Darling also promised £250m to com sites essay, fund the Children's Plan scheme to make sure children arrived at school ready to learn and able to benefit from personalised support ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). In his first major speech on education, Gordon Brown told an audience of educationists at Greenwich University that 'failing' schools would have five years to improve their pupils' GCSE results or they would face take-over or closure. He set out wide-ranging plans to expand childcare, eradicate illiteracy and introduce more work-based apprenticeships to persuade more 16 year olds to stay on in education. 'This is a determined and systematic agenda to end failure', he said. 'We will see it through. We will not flinch from the task' ( The Guardian 1 November 2007). As we saw in essay 2013 the previous chapter, Lord (Andrew) Adonis had wielded enormous influence over Organizational Nestle Paper, education policy in the Blair administration.

He kept his post as schools minister when Gordon Brown took over, but his influence waned and in October 2008 he was moved from education to the Department of Transport. Cameron and Gove. Meanwhile, Conservative party leader David Cameron ( pictured ) announced that the essay contest 2013 Tories would 'revolutionise' education by supporting the formation of parent-run co-operative schools paid for help cant do my scarlet letter by local authorities. He said he was setting up a 'Conservative Co-operative Movement' based on the ideals of the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, the world's first successful co-operative. The National Union of Teachers (NUT) warned that the proposals would increase social segregation, and Co-operative Party general secretary Peter Hunt said: 'Co-operative Party policies are . rooted in Labour philosophy. If David Cameron wishes to join us, he will first have to defect to the Labour party' ( The Guardian 9 November 2007). The new shadow education secretary was Michael Gove ( pictured ). At a conference at Brighton College in May 2008, Gove told teachers that a Conservative government would reinstate traditional styles of fact-based lessons. Generations of children had been let down by so-called progressive education policies which had taught skills and astronomy contest 'empathy' instead of bodies of order essay online the darkest muse, knowledge, he said.

He condemned the contest 2013 'pupil-centred learning' theories which had gained support in her is essay the 1960s for astronomy contest 'dethroning' the teacher: It is an approach to education that has been called progressive, but in anti essay fact is anything but. It privileges temporary relevance over essay contest 2013, a permanent body of knowledge which should be passed on from generation to generation . We need to tackle this misplaced ideology wherever it occurs. NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower said: 'Gove's attack on child-centred learning is an absurd caricature of reality . If there has been a dethroning of teachers, it has been because successive politicians have decided that they know better than teachers about how children learn' ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The Children's Plan. In December 2007 the help cant do my essay scarlet government published its Children's Plan Building brighter futures . Astronomy Contest? This important and ambitious document was based on widespread consultation involving children, young people, parents, teachers and policy makers, and was designed to scarlet themes, underpin and inform all future government policy relating to children, their families and schools. It aimed to eradicate child poverty and reduce illiteracy and antisocial behaviour by 2020. In his Foreword, Ed Balls said he wanted to make Britain 'the best place in the world for our children and astronomy essay 2013 young people to grow up'. (DCSF 2007:3)

The plan was based on five principles: government does not bring up children - parents do - so government needs to do more to back parents and families; all children have the potential to succeed and should go as far as their talents can take them; children and young people need to enjoy their childhood as well as grow up prepared for adult life; services need to be shaped by essay cheap muse, and responsive to children, young people and astronomy essay 2013 families, not designed around professional boundaries; and it is always better to prevent failure than tackle a crisis later. (DCSF 2007:5-6) It set ten goals to be achieved by 2020: enhance children and young people's well-being, particularly at key transition points in their lives; every child ready for the world essay success in school, with at least 90 per essay contest, cent developing well across all areas of the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile by age 5; every child ready for secondary school, with at least 90 per cent achieving at or above the expected level in both English and mathematics by age 11; every young person with the skills for papers cheap ritual summary adult life and further study, with at astronomy contest 2013, least 90 per cent achieving the equivalent of five higher level GCSEs by age 19; and at least 70 per the world, cent achieving the contest equivalent of two A levels by age 19; parents satisfied with the information and support they receive; all young people participating in positive activities to develop personal and social skills, promote well-being and reduce behaviour that puts them at her is essay, risk; employers satisfied with young people's readiness for work; child health improved, with the proportion of obese and overweight children reduced to 2000 levels; child poverty halved by 2010 and eradicated by 2020; and significantly reduce by contest 2013, 2020 the number of essay, young offenders receiving a conviction, reprimand, or final warning for a recordable offence for the first time, with a goal to be set in the Youth Crime Action Plan. (DCSF 2007:14) The plan attempted to address a series of highly critical reports on astronomy contest 2013, British childhood by Unicef and others, and to demonstrate evidence of her is the world essay, Gordon Brown's administration's much talked-of 'vision'. There would be new playgrounds and youth centres, personal tutors and astronomy essay one-to-one classes to give struggling pupils a chance to catch up and their parents a contact at school. Anti Essay? There would be radical reform of the curriculum and testing regimes, and a mandatory master's-level qualification for astronomy contest 2013 all new teachers. All new schools would be carbon-neutral by 2016 and there would be more 20mph speed limit zones near schools. A dozen strategy reviews - on areas including drugs and alcohol, sex education, bullying and the commercialisation of cant do my essay themes, childhood - would determine how the targets were to be met. Children's campaigners welcomed the plan. Children's Society chief executive Bob Reitemeier said: 'The responsibility for childhood rests with us all and astronomy contest we are encouraged that the children's plan looks beyond education to address fundamental areas such as parents and play.'

Child Poverty Action Group chief executive Kate Green commented: 'The common thread that will transform the plan's patchwork of measures into a successful whole is an end to child poverty . It is order essay the darkest muse now up to astronomy 2013, the Treasury to make sure that . the child poverty target is met so that the children's plan is not undermined.' Teachers were generally supportive of the plan, though some were concerned at the scale of the essay anti essay reforms which schools were being asked to lead. John Dunford, general secretary of the Association of School and College Leaders (ASCL), said the plan would make 'massive demands on 2013, schools' which would need the scarlet letter support of the astronomy essay contest 2013 full range of essay com sites anti essay, public services. 'If schools are to essay contest, be placed at the core of social reform for children, as the breadth of the cant letter themes children's plan suggests, this places tremendous expectations on schools and their leaders', he said ( The Guardian 12 December 2007). Download The Children's Plan (pdf text 640kb). There were three major education acts in this period: 2008 Education and Skills Act; 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and astronomy contest Learning Act; 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act (much reduced in scope because of the impending general election). The Education and Skills Bill was jointly sponsored by DCSF and DIUS. The Act (26 November 2008): raised the order the darkest education leaving age to essay, 18. Young people would be required to participate in education or training until their 18th birthday through: - full-time education or training, including school, college and home education; - work-based learning, such as an Apprenticeship; or. - part-time education or training, if they were employed, self-employed or volunteering more than 20 hours a week; rationalised the regulation and vs. Kraft Research monitoring regime for independent schools and non-maintained special schools; improved careers education for 11 to 16 year olds; transferred responsibility for delivering the 'Connexions' service (which offered a wide range of support to young people) to local authorities; empowered local authorities to arrange learning difficulty assessments in a person's final year of compulsory education and up to 2013, the age of her is essay, 25 for any young person who would benefit from one; placed a duty on the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) to ensure the free provision of basic skills and first full level 2 qualification courses; placed a duty on the LSC to ensure that 19 to contest 2013, 25 year olds who were undertaking their first full level 3 qualification did not have to pay tuition fees; required school governing bodies to invite and consider the views of pupils on policy matters which affected them; gave young people the right to express a school preference for sixth-form education and to papers online apple branding - essay, appeal against any decision made; required local authorities to produce annual reports on school admission arrangements in their area; and made minor changes to the legislative regime governing the National Curriculum so that, from 2009, Key Stage 3 tests would no longer be compulsory. Download the Education and Skills Act 2008 (pdf text 672kb). 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act.

This Act (12 November 2009): created a statutory framework for apprenticeships and a right to an apprenticeship for suitably qualified 16-18 year olds; gave employees the right to contest 2013, request time off for training, and required employers to consider such requests seriously; abolished the Learning and Skills Council; transferred responsibility for essay com sites anti essay funding education and training for 16-18 year olds to local authorities; made provisions with respect to the education of contest 2013, offenders; created the Young Person's Learning Agency, the Skills Funding Agency, the Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), and a new agency to carry out the non-regulatory functions currently performed by essay com sites anti, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority; strengthened the accountability of children's services; amended intervention powers in respect of schools which were causing concern; established a new parental complaints service; changed the school inspection arrangements; created a new negotiating body for support staff pay and conditions; and made provisions in respect of pupil and student behaviour. The bill gave Ed Balls and essay contest John Denham 153 new powers. 'Is this the most centralising education bill in history?' asked Warwick Mansell. He noted that under the 1944 Education Act the minister of education had had just three central duties: 'to promote the essay anti education of the people of England and Wales'; 'to promote the astronomy essay contest 2013 progressive development of schools and papers branding colleges'; and 'to secure that local authorities execute the national policy for providing a very comprehensive educational service'. But in the last twenty years, he argued, there had been 'a steady growth in the powers of central government, with the introduction of the national curriculum, national teaching strategies, and the targets and league table regime, all overseen and directed by ministers and civil servants' (Mansell 2009a). Barry Sheerman, Labour chair of the Commons children, schools and essay contest 2013 families committee, agreed. 'There does seem to be a general feeling out there, in the evidence the buy research cheap apple branding - essay committee has received on astronomy essay, several inquiries, of people desiring a swing back towards local autonomy', he said. Papers Cheap Among The Nacirema Summary? 'Ministers need to understand this before they continue plodding on in the opposite direction.' And John Fowler, a consultant for the Local Government Information Unit, added 'If the government was really serious about devolving power, it would just scrap this bill and start again.

I cannot see that happening.' It didn't. 2009 White Paper: Your child, your schools, our future. Before the Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act had even received the Royal Assent, the government published its next education white paper, in contest 2013 June 2009. Your child, your schools, our future was to form the basis for the 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill (which was intended to become the order the darkest 2010 Children, Schools and contest 2013 Families Act, though most of the world, it would be lost in the run-up to the general election). The white paper signalled the abandonment of what many had seen as Blair's most significant education reform - the astronomy essay contest National Strategies for literacy and numeracy. It also removed central government prescription of teaching methods and dramatically cut the use of the private consultants employed to buy research papers cheap body ritual, improve schools. Essay? Schools would have more freedom and order essay the darkest would be enabled to astronomy essay contest, establish networks of school-to-school support to help drive up standards in a 'new era of localism'. Parents of children who regularly behaved badly in class could face court-imposed parenting orders. The white paper's key points were: a pupil guarantee setting out new entitlements to personalised support for every child, matched by a parent guarantee for every parent; all schools to have good behaviour, strong discipline, order and safety; all pupils to online body ritual the nacirema summary, be taught in a way that meets their needs; all pupils to have opportunities to take part in sport and essay contest 2013 cultural activities; all schools to promote their pupils' health and well-being; schools to work in partnership with other schools and with wider children's services; local consortia to buy research online cheap, offer a choice of every one of the essay contest new diplomas to 14-19 year-olds; partnerships of primary schools to share specialist teaching; develop a system for accrediting good education providers who wish to essay com sites anti essay, run groups of schools; more academies and trust schools; develop a system for accrediting good education providers to run groups of schools; strong accountability and rapid intervention when needed to astronomy contest 2013, further improve schools; expand the role of 'School Improvement Partners' (SIPs); develop a new School Report Card (SRC); give schools greater flexibility and her is the world essay encourage greater innovation; improve the relationship between central government, local authorities and schools; new Masters degree in Teaching and Learning; better development of support staff; and governing bodies' fundamental duties to children, young people and the wider community to be enshrined in law.

Download the White Paper Your child, your schools, our future (pdf text 2.2mb). 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill. These proposals formed the basis of the Children, Schools and Families Bill. One of the bill's provisions, first announced by ministers in October 2008, was that sex education from the age of five would be made a compulsory part of the national curriculum in primary and secondary schools. Schools would not be allowed to opt out, and faith schools would be given guidance on how to provide sex and relationship education - to include contraception, abortion and homosexuality - alongside conflicting religious beliefs ( The Guardian 24 October 2008). But religious groups objected, and the government amended the new regulations, which were due to come into effect in September 2011. While all schools would still be required to teach sex education, it now said that parents could withdraw children under 15 from the lessons, which would only be compulsory for essay 15 and 16 year olds ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). This still wasn't enough for the Catholic Education Service, which lobbied the government to make further amendments to the Bill. Help Do My Essay Letter Themes? The government caved in and agreed that sex and relationships education (SRE) could now 'reflect a school's religious character'. Campaigners said the change would allow faith schools to 2013, discourage the use of contraception and the world essay teach that homosexuality was wrong.

The Accord Coalition (a newly-formed group of Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations campaigning to stop state-funded schools from astronomy essay contest, discriminating against students and teachers on the grounds of religion) accused Balls of implicitly condoning homophobia in schools and help cant undermining his own attempts to tackle homophobic bullying. Chair of Accord Rabbi Dr Jonathan Romain said: It is astonishing that the government plans to deny young people of their right to accurate, balanced SRE . Contest 2013? Children at faith schools have just as much right to information that could help them avoid an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) A DCSF spokesman dismissed the complaints: All maintained schools will be required to teach full programmes of study in line with the principles outlined in the world essay the bill, including promoting equality and encouraging acceptance of diversity. Schools with a religious character will be free to express their faith and essay contest reflect the help cant do my scarlet themes ethos of their school, but what they cannot do is suggest that their views are the only ones. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) In other words, a Catholic school would be required to contest 2013, teach children the facts about buy research online cheap apple branding, contraception, but would be allowed to try to persuade them that its use was immoral. Balls insisted the amendment would not 'water down' the bill: it would still require state schools to teach pupils about the importance of astronomy essay contest 2013, stable relationships, including civil partnerships, and it would forbid the essay promotion of homophobia. Liberal Democrat schools spokesman David Laws accused ministers of being in a 'terrific muddle' over the issue and said the amendment 'completely undermines the objectives of this part of the bill' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). Despite the concerns, the amendment was passed by 268 votes to 177 without debate (because of astronomy contest 2013, a lack of time at essay online cheap the darkest, the report stage). Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL) education policy adviser Alison Ryan said: 'We believe this amendment is unhelpful and unnecessary because it upsets the astronomy essay balance of the bill by placing the religious character of the school above the promotion of equality and tolerance of buy research online cheap apple, diversity.' National Secular Society executive director Keith Porteous Wood commented: 'The government have once more bowed to essay contest, pressure from the Catholic church, betraying the children in faith schools who have a right to her is essay, objective and balanced sex education' ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). And an editorial in The Guardian commented: This looks like a case of the government being led away from the path of righteousness by essay, ecclesiastical lobbying, which has happened several times before. There was, for instance, the climbdown over the plan to help essay scarlet letter, force faith schools to take some children from outside their own flock.

There was also section 37 of the 2008 Education Act, which undercut Labour's solid record on astronomy 2013, discrimination at work by allowing schools to hand-pick staff on the basis of their creed. Many devout people - and many believers in faith schools - are represented by the Accord Coalition, which argues that no state-funded institution should be exempted from norms that all other public bodies must follow. Unless all religious schools are required to see the cheap ritual the nacirema light, the contradictions will become unsustainable. The recurring pattern of church lobbying and astronomy essay contest 2013 Whitehall climbdowns is testing society's faith in church schools as being a force for good. ( The Guardian 24 February 2010) 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act. In the event, with the general election just a month away, all the sex education provisions (and many others) were lost from the Children, Schools and Families Act (8 April 2010). Download the Children, Schools and Organizational Culture: vs. Kraft Research Paper Families Act 2010 (pdf text 124kb).

Other Acts relating to children and young people. In addition to the three major education acts summarised above, there were three other acts relating to astronomy essay contest, children and essay young people during this period: 2007 Further Education and Training Act. The Further Education and Training Act (23 October 2007) made provisions about: the Learning and essay Skills Council for England; institutions within the further education sector; industrial training levies; the formation of, and investment in, companies and charitable incorporated organisations by higher education corporations; and online cheap muse the making of Welsh Assembly Measures in relation to the field of education. Download the Further Education and Training Act 2007 (pdf text 196kb). 2008 Children and Young Persons Act. The Children and Young Persons Act (13 November 2008) made provisions about: the delivery of local authority social work services for children and young persons; the functions of local authorities and others in relation to essay 2013, children and young persons; the buy research online apple enforcement of care standards in relation to certain establishments or agencies connected with children; and the independent review of determinations relating to adoption. Download the Children and Young Persons Act 2008 (pdf text 228kb). 2010 Child Poverty Act. The Child Poverty Act (25 March 2010): set targets relating to the eradication of child poverty; and made other provisions about child poverty.

Download the Child Poverty Act 2010 (pdf text 140kb). Three major reviews of the curriculum were undertaken in this period: the government's 'Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum' (IRPC), conducted by Sir Jim Rose, published its interim report in astronomy essay contest December 2008 and its final report in April 2009; the Cambridge Primary Review, which had begun work in 2006, published Towards a new primary curriculum in February 2009 and its final report Children, their World, their Education in buy research online cheap among the nacirema 2010; the House of Commons Children, Schools and contest Families Committee (CSFC) published its report on the National Curriculum in April 2009. Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum. As the Cambridge Primary Review was getting into its stride, Ed Balls threw a spanner into papers online apple branding - essay, the works. Essay Contest 2013? On 9 January 2008 he wrote to Sir Jim Rose inviting him to conduct 'an independent review of the essay primary curriculum' with a view to making 'final recommendations to the Secretary of State by March 2009 so that the new primary curriculum can be introduced from September 2011'. The government's justification for this new review of primary education was presumably that it had already commissioned a review of the secondary curriculum and had introduced an early years 'foundation stage'. As Rose put it, you couldn't 'just extend one backwards, the other forwards, tie a knot in the middle and say that's primary education' (Wilby 2008).

However, given that the Cambridge Review - the biggest investigation of primary education since Plowden - was already under way, many felt that the Rose review was designed as a spoiler. The government was fed up with adverse headlines like 'Poor performance linked to substandard classrooms', 'Government policy has created impersonalised education', and 'Study reveals stressed out contest 2013 7 to order online muse, 11 year olds' (Wilby 2008). Astronomy 2013? It was also concerned that the Cambridge Review would condemn England's testing regime - the hated SATs. So it created the IRPC as a diversion, 'with a suspiciously similar email address, a claim that it too is help essay letter themes independent, and an identical deadline for its final report of spring 2009' (Wilby 2008). There were other concerns about the IRPC. One was that the Qualifications and Curriculum Agency (QCA) was required to produce draft programmes of study based on the report's recommendations during the consultation period, effectively rendering redundant most of the responses. Another was that the astronomy essay 2013 views of representatives of local authorities and teachers' professional associations who attended meetings during the 'informal' consultations were apparently excluded. A third concern was that consideration of essay, SATs tests was 'specifically excluded from essay contest 2013, Rose's remit' (Wilby 2008). Introducing the IRPC's interim report on her is, 8 December 2008, Rose urged ministers to review the arrangements for SATs (already abolished in all parts of the UK except England). 'I'm ruled out of making recommendations about testing', he told Polly Curtis. 'That's not to say every school doesn't ask about testing. It's the elephant in astronomy contest the room' ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). IRPC Interim Report.

The report's main recommendations were: there should be a smoother transition between early years and primary education, and between primary and secondary education; subjects should be combined with cross-curricular study; teachers should have more flexibility within a richer curriculum; there should be more and better computer education; the value of play to children's learning and development should be made explicit in any revisions to the primary curriculum; primary schools should focus on teaching only one or two foreign languages; children should acquire a range of personal, social and Comparing Culture: Nestle emotional qualities essential to their health, well-being and life as a responsible citizen in essay contest 2013 the 21st century; and summer-born children should start primary school in the September after their fourth birthday, with some children starting part-time. Comparing Organizational Culture: Vs. Kraft Research? The report proposed that the primary curriculum should comprise six 'areas of learning': understanding English, communication and languages; mathematical understanding; scientific and essay 2013 technological understanding; human, social and environmental understanding; understanding physical health and com sites anti essay well-being; and understanding the arts and design. The Review found overwhelming support for the National Curriculum and much good practice in schools. It recommended that the curriculum should be reviewed periodically but stressed that schools and teachers needed stability so as to be able to plan effectively. The Cambridge Primary Review - Towards a new primary curriculum. In order to essay 2013, contribute to the final IRPC report, the Cambridge Review brought forward publication of its material on the curriculum. Papers Online Cheap Apple - Essay? Towards a New Primary Curriculum was published on 20 February 2009 in astronomy two parts: Past and Present and The Future . Its authors commented: Some readers may become impatient with the history, the account of witnesses' concerns and essay essay our apparent preoccupation with the problematic. For them, solutions are more important. They are of course welcome to turn straight to Part 2. Yet it is contest only by understanding the history, recognising the deeply-rooted and often cyclic nature of the problems, and by accepting the inadequacy of some of the surrounding discourse, that we can make progress. That is why the grounding provided by com sites anti, Part 1 is essential. Astronomy Essay 2013? Without it, we shall simply repeat past mistakes. (Alexander and Flutter 2009a:1) It bemoaned the politicisation of the curriculum and warned that children's lives were being impoverished by the government's insistence that schools focus on literacy and numeracy at the expense of the darkest muse, creative teaching.

It argued for a broad, balanced and rich curriculum including art, music, drama, history and geography. In the astronomy contest authors' view, a future primary curriculum must: 'confront and attempt to Comparing Organizational Culture: vs. Kraft Research Paper, address the problems and challenges in astronomy current arrangements; be grounded in explicit principles of design and implementation; and pursue and remain faithful to a clear and defensible statement of educational aims and values.' (Alexander and Flutter 2009b:21) CSFC Report on the National Curriculum. The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee published its report on the National Curriculum on 2 April 2009. The key points in its 32 conclusions and the world essay recommendations were: the National Curriculum was in 'urgent need of significant reform': it should prescribe as little as possible, parents should be better informed, the Programmes of essay 2013, Study for the new secondary curriculum were 'overly complex'; the Early Years Foundation Stage and papers among the nacirema summary the Early Learning Goals should be reviewed; the curriculum freedoms that academies enjoyed should be immediately extended to all maintained schools; a system of Single Level Tests linked to targets, and potentially to funding, could further narrow the curriculum; the idea that there was one best way to essay, teach was not supported by the research evidence and so should not be the basis for buy research the delivery of the National Curriculum; the Department should cease presenting the National Strategies guidance as a prop for the teaching profession and adopt a more positive understanding of how schools and teachers might be empowered in astronomy contest relation to order essay online muse, the National Curriculum; the Department should spend less on producing guidance and more on the dissemination of research findings; the theory and practice of curriculum design should be given a much higher profile within the standards for Qualified Teacher Status; the Department should show how it would support the astronomy contest move to papers apple branding, a much less prescriptive curriculum and less centrally-directed approach to its delivery; there should be better continuity and coherence in the current National Curriculum - and essay 2013 across the National Curriculum, Early Years Foundation Stage and 14-19 arrangements; the Department should take more account of the views of children and online apple branding - essay young people; the Department should put in astronomy contest place a cycle of around five years for curriculum review and com sites essay reform and avoid initiating additional change outside that cycle: reviews should scrutinise the Early Years Foundation Stage, National Curriculum and 14-19 arrangements as a continuum, not as discrete 'chunks'; the agency with main responsibility for the development of the National Curriculum should be truly independent from the Department; like the astronomy contest 2013 Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), the Qualifications and buy research papers Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) should be independent of Ministers and required to report to 2013, Parliament through the Select Committee; there should be 'an overarching statement of aims for the National Curriculum' to provide it with 'a stronger sense of purpose, continuity and coherence'; a statement of provision for learners from 0 to 19 should be introduced; there should be 'an overarching diploma' which would replace all other qualifications for learners aged 14 to 19; and these changes must be accompanied by improved communication and co-ordination between teachers and practitioners across the different phases of buy research cheap - essay, education. Essay Contest? (CSFC 2009:39-43) The Committee described the Cambridge Review as 'very welcome' but commented that it contained 'extensive analysis of the problems but has not enough to say about what might be done in practice to Comparing Organizational Nestle Paper, address them' (CSFC 2009:23). It went on: The Rose Review and the Cambridge Review both recognise that the primary curriculum is astronomy essay overly full, but neither offers a practical basis that appeals to us for reducing the order the darkest muse load. As we have indicated, we would see greater merit in stipulating a basic entitlement for literacy and numeracy and offering general guidelines on essay, breadth and balance to be interpreted by buy research cheap branding - essay, schools and teachers themselves. (CSFC 2009:23) Writing in The Guardian , Robin Alexander described the committee's jibe that the Cambridge Review offered 'a good analysis of the problems but no solutions', as 'bizarre'. He continued: Apart from the detailed proposals on astronomy, curriculum aims, substance, structure, development and implementation, which the committee appears not to Comparing Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft, have noticed, other ideas from the Cambridge review appear, almost verbatim, in the committee's own recommendations: abandoning the national strategies in their present form; supporting local ownership; reconfiguring the roles of national agencies, local authorities and schools; making Curriculum Matters central to initial teacher training. Astronomy Essay Contest? More bizarre still, the buy research papers body among committee's report includes as an appendix a comparison of the Rose and essay 2013 Cambridge curriculum reports, which says enough to contradict its criticisms of both of them. Essay Online Cheap? (Alexander 2009a) Download the CSFC Report on the National Curriculum (pdf text 1.5mb). IRPC Final report. The IRPC's final report was published on contest, 30 April 2009.

Jim Rose said he had tried to Culture: Research, 'capture the distinctiveness of the primary phase and to ensure it is astronomy contest recognised as more than a postscript to the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and a prelude to secondary education' (DCSF 2009a:9). The report's key points were: subjects, and her is the world essay the essential knowledge, skills and understanding they represented, were important but were not sufficient - cross-curricular studies were important, too; there should be a stronger focus on curriculum progression; by the age of contest 2013, seven, children should have a secure grasp of the literacy and numeracy skills they needed to make good progress thereafter; the teaching and cant do my scarlet letter themes learning of information and communication technology (ICT) should be improved; there should be greater emphasis on personal development through a more integrated and simpler framework for schools; there should be stronger links between the astronomy essay contest EYFS and Key Stage 1, and between Key Stage 2 and Comparing Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Research Key Stage 3; and essay 2013 7-11 year olds should be offered 'exciting opportunities' for learning languages. (DCSF 2009a:10-12) Writing in The Guardian , Mike Baker compared the essay com sites essay Rose review with the Plowden report of 1967. He noted that the Plowden committee had had 25 members, including several heads, and had benefited from astronomy essay contest 2013, having six school inspectors and one local authority inspector seconded to it throughout. It had taken three years and online among the nacirema produced 556 pages covering 'the physical development of children, the growth of the brain, parental attitudes, social change, health and social services, and the ways schools were organised, designed and equipped'. By contrast, the astronomy 2013 Rose review 'was made up of papers body ritual among summary, one, albeit very experienced, person: Rose himself'.

He had an advisory group of leading heads - which met just five times, his report was only 154 pages long and restricted in scope - his remit didn't even allow him to consider the question of essay, tests. Baker noted that: There is, of course, another inquiry currently under way, which aims to match the thoroughness of Plowden. The Cambridge primary review has been running for essay online two-and-a-half years now. Its remit is broad and it has not been afraid to essay contest 2013, say things the Comparing Paper government does not want to hear. And there is the rub. In the essay contest past, governments set up big independent education inquiries; now they prefer to do my essay scarlet, have their own short, sharp reviews - and seem scarcely interested in anything else. (Baker 2009) A statutory consultation on the IRPC's recommendations followed by publication of revised programmes of essay contest 2013, study and guidance should have enabled the new primary curriculum to essay, be implemented, as planned, in September 2011. But when Labour lost the astronomy essay contest 2010 general election, Rose's recommendations were lost too.

Cambridge Primary Review - Children, their World, their Education. The Cambridge Primary Review published its final report on 16 October 2009. The Review had been the most extensive inquiry into primary education since the Plowden Report forty years earlier, involving 14 authors, 66 research consultants and a 20-strong advisory committee at Cambridge University, led by Professor Robin Alexander. Its final report was based on buy research online cheap branding, 28 research surveys, 1,052 written submissions and reports from dozens of essay, regional meetings. In its 75 recommendations it argued that formal lessons should not start before the age of six, SATs and league tables should be replaced with teacher assessments in a wider range of subjects, and the system of generalist primary teaching should be reviewed. The report was critical of political decision-making processes. It condemned: centralisation, secrecy and the 'quiet authoritarianism' of the essay new centres of power; the disenfranchising of local voice; the rise of unelected and unaccountable groups and individuals taking key decisions behind closed doors: the 'empty rituals' of astronomy contest 2013, consultation; the cant scarlet letter themes replacement of professional dialogue by the monologic discourse of power; the politicisation of the entire educational enterprise so that it becomes impossible to debate ideas or evidence which are not deemed to 2013, be 'on message', or which are 'not invented here'; and, latterly coming to light, financial corruption. Organizational Culture: Nestle Research Paper? (Alexander 2009b:481) It noted that since 1989, and especially since 1997, national government had 'tightened its control over what goes on essay contest 2013, in local authorities and schools'; and warned that 'the power of government and its agencies has reached far more deeply into her is the world essay, the recesses of astronomy essay contest, professional action and thought than is proper in a democracy or good for her is the world schools themselves' (Alexander 2009b:508). It noted a growing 'pervasive anxiety' about children's lives, and emphasised the link between educational underachievement and poverty. Astronomy Essay 2013? 'What is her is essay worrying is the persistence of a long tail of severely disadvantaged children whose early lives are unhappy, whose potential is essay 2013 unrealised and Comparing vs. Kraft whose future is bleak' (Alexander 2009b:71). The Review's conclusions were backed by all the teacher unions. National Association of contest 2013, Head Teachers (NAHT) general secretary Mick Brookes said: This comprehensive study of primary education must be taken seriously by government.

The fact the work in progress has been completely ignored by Comparing Culture: Paper, the government is a sign of weakness. This report is truly independent, unlike work commissioned and contest controlled by the DCSF which largely says what it wants to hear. There are recommendations in this report that could transform the primary ethos and Comparing Organizational Culture: vs. Kraft Research turn pessimism into hope. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) NUT general secretary Christine Blower said: It is absolutely extraordinary that the government has decided to ignore the Cambridge Review recommendations. Astronomy? Any government worth its salt, particularly in com sites anti front of an impending general election, would have embraced this immensely rich report as a source of policy ideas. It is not too late for the government to recognise that not all good ideas emanate from the minds of civil servants. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And Nansi Ellis, head of education policy and research at the ATL, warned that 'primary education must not become a battlefield in the forthcoming election - children and essay contest their learning will be the first casualties' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009). Unsurprisingly, the com sites essay report was rubbished by essay contest 2013, the government. Schools minister Vernon Coaker said the government was already reforming the curriculum and testing, and accused Alexander's report of suggesting a 'woolly' accountability system: It's disappointing that a review which purports to be so comprehensive is simply not up to speed on many major changes in primaries. The world has moved on since this review was started. Essay Com Sites? If every child making progress and reaching their potential is what matters, then Professor Alexander's proposals are a backward step.' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And just to rub salt into essay 2013, the wound, Balls announced that every four year old in England would be offered a place at school or nursery so that they could start full-time education a year earlier. Do My Letter Themes? The Cambridge Primary Review had recommended delaying the start of formal learning until the age of astronomy contest, six ( The Guardian 19 October 2009).

Robin Alexander expressed his disappointment at the reaction of politicians and his frustration that the Labour government, with its 'micro-managed' system, had refused to 'listen, engage and learn' from independent advice. He said it was clear from the cheap body the nacirema inaccuracies in their responses that neither government ministers nor their Conservative shadows had actually read it ( The Guardian 24 October 2009). Peter Mortimore, former director of the University of astronomy contest, London Institute of Education (ULIE), also bemoaned the response of com sites, politicians. Writing in The Guardian , he commented: Weep, Cambridge team. Your efforts to produce clear analyses and innovative ideas in the interest of fostering something better than political point-scoring, repetitive myths and ideological rigidity have been strangled at birth. Console yourselves, however, for good ideas are seldom so easily dismissed.

He concluded: The pity is that politicians, who pollsters tell us are only trusted by 13% of the population, can so easily make such fools of themselves by endeavouring to close down all thinking outside their own. Essay Contest? How much wiser to help essay scarlet, welcome new ideas and give civil society, including teachers - who are trusted by 82% of the population - the chance to debate how best to improve the education of our youngest learners. (Mortimore 2009) For more on the Cambridge Primary Review see the Routledge website for contest 2013 details of Children, their World, their Education which is help cant do my essay scarlet letter available as a large format paperback priced £35.99; the Cambridge Primary Review Trust website, which now contains probably the largest single compendium of evidence and commentary on 2013, English primary education; Nuffield Review of 14-19 education and training. In addition to these three major reviews of the curriculum, in February 2008 the help do my scarlet letter themes Oxford-based Nuffield Foundation published its final report on education and training for astronomy essay contest 14-19 year olds. Education for All warned that ministers were treating school pupils as if they were business products to be managed rather than children to buy research online cheap ritual the nacirema, be educated. The government's aim of boosting the British economy was overshadowing the true role of schools in young people's lives. Businesses increasingly ran state schools and even awarded their own A Level-style qualifications. The lead director of the Review, Professor Richard Pring, said: The changes at 14-19 are too often driven by economic goals at the expense of broader educational aims. This is reflected in the rather impoverished language drawn from business and management, rather than from a more generous understanding of the whole person.

We need to give young learners far more than skills for employment alone, even if such skills are key to the country's economy. Inevitably, the DCSF rubbished the report. A spokesman said: 'This depressing view of education is astronomy contest 2013 simply not one that we recognise' ( Oxford Times 14 February 2008). Various documents, including a summary of essay online cheap the darkest, Education for All , can be downloaded from the website of the Nuffield Review of 14-19 education and training . Testing and astronomy contest assessment. Concerns about the level of the world essay, testing in English schools - and essay particularly about the annual SATs tests - intensified during this period.

The QCA urged schools to stop 'drilling' pupils for the tests. Chief executive Ken Boston warned that 'in many schools too much teaching time is essay com sites taken up with practice tests and preparing for the key stage tests in English, mathematics and science, at the expense of actual teaching in these core subjects and astronomy other areas' ( The Guardian 11 August 2007). Three reports for the Cambridge Primary Review highlighted many of the buy research online cheap among concerns. One found that national tests at 7 and 11 left most children stressed and led to a 'pervasive anxiety' about astronomy 2013, their lives and the world they were growing up in. Professor Robin Alexander said 'these findings do build up to a sense that important changes are needed within the primary sector' ( The Guardian 12 October 2007). Another noted that English children were among the youngest in the world to start formal learning and were the most tested throughout their education. It found that parents were increasingly seeking alternative forms of education such as home schooling or Steiner schools to cant do my scarlet, free their children from the state sector's regime of testing and contest targets ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). And a third showed that higher test results in England's primary schools had been achieved at the expense of the quality of education offered.

Teacher-pupil relationships had been eroded by a focus on whole-class teaching and Comparing Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Research preparation for 'high stakes' national tests ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). CSFC Report on Testing and Assessment. A further report, this time by MPs themselves, reached similar conclusions. The House of Commons Children, Schools and contest 2013 Families Select Committee report on Testing and Assessment , published in May 2008, warned the government that SATs tests had distorted the education of millions of cheap the darkest, children because schools focused on essay contest, getting them through the tests rather than improving their knowledge and understanding. Committee chair Barry Sheerman urged the government to conduct 'a root and branch reform of the buy research online cheap among the nacirema summary system'. The report recommended: an inquiry to find the extent of the problem of schools 'teaching to the test'; a reduction in the number of times children were tested; more use of internal teacher assessment; whole-cohort tests should be replaced with sample testing of a handful of astronomy essay 2013, pupils in each school; and the exams watchdog should conduct 'a full review of assessment standards' as ministers had failed to essay, address concerns about 2013, grade inflation.

Download Testing and Assessment (pdf text 631kb). Although the government was adamant it would keep the tests in England (they had already been abolished in other parts of the UK), it did at essay com sites anti, least make some attempt to respond to the worries about them by contest, trialling new 'lighter touch' tests. More than 400 schools took part in the two-year 'Making Good Progress' pilot project in which children were tested when their teachers felt they were ready rather than at the end of the key stage. Essay Essay? Ministers hoped the new tests, which formed part of the Children's Plan, would replace the existing SATs tests from 2010 ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). They also hoped, no doubt, that the new test regime would silence some of the critics. Essay Contest? But disaster was about to strike.

First, schools reported widespread IT problems with the summer's SATs tests: markers struggled with the new online marking system and schools were unable to cant do my essay themes, log on to register students at the start of astronomy contest, this week's tests ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). Then the Comparing Organizational Nestle Research Paper publication of results for 11 and 14 year olds was delayed. QCA head Ken Boston said the government's testing regime was under 'very great stress'. He told an emergency Commons select committee meeting that he was considering legal action against essay contest 2013 ETS, the Comparing Organizational Paper American company which had failed to astronomy, deliver the year's SATs results on time. He told journalists that the pressure in the system - including the government's preference for testing 9.5 million pupils a year in order to compile league tables - could have contributed to cheap - essay, the problems ( The Guardian 15 July 2008). Then it became clear that the results were not only late, they were also inaccurate. Essay 2013? ASCL general secretary John Dunford called for an overhaul of the entire key stage 3 testing system. He said: The government and Ofsted use the SATs results to make judgements about essay anti essay, whether schools will fail their inspections and heads can lose their jobs as a result. The results need to be accurate and essay contest schools will be much angrier at Nestle Paper, lack of accuracy than delay. Results will be scrutinised this year as never before and essay 2013 the number of appeals is almost certain to rocket. Order Cheap The Darkest Muse? ( The Guardian 18 July 2008) Kathleen Tattersall, head of the newly-created Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) warned that if the results proved to be as inaccurate as reports suggested, the government should annul them.

And two of the essay contest three major exam boards confirmed that they were not bidding for the five-year £165m contract to run the SATs because they did not believe there was a strong enough educational rationale for help do my themes them ( The Guardian 19 July 2008). Ministers ordered an inquiry into 2013, the fiasco, to be led by Lord Sutherland. When they did eventually appear, the year's SATs results showed that more than a third of pupils starting secondary school had failed to reach the level expected for their age in reading, writing and arithmetic and that the proportion of children scoring top marks had fallen significantly. Head teachers said it could be because schools were neglecting the brightest pupils so as to focus their effort on getting as many pupils as possible up to the national targets ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In January 2004 David Miliband, then school standards minister, had announced a new system for help cant essay judging schools.

Since then, schools had been given a 'contextualised value added' score (CVA), which took into astronomy essay 2013, account the number of students on free school meals and with special educational needs, ethnicity, age, gender and the spread of papers online ritual, ability. Miliband had said CVA would be a 'fairer' way to judge schools. But in August 2008 a study by Ofsted, Using data, improving schools , concluded that ranking schools by their CVA scores was 'meaningless' and essay could lead to 'inappropriate conclusions'. Its author, David Jesson, professor of education at the University of Organizational Culture:, York, warned the essay 2013 government to use CVA 'with care' and 'recognise its limitations'. He argued that CVA could lower teachers' expectations of papers cheap apple branding - essay, how much certain groups of pupils could achieve. 'Misusing the data to predict future performance could depress expectations of groups of astronomy essay contest, pupils that have performed less well in order essay cheap the darkest previous years', he said ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In an extraordinary U-turn, Ed Balls announced that Key Stage 3 SATs tests for 14 year olds would no longer be compulsory. (The change was made in the 2008 Education and Skills Act). But he insisted that the astronomy essay even more controversial Key Stage 2 tests for primary school pupils would continue.

He told parliament that there would be extensive changes to the national testing system which would halve the testing burden on schools, and a new 'report card', based on a New York scheme, which would grade every school in online cheap apple - essay England and give parents more information ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). Teacher unions welcomed the essay scrapping of the Key Stage 3 tests but expressed 'bitter disappointment' at ministers' resolve to preserve those at Key Stage 2. NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said: 'We are dismayed at cant do my essay letter themes, the decision to keep the current test arrangements for 11 year olds. This will mean that England's 10/11-year-olds will be the only children in astronomy essay 2013 the UK to be put under this pressure' ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). The government's announcement that Key Stage 3 SATs were effectively to be abolished resulted in a dramatic drop - around fifty per cent - in the number of scarlet letter, teachers taking part in courses run by the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). Jacqui O'Hanlon, the RSC's director of education, said: 'School managers will not release teachers for a day's training because Shakespeare is no longer seen as a priority' ( The Guardian 26 November 2008). Balls published further details of how his New York-style 'report card' for schools would work. It would pull together all the information currently available about schools into a single annual document, including test scores, ratings of astronomy, how quickly children progressed, Ofsted scores and measures of child well-being through parent and pupil surveys.

It would provide a single score for every school with an A-E sliding scale or a traffic light system ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). QCA chief executive Ken Boston resigned three days before the publication of her is the world essay, Lord Sutherland's report on the summer's SATs problems, saying he was 'taking responsibility' for the worst exam fiasco to hit schools in astronomy essay 2013 recent years. Teaching unions regretted his decision and described him as a great asset to British education ( The Observer 14 December 2008). The acrimonious spat between ministers and the QCA came to a head in December. The QCA board disbanded the National Assessment Agency (NAA), responsible for essay the SATs tests, and suspended the agency's chief executive, David Gee. It also suspended Boston, having refused to accept his resignation. Sutherland's inquiry into the summer's SATs fiasco revealed that it was Gee who had recommended that the £156m contract be awarded to ETS. Sutherland said the the QCA and NAA collectively failed to check ETS's appalling track record in astronomy contest the US.

The report blamed everyone involved: ETS was 'not fit for purpose', the QCA had failed to prevent the marking process spiralling into chaos, and DCSF officials had ignored the her is the world essay warning signs ( The Guardian 17 December 2008). The QCA announced that exam board Edexcel had been awarded a £25m one-year contract to run Key Stage 2 SATs tests and other non-statutory national curriculum tests in 2009. Edexcel had previously held the astronomy essay contest SATs contract from 2005 to 2007. But the QCA warned that the rush to appoint Edexcel to papers cheap apple, run the essay 2009 tests had left little time to test marking systems to ensure they did not collapse again. Before he was suspended in mid-December Ken Boston had written to Balls, warning him that whilst Edexcel was committed to achieving the essay deadline, there was 'no guarantee that events will not cause them to miss it' ( The Guardian 31 December 2008). At their annual conference in contest 2013 April 2009 NUT members voted to boycott the Key Stage 2 SATs tests. But instead of debating the online cheap apple branding - essay sound educational reasons for doing so, they demanded a ten per essay 2013, cent pay rise and a minimum of a day a week to mark and prepare work. In The Guardian , Jenni Russell commented: What timing.

What judgement. Here were militant employees with secure jobs and good pensions picking this particular moment in our economic history to com sites essay, demand less work for more money. Even the people who - like me - believe in the long-term need for better paid educators were left dumbfounded. At a stroke, the moral authority behind the unions' claims about SATs had withered, and teachers once again looked like people who could be portrayed as whingeing professionals, out for themselves. The government - which has always taken the astronomy 2013 line that national tests are an papers online cheap body among the nacirema essential check on whether teachers are actually doing their job - must have breathed a tremendous sigh of relief. (Russell 2009) Just days after NUT members voted to boycott SATs, members of the astronomy essay contest 2013 rival NASUWT union did exactly the opposite: they threatened to strike if ministers abolished the tests. Apple Branding? Ed Balls thus faced the possibility of industrial action whatever he chose to contest 2013, do ( The Guardian 16 April 2009).

The government's proposed new 'lighter touch' testing system - 'single level tests' (SLTs) - had been hit by 'substantial and fundamental' problems. Essay Com Sites? According to The Guardian , unpublished reports of pilot tests conducted by astronomy contest, the NAA and five independent academics revealed that the tests had given wildly unpredictable results and subjected children to Comparing Organizational vs. Kraft Research Paper, higher levels of stress than the astronomy contest 2013 SATs they were designed to replace ( The Guardian 22 June 2009). By October 2009 more than a quarter of order cheap, a million people had signed a petition organised by astronomy contest, the NUT and NAHT urging the government to scrap Key Stage 2 SATs. The two unions began exploring with their members whether there would be widespread support for a boycott of the tests ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). In April 2010 head teacher members of the NUT and NAHT in England voted overwhelmingly for a boycott ( The Guardian 16 April 2010).

Ed Balls consulted lawyers over whether to mount a legal challenge to order essay cheap muse, the decision ( The Guardian 21 April 2010). Heads accused Balls of urging council chiefs to dock their pay and issue them with written warnings if they refused to administer the contest 2013 tests ( The Guardian 30 April 2010). NUT general secretary Christine Blower told the NAHT annual conference that the number of teachers who said they would boycott the SATs was growing and anti that at least half of England's 17,000 primary schools would not administer the tests ( The Observer 2 May 2010). The SATs began on Monday 10 May - four days after the general election. A quarter of all primary schools boycotted them - a significant proportion but disappointing, given the level of astronomy contest 2013, support for the boycott expressed by heads and teachers and her is the world essay the hostility to the tests among the essay contest 2013 wider public. Exams and cheap among the nacirema qualifications. GCSE results in 2007 showed an overall pass rate of 98 per cent with comprehensive schools improving more than independents and grammars in performance at the top grades. Fewer students took French or German, but more took separate exams in chemistry, physics and astronomy essay contest 2013 biology and attained better grades. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: GCSE students this year submitted over 26m papers and pieces of coursework.

This bloated exam system is reaching breaking point and order essay online must be slimmed down. Especially for exams at 16 and 17, greater trust should be placed in the professional judgement of contest, teachers. ( The Guardian 24 August 2007) The government barred state schools from offering Cambridge University exam board's new elite International GCSE in core subjects, raising fears that the Organizational Culture: Nestle Research Paper divide between state and astronomy essay 2013 private schools would grow as independent schools were enthusiastic about the new qualification ( The Guardian 4 November 2009). The QCA said it would - for the world essay the first time - intervene in the setting of A Level papers to ensure they were more rigorous. Heads' leaders welcomed the astronomy essay announcement ( The Guardian 24 November 2007). The Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) was launched on buy research papers cheap among the nacirema summary, 16 May 2008. Its head, Kathleen Tattersall, promised to investigate the 'reliability' of exams ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). The first five of the government's new diplomas - in construction, media, engineering, IT and society, and health and development - were due to be introduced in September 2008 for astronomy contest 40,000 students in essay com sites 900 schools and colleges. By 2011 14 vocational diplomas would be available, and in October 2007 Ed Balls announced that three more diplomas, in science, languages and astronomy essay contest humanities, would be added to these.

A Levels would be reviewed in 2013 and papers apple - essay might be scrapped if the diplomas proved successful, he said. NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said the move represented a 'fundamental change of astronomy, heart' by the government, which, under Tony Blair, had rejected Mike Tomlinson's 2004 proposals to end the historic divide between academic and vocational education ( The Guardian 24 October 2007). In March 2008, Balls announced that an extended diploma with more emphasis on academic skills to prepare students for university would also be introduced in 2011. Essay Online Cheap The Darkest? He hoped the new qualification would be backed by the universities. Tomlinson said his original plan had now been fully implemented ( The Guardian 7 March 2008). But the diplomas were not without their critics: the Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on astronomy essay, Testing and Assessment , published in May 2008, warned that the Comparing Organizational Nestle vs. Kraft Paper introduction of astronomy essay, diplomas for 14 to 19 year olds was in danger of being undermined by insufficient teacher training, and urged ministers to end uncertainty in schools by deciding whether to abolish A Levels and GCSEs after the diplomas were introduced; leading independent schools said the diplomas were too complex and decided to opt out; researchers at ULIE warned of a widening gap between vocational and academic education, as private schools increasingly opted for a new range of academically elite qualifications, including the international baccalaureates and Comparing Organizational Culture: vs. Kraft Research Cambridge University's Pre-U ( The Guardian 30 June 2008); and in October 2008 the Commons public accounts committee warned that the government's plan to introduce diplomas to astronomy essay contest, replace A Levels and GCSEs in England was at risk because the essay muse new qualification was not seen as credible by parents, employers and universities. Nearly £30,000 had been spent for each of the 20,000 students who had just started diplomas and it was intended that the courses should be available to every 14 to 19 year old within five years. Essay? But, the MPs said, the government didn't know the future costs of the essay com sites anti scheme, many schools and colleges were not ready, and 2013 students were confused about the purpose of the diplomas.

To deliver the full range of qualifications, schools and colleges would have to link up to form complex consortia, with pupils travelling to buy research online cheap body among summary, different centres to study different aspects of the curriculum. The report commended the aim of essay 2013, ending the academic-vocational divide but warned that careers guidance was so poor that pupils might be confused by the world essay, the extra option of diplomas on top of the GCSEs, A Levels and vocational courses already available ( The Guardian 7 October 2008). Qualifications rapidly became a key election issue. As the 2009 exam results season began, the Conservatives accused the government of encouraging children to give up academic GCSEs in favour of vocational qualifications. The government accused the Tories of presenting 'misleading' figures ( The Guardian 24 August 2009). There was a clear divide between the aims of astronomy 2013, Ball and Gove. Balls wanted to replace GCSEs and apple - essay A Levels with diplomas which would span the academic/vocational divide. Gove wanted all children to have a purely academic grounding at astronomy, least until the age of 16.

Schools and buy research online cheap apple branding colleges watched anxiously from the sidelines, knowing that they would have the responsibility of essay contest 2013, implementing the winning policy ( The Guardian 26 August 2009). Andrew Hall took up his post as the order new chief executive of the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA), facing the possibility that if the essay contest 2013 Conservatives won the forthcoming general election he might quickly be out of buy research among summary, a job ( The Guardian 3 November 2009). Building Schools for the Future. The Commons education select committee published its report on the early stages of the £45bn Building Schools for astronomy contest 2013 the Future (BSF) programme. It said the scheme should be regularly reviewed and questioned the use of the public finance initiative (PFI) for order essay online cheap the darkest about half the new projects. Under PFI, private companies constructed the buildings and then leased them back to the schools on long contracts, often 25-30 years.

The committee noted that central government often pressured local authorities into accepting academies as part of the BSF scheme and essay 2013 it argued that local authorities should have more freedom over do my essay scarlet letter, the regeneration of astronomy contest, schools ( The Guardian 9 August 2007). In October 2007 the new Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling announced that every local authority would get a new or refurbished primary school. A £200m fund would pay for building work for 75 schools by 2011, doubling the planned primary school building programme over the next three years ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). But the BSF programme had been beset with problems over its four-year history, as local authorities struggled to com sites anti essay, set up the astronomy essay contest PFI partnerships which provided most of the funding. Comparing Organizational Vs. Kraft Research? So in April 2008 ministers announced that it would be replaced by contest, a programme to build just four new schools in every local authority area. A DCSF spokesman said there were still 'ambitions' for buy research cheap ritual summary every school to have a plan in place, even if building work hadn't started by 2020 ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). And an audit conducted by the government's architecture watchdog, the essay 2013 Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE), said that eight out of buy research cheap branding, ten designs for secondary schools proposed under the BSF initiative were 'mediocre' or 'not yet good enough' and only one in five were considered to be 'good' or 'excellent'. Problems identified in the forty proposed designs which were reviewed by CABE included bullying hotspots in secluded yards, noisy open plan areas which made teaching difficult, and classrooms which were too dark or prone to overheating on sunny afternoons ( The Guardian 21 July 2008). Academies and trust schools. While Tony Blair had been prime minister, Gordon Brown seemed to astronomy essay, have little enthusiasm for buy research papers online apple academies and trust schools - at least, he had said very little about them until three months before Blair resigned. Then, in his first public pronouncement on the subject, he had praised the 'tremendous success of the academy movement' (The Guardian 20 March 2007).

As prime minister, however, he seemed happy enough for Ed Balls to continue - indeed, to expand and intensify - the essay contest policy of handing over the education of the nation's children to used car salesmen, carpet manufacturers and, of course, 'faith groups'. But the cheap - essay problems and essay contest 2013 controversies surrounding academies wouldn't go away. Private schools which were struggling financially decided the academies programme was the answer: they could carry on doing much as they wanted but with taxpayers' money. When the government announced it would welcome them as academies, they must have thought Christmas had come early. By August 2007 four were already changing status, two more had applied and essay com sites essay twenty were thinking about astronomy, it. Other private schools were considering sponsorship of academies and Anthony Seldon, head of Wellington College, argued that this would help end Britain's 'educational apartheid' ( The Guardian 4 August 2007). A report from MPs on the Commons public accounts committee noted routine overspending in the building of academies, with 17 of the first 26 projects overrunning by an average of £3m.

And it warned that academies were still using exclusions to get behaviour under control, breaking laws by order essay online cheap, procuring services from their sponsors, and failing to engage with local communities ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). Twenty-one universities had been persuaded by ministers to adopt academies, but Oxford and Cambridge rejected the idea, saying they preferred to astronomy, pursue their 'national role' rather than work with individual schools ( The Guardian 3 December 2007). Arms company BAE Systems, which was under criminal investigation in Britain, the papers among the nacirema summary US and Europe over corruption allegations, offered £400,000 to sponsor an astronomy 2013 academy in Comparing Organizational Culture: vs. Kraft Research Barrow-in-Furness, where it built nuclear submarines. Unsurprisingly, the astronomy contest 2013 proposal attracted hostility from local parents ( The Guardian 11 December 2007). Major changes at order essay online cheap muse, the Specialist Schools and astronomy essay 2013 Academies Trust (SSAT) saw its forty-strong council replaced with a new board of twelve directors, and Sir Cyril Taylor, who had chaired the Trust for twenty years, replaced by Sir James Hill, chair of buy research papers online body ritual among the nacirema summary, governors of a Bradford academy. Taylor had been a favoured adviser to astronomy essay contest 2013, both Tory and essay com sites anti essay Labour governments and his removal from SSAT was seen as reducing the influence of schools minister Lord Adonis. Under Tony Blair, Adonis and Taylor had promoted the astronomy essay contest 2013 academies programme ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). Online Cheap Body The Nacirema? Adonis was subsequently moved from education to the Department of Transport in October 2008.

Desperate to find more sponsors, Ed Balls had already exempted some universities, colleges and essay contest 2013 schools from raising the £2m fee to sponsor an academy. Her Is? Now, the government announced that it would pay successful state schools up to contest 2013, £300,000 to cant do my scarlet letter, sponsor academies or set up new 'trust schools'. 34 schools had already become trusts and 307 were working towards trust status ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The Church of England announced plans to contest 2013, convert some existing cathedral schools into academies as part of its target of establishing a hundred of the schools. The National Secular Society said the scheme offered the essay com sites anti church 'subsidies on essay 2013, a breathtaking scale' without helping young people from anti, deprived areas.

Already, there were twelve Church of England academies open and 18 more planned, and twenty academies backed by other religious sponsors ( The Guardian 4 February 2008). Adonis said he saw academies as the new generation's grammar schools, offering disadvantaged bright children a 'ladder' out of poverty. Contest? He said: My vision is for academies to be in the vanguard of meritocracy for the next generation in the way that grammar schools were for a proportion of the post-war generation - providing a ladder, in particular, for cheap branding - essay less advantaged children to get on, and gain the very best education and qualifications, irrespective of wealth and family background, but without unfair selection at astronomy essay contest 2013, the age of 11. Anti-academy campaigners said that setting up 'quasi-grammar schools' would lead to buy research papers cheap body, a two-tier system of education ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). In a paper published by the Reform think-tank, Richard Tice, chairman of astronomy essay 2013, Northampton academy and member of the United Learning Trust (ULT) board, the cheap largest academy sponsor, said the government should make it easier for academies to exclude the worst-behaved pupils (they were already excluding ten times as many pupils as other state schools) and sack poorly performing teachers. Astronomy? Academy staff should be paid as if they worked in com sites anti essay business, he said, with bonuses linked to academic improvements ( The Guardian 25 February 2008).

Balls told Labour's spring conference that academies were 'turning round low-performing schools in astronomy contest 2013 disadvantaged communities'; that they had 'fair and comprehensive admissions' and 'even more disadvantaged intakes than their catchment areas'; and that they were 'delivering faster-rising results than other schools'. He announced plans for online cheap body ritual among the nacirema an extra five academies a year, bringing the annual total to 55. Balls believed that the changes he had made to contest, the governance, curriculum requirements and sponsorship regime of academies would remove concerns that they were going to be selective and outside the local authority structure ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). But the programme came under renewed attack from the two largest teacher unions. At their annual conference in Birmingham, members of the anti essay NASUWT passed a motion to ballot members on industrial action in schools which were forced to astronomy, become academies against cheap ritual among the wishes of the essay contest 2013 staff. Papers Online The Nacirema Summary? And the head of the NUT said academies were compelling teachers to choose either to essay, sign legal documents committing them to the 'values' of their new sponsors or to leave their jobs without compensation ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). The government announced 115 new trust schools, including the first co-operative trust school, in Stockport, Greater Manchester, where pupils, parents and teachers were to be involved in buy research cheap body decision-making ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). As part of the Children's Plan, Balls commissioned an inquiry into the impact of the commercial world on children, including the contest government's own policy of encouraging schools to Nestle vs. Kraft Research Paper, link up with businesses. It was to essay 2013, be led by David Buckingham, a professor at ULIE and a leading authority on children and the media ( The Guardian 19 May 2008).

Academies were accused of poaching the best head teachers from neighbouring schools by offering them six-figure salaries. Ministers claimed that academies had almost doubled the proportion of their pupils getting five good GCSEs but teacher unions said this had been at a cost to other state schools, which were helpless to compete against the high salaries paid by academies ( The Guardian 9 June 2008). The academies programme should be extended to 'failing' primary schools, said the liberal think-tank CentreForum in its book Academies . The book's views were supported by all three main political parties and included chapters by Lord Adonis and Conor Ryan, a former education adviser to the Blair government ( The Guardian 16 July 2008). Fifty-one new academies opened in Comparing Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Paper September 2008. Essay? Ministers claimed that academies had out-performed other schools in GCSE results but neglected to mention that in body ritual among the nacirema summary nine of the 36 oldest academies GCSE scores had declined ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). According to research by insurance company Zurich, private schools were rejecting the government's attempts to encourage them to sponsor academies - just six per astronomy essay, cent of independent schools had considered doing so ( The Guardian 12 September 2008). Paul Prest, the head of cheap ritual among, a new academy in Sunderland, suspended forty pupils in astronomy contest 2013 the first two weeks of term.

He said the zero-tolerance approach was crucial after pupils had repeatedly breached the rules. Order Muse? Academies' behaviour policies were praised by ministers despite the 2013 schools' excessively high rate of exclusions ( The Guardian 19 September 2008). Amey plc, the private sponsor of Middlesbrough's Unity City Academy, told the government it no longer wished to sponsor the Comparing Organizational Nestle school ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). The City Academy Bristol, which the government had listed as one of astronomy essay 2013, its 'National Challenge' schools because of its poor performance, announced that it was proposing to open fee-charging branches in her is Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The move was promoted by Anthony Seldon, head of Wellington College, which was also planning to open a number of foreign branches. Ray Priest, the head teacher of the astronomy essay contest 2013 City Academy Bristol, said opening 'branded schools' overseas would help to establish his academy as a 'global educational establishment' ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). An independent inquiry into apple - essay, the academies programme by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC), commissioned by the government, showed that results had improved markedly but that the proportion of pupils the schools took from the poorest homes had shrunk, supporting claims by critics that more able students were being selected to astronomy essay contest, improve results.

The inquiry raised doubts about the planned expansion of the programme and warned of shortages of heads and sponsors. Separate figures, obtained by the Liberal Democrats through a parliamentary question, revealed the extent of the buy research papers online branding drop in the number of pupils on free school meals in academies. In 2003, 45 per cent of essay, academy pupils were eligible; by September 2008 the figure was just 29 per cent. The 16 per cent drop in academies compared with a 1.7 per buy research online branding - essay, cent fall across England as a whole ( The Guardian 14 November 2008). The PWC inquiry also suggested that some academies had used government funds to establish subsidiary companies and astronomy contest that the government was failing to account for the money private sponsors were allocated ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). The government ordered an inquiry into academy sponsor Edutrust Academies Charitable Trust (EACT), a multi-faith charity chaired by buy research online ritual among the nacirema summary, the businessman Lord Bhatia, which, it was alleged, had mishandled money awarded to open a string of academies across England. Contest 2013? The DCSF launched an inquiry into help letter themes, concerns raised by astronomy essay, the charity's former chief executive, whose contract was terminated days after he complained of irregularities in 'governance and financing' at Comparing Organizational Culture: vs. Kraft, the organisation ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). Lord Bhatia was forced to resign from the board of EACT after the inquiry found it had failed to astronomy 2013, comply with 'financial management requirements' and had 'inappropriate governance arrangements'. Ministers said that a new board would take over buy research papers online cheap apple branding, control of the Trust's planned academies and would launch a fund-raising campaign to get sponsorship. EACT was due to essay contest 2013, open eight of the 80 academies being launched in September 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009).

One of the government's newest academies, Richard Rose Central Academy in Carlisle, was forced to her is, close for a day when demonstrations by pupils got out of hand. Contest? Staff threatened to strike over pay cuts, parents demanded an emergency Ofsted inspection, the school failed and was placed in special measures. Chief executive Peter Noble and head teacher Mark Yearsley resigned. Noble had had no experience as a teacher: he had previously been a manager in the National Health Service (NHS) ( The Guardian 29 January 2009). Schools minister Jim Knight confirmed that the government would consider applications for academy status from essay com sites anti essay, private schools struggling to stave off closure. Astronomy Essay 2013? Anthony Seldon, head teacher of Culture: Research Paper, Wellington College, said becoming an academy would not be the 'move of choice' for many private schools, but it could be their only option. Teachers' leaders said it amounted to a 'bail-out' for failing private schools. Five private schools, including two in Bristol, had already become academies ( The Guardian 31 January 2009).

By 2009, academies were seen by both Labour and essay the Conservatives as the future of anti, education. The Tories announced that a future Conservative government would extend the scheme to contest, allow primary schools to become academies. But there was still opposition from parents and local communities: in essay anti essay Furness parents raised a 6,000-signature petition against the imposition of an contest 2013 academy, four campaigners had been elected to the district council, and buy research papers body among the nacirema the campaign group Our Schools Are Not for astronomy contest Sale was expected to buy research - essay, win seats on the county council; in Northampton plans to replace Unity College, a Church of England secondary school, with an astronomy essay academy were shelved for a year after parents presented a 1,000-signature petition against online cheap it; in Croydon an advertisement for the role of principal of one of two academies planned for the borough was published before consultation meetings had taken place; in Durham the county council and sponsors planned to open three new academies in 2012: there was strong local opposition and teachers considered industrial action; and there was also strong opposition to academies in Derby, Dudley, Preston and essay contest 2013 Tamworth and some sponsors withdrew. ( The Guardian 5 May 2009) The government warned academy sponsors to buy research papers online cheap body ritual among summary, expect cuts in contest funding but said it was still planning to expand the number of academies. Her Is? The controversial schools had received nearly £5bn of public money since they were launched in 2001. 130 academies were already open, 67 were due to open in the autumn term 2009 and astronomy essay 2013 a hundred more were planned for September 2010.

But EACT warned that some schools, mainly small rural primary schools, might have to close if spending was reduced ( The Guardian 29 August 2009). In September 2009 Gordon Brown and cabinet ministers celebrated the opening of the 67 new academies. The World? Balls said it was part of the astronomy essay biggest wave of new schools since the Victorian era and papers online apple insisted that the government would reach its target of 400 academies. In a sign that ministers were desperate to keep the contest 2013 academies programme going, he announced that the government would abandon its policy of help do my letter themes, charging charities, businesses and individuals a £2m sponsorship fee to run the schools. New sponsors would be vetted in an accreditation system based on their educational record. Astronomy? The scheme, he declared, was now moving into a 'new phase' ( The Guardian 7 September 2009). But, Mary Bousted, general secretary of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, warned: The case hasn't been made for academies. We have a target which will mean one in ten secondaries are academies and the jury is still out on com sites essay, whether academies work. Some academies are excellent, some show very little difference and some have been a disaster.

It can be a dangerous experiment. If an academy goes wrong that can be catastrophic for astronomy essay contest the pupils, parents, teachers and the whole community. ( The Guardian 7 September 2009) Waltheof School in Sheffield had not been a 'failing' school and had been described by Ofsted as making 'reasonable progress' in essay online the darkest 2004. But it had been closed and replaced by Sheffield Park Academy, run by ULT, the largest academy sponsor. In July 2009 school inspectors rated it 'inadequate' in all categories. It was the third academy to have failed an inspection. ATL general secretary Mary Bousted said the news strengthened the case for a fresh investigation into academies ( The Guardian 13 September 2009). Sheffield Park wasn't the astronomy contest only ULT academy causing concerns. Online Cheap? In November 2009 Balls banned ULT from taking on contest 2013, any new schools until it had driven up standards in the 17 it was already running.

ULT, an Anglican charity chaired by former Tory education minister Angela Rumbold, also ran ten private schools ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). In December 2009 Warwick Mansell reported that 13 of the 90 academies which were supposed to have been given private sponsorship money for capital building work had yet to see a penny of com sites, it. Astronomy 2013? In total, sponsors had so far paid barely two-thirds of the £145m they were supposed to have paid towards capital costs in her is the world the seven years since the first of England's 200 academies had opened, despite the fact that these financial commitments were written into the contracts academy sponsors had had to sign 'to gain control of decisions on the curriculum, staffing and assets of these quasi-independent institutions, funded mainly by taxpayers' (Mansell 2009b). Staff at Crest Boys' Academy in Neasden, north-west London, held a one-day strike in protest at the announcement that the school's sponsor, EACT, intended to sack seven teachers. According to The Guardian , EACT's director general, Sir Bruce Liddington, enjoyed a salary of £265,000 and had claimed £1,436 for two nights in luxury hotel suites ( The Guardian 20 April 2010). Conscious of astronomy essay contest 2013, growing public unease at the increasing number of religious schools, Balls and leaders of the major faiths published Faith in the System . In return for state funding of their schools (ninety per her is the world, cent of astronomy 2013, building costs and all running costs), faith groups agreed to 'promote social cohesion'. A further expansion of faith schools was envisaged, despite the fact that they already made up a third of state schools in England - mostly Church of England or Roman Catholic but including 37 Jewish schools, seven Muslim, two Sikh, one Seventh Day Adventist and one Greek Orthodox. Comparing Organizational Nestle Research? The ATL warned that too many faith schools discriminated against pupils of other faiths in their admission policies and set religious requirements in appointing staff. ATL questioned why schools 'in which the majority of astronomy essay, funding comes from the state, should, as the government proposes, nurture children in a particular faith' ( The Guardian 10 September 2007). Meanwhile, in Northern Ireland the Roman Catholic Church was instructing its schools to disband Amnesty International support groups because of the help do my themes organisation's pro-abortion stance ( The Guardian 18 September 2007).

Worse, Bishop of Lancaster Patrick O'Donoghue issued a 66-page document in which he instructed Catholic schools in his area to stop 'safe-sex' education, put a crucifix in every classroom, use science to essay 2013, teach about the 'truths of the faith', only mention sex within the 'sacrament of marriage', insist that contraception was wrong and prohibit support for charities 'that promote or fund anti-life policies, such as Red Nose Day and Amnesty International, which now advocates abortion'. The Commons Children, Schools and cheap muse Families Committee summoned Catholic bishops to astronomy, appear before them to papers cheap, answer charges that they were promoting religious fundamentalism in their schools ( The Observer 30 December 2007). JFS, a Jewish state school in contest 2013 north London, was cleared of racial discrimination against an 11 year old boy who was denied a place on order essay online cheap the darkest, the grounds that his mother's conversion to contest, Judaism was invalid. High court judge Mr Justice Munby said 'The core aim of JFS is to educate those whom it, in cant themes common with the OCR [Office of the Chief Rabbi], considers to be Jews, irrespective of their practice or observance, and in an ethos which is avowedly Orthodox Jewish. That is JFS's aim and essay 2013 that, in my judgement, is in principle an entirely legitimate aim meeting a real need' ( The Guardian 4 July 2008).

In September 2008 it became legal for state-funded faith schools to buy research papers among summary, include religion as a selection criterion for teaching and non-teaching posts. In response, a coalition of Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations launched the 'Accord' campaign to stop state-funded schools from discriminating against students and teachers on the grounds of astronomy contest 2013, religion. Accord's supporters included the scientist professor Colin Blakemore, the former education secretary Tessa Blackstone, novelist Philip Pullman, the philosopher AC Grayling and papers online cheap among rabbis David Goldberg and Jonathan Romain. Goldberg said faith schools caused people 'to live parallel lives' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). Krishna-Avanti primary school in Harrow opened as Europe's first state-funded school for essay Hindus amid continued concern about the divisive nature of help cant essay scarlet themes, faith schools. Astronomy Essay Contest 2013? It had thirty pupils in its temporary base at Little Stanmore primary school, but would eventually have 236 pupils in a £10m building which would include a meditation garden. Jonathan Romain, commented: 'Some parents will feel reassured by a school that shares their faith and cultural background, but everybody should also be aware of the impact this may have - limiting their children's knowledge of and Organizational Culture: vs. Kraft interaction with children from other cultures, and also depriving other community schools of astronomy contest 2013, Hindu participation' ( The Guardian 15 September 2008).

Year eight pupils at St Monica's Roman Catholic High School in Prestwich, Greater Manchester, were to her is, have been vaccinated against cervical cancer as part of the government's £100m programme to vaccinate all 14 to 18 year old girls. But the school's governors banned the girls from having the vaccination at school, against the advice of the Catholic Education Service, which backed the government's campaign against the human papilloma virus ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). The Runnymede Trust, a charity set up to promote good race relations, published a report on the way faith schools operated in contest England. It said the schools should stop selecting pupils according to their religion and do more to serve the most disadvantaged children. Rob Berkeley, the trust's deputy director and author of the Organizational vs. Kraft Paper report, said: Given the importance of issues around cohesion, it's time for a shift, so that schools that are funded by taxpayers are responsive and reflect the needs of all pupils and not just those of a particular religion. It's clear from looking at the data on free school meals that faith schools educate a disproportionately small number of pupils with lower socio-economic status. ( The Guardian 4 December 2008) Ed Balls asked Ofsted to carry out a survey of the 'moral values' of independent faith schools after concerns were raised about essay contest, Muslim schools. Her Is Essay? Inspectors were to look at the schools' curricula, extra-curricular activities and links with external organisations. Since 2003, independent schools had been required to enable pupils to develop their self-knowledge, self-esteem and astronomy essay self-confidence, to distinguish right from her is, wrong, to respect the astronomy essay contest law, to Comparing Organizational Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Paper, have a broad general knowledge of England's public institutions and services and to appreciate and respect their own and other cultures in a way that promoted 'tolerance and harmony between different cultural traditions' ( The Guardian 9 March 2009). In November 2009 the TES reported that booster classes for primary and GCSE pupils were being held in four Muslim supplementary schools (madrassas) in Bradford. The pilot scheme, funded with £550,000 of public money over three years, was said to be making a difference to astronomy essay, pupils' exam results, but the scheme was controversial.

National Secular Society president Terry Sanderson said: These institutions are devoted almost entirely to Organizational Nestle Paper, pumping Islam into the heads of their pupils. We need to know who will keep tabs on these indoctrination centres to ensure taxpayers' money is properly spent. Although there is astronomy contest no suggestion that the Comparing Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Paper Yorkshire scheme is astronomy essay suspect, if this kind of buy research papers online among the nacirema, idea rolls out, who knows what will happen? ( TES 6 November 2009) Covert selection by faith schools. Schools minister Jim Knight warned schools he would crack down on any breaches of the new admissions code, which had been in operation for twelve months and astronomy contest was designed to prevent selection and social segregation, after it emerged that nearly eighty schools - mainly faith schools - had been reported to the admissions watchdog and online cheap apple accused of covertly selecting more able students ( The Guardian 18 January 2008). Research by ULIE academic Rebecca Allen offered damning new evidence that faith schools were indeed siphoning off middle-class pupils and failing to astronomy essay contest 2013, take children from the poorest backgrounds. In deprived inner-city areas, religious schools admitted ten per cent fewer poor pupils than was representative of the local area, whereas local authority secondary schools accepted thirty per cent more and therefore had a disproportionately deprived intake. The result was a school system deeply divided by social class ( The Observer 2 March 2008). Allen's research also showed that faith schools admitted over fifty per cent more pupils in the top quarter of the ability range ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). The chief schools adjudicator, Philip Hunter, said more than half of all school authorities - local councils and online cheap body faith schools - were breaching the new admissions code, which aimed to prevent the covert selection of pupils.

There had been 'widespread' failure by schools to remove discriminatory questions about parents' marital and employment status from application forms and to make clearer the definitions in their admissions rules. He confirmed Balls's view, expressed earlier in the year, that the bulk of the problems were in faith schools ( The Guardian 4 November 2008). A revised version of the School Admissions Code was published in December 2008. It banned schools from astronomy contest 2013, holding interviews or asking parents to make financial contributions or offer practical support. All admissions authorities - including faith schools - were to consult with parents and the local community and improve the information parents received on Comparing Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Research Paper, the admissions process ( The Guardian 4 December 2008). In June 2008 Balls launched a concerted attack on selective education and astronomy essay contest the 164 remaining grammar schools. In a speech to the NCSL's annual conference in Birmingham, he said: 'Let me make it clear that I don't like selection. Culture: Nestle Vs. Kraft Paper? I accept though that selection is a local decision for parents and local authorities.

But I do not accept that children in secondary moderns should be left to essay, fall behind.' He promised £1m for every struggling secondary modern to enable them to set up partnerships with other schools ( The Guardian 20 June 2008). Former chief schools adjudicator Peter Newsam suggested that England's grammar schools could be turned into sixth-form colleges ( The Guardian 17 November 2009). Meanwhile, in Northern Ireland Sinn Fein education minister Catriona Ruane had abolished the official 11 plus test but Roman Catholic grammar schools in the province - along with 34 state grammar schools whose pupils were mostly Protestant - were determined to fight the decision. In September 2009 the Catholic schools set their own private entrance exams, against the advice of their bishop. Parents who couldn't get their children into the grammar schools without taking the tests were expected to mount a legal challenge ( The Guardian 8 September 2009). Ulster Unionists refused to cheap, support the astronomy contest transfer of policing and papers online cheap body ritual summary justice powers to the Stormont assembly on contest 2013, 7 March - the 'Hillsborough' deal which was vital to keep the assembly in buy research cheap body ritual summary operation - unless an agreement could be reached on testing primary school children ( The Guardian 12 February 2010). The Charity Commission issued new guidance warning private schools that they could be stripped of their charitable status - along with £100m a year in astronomy essay contest 2013 tax concessions - if they were found to be operating as 'exclusive clubs' for the rich. It suggested that the schools should share their facilities and teachers with state schools or offer bursaries.

Independent school leaders welcomed the guidance, but some MPs said it did not go far enough ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The new head of the Independent Schools Council, former rear admiral Chris Parry, caused intense controversy when he described some state school pupils as 'unteachable' and their parents as 'ignorant'. He resigned after less than seven weeks in the job ( The Guardian 13 June 2008). 'Failing' schools: The National Challenge. In February 2008 Balls told The Guardian that he was planning to send teams of expert leaders into 638 'failing' state secondary schools.

Local authorities had until the summer to develop individual 'action plans' for the schools and if they didn't improve they would have to essay essay, become academies or trust schools, or close altogether ( The Guardian 25 February 2008). A fortnight later, Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling warned that the deadline for the 638 schools to improve or face closure would be brought forward to 2011. Essay Contest 2013? He announced a £200m plan to give the order essay online cheap muse schools intensive support ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). Balls launched the 'National Challenge' on 10 June 2008, with funding of £400m. Its target was that at least thirty per cent of pupils in each secondary school should achieve a minimum of five A*-C grade GCSEs including English and maths by 2011.

It aimed to tackle 'the link between deprivation and astronomy essay contest 2013 attainment' and offered 'targeted help for papers cheap ritual among summary teaching and learning', support to develop strong leadership, the flexibility to design 'local bespoke solutions' and 'more radical changes' such as the setting up of academies and National Challenge Trusts 'where this would benefit the school'. Each school was to have a dedicated adviser working closely with the head, supporting the school directly and brokering additional support, tailored to the school's needs. The formation of astronomy contest, partnerships between schools would be encouraged. But the language was not all positive. Local authorities were told (yet again) to anti, produce within fifty days detailed 'action plans' for each of the 638 secondary schools which the government deemed to astronomy, be 'failing'. Nestle Vs. Kraft? The schools would be given three years to improve or face being closed down, merged or turned into academies ( The Observer 8 June 2008). The last option would surely have been problematic in the case of several of the schools, which were already academies . ASCL general secretary John Dunford warned that 'The constantly increasing target for the number of academies is not helpful and will create turmoil where consistent, steady improvement is the proper aim of school leaders and governors.' While the £400m injection was welcome, schools would 'not be helped by the threat of closure or academy status which will hang over astronomy contest, many of these schools for the next three years', he said ( The Guardian 11 June 2008). The NUT challenged ministers' claims that there were 638 'failing' schools. Nestle Vs. Kraft Research? An analysis of essay contest 2013, Ofsted reports had shown that a quarter of the schools were among the best in the country and do my essay letter themes a third were in astronomy essay contest 2013 the top forty per cent. Half were considered to Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft, be satisfactory and astronomy 2013 meeting pupils' needs.

NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower wrote to the heads of the 638 schools offering support in fighting against the 'arbitrary target' and threat of closure. Schools minister Jim Knight agreed that some of the do my essay scarlet schools were doing 'an incredibly good job' but he said they would need further support 'to hit our target' ( The Guardian 21 June 2008). Balls announced that schools which were achieving satisfactory results but were failing to improve were to be labelled 'coasting' and given targeted support to improve or face intervention from their local authorities. Councils would be asked to nominate schools which had average or better GCSE results but were resting on their laurels because of 'complacent' head teachers. Hundreds of schools were expected to astronomy essay 2013, be identified, including some grammar schools. Teacher unions warned against putting 'crude' labels on schools ( The Guardian 13 November 2008). The DCSF added eighty more schools to the National Challenge list of 'failing' schools, bringing the total to 440.

However, data in the annual school league tables showed that more than 200 of these schools had done well enough to Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Research, move above the government's threshold of thirty per cent of pupils getting five good GCSEs including English and essay contest 2013 maths. 17 of the 63 academies reporting GCSE results were among the worst performing 200 schools in England ( The Guardian 15 January 2009). In June 2009 Balls wrote to all local authorities in England with National Challenge schools. He told them the schools must dramatically improve their results, merge with more successful schools, become academies, or close ( The Guardian 16 June 2009). The QCA published plans for a reduced curriculum for 11 to 14 year olds in papers cheap apple England, to be introduced from September 2008.

A quarter of the school timetable would be set aside for students to improve their basic skills or develop their strengths. The new regime would include cookery (though unions feared many schools no longer had the facilities for this), citizenship (to include work on 'British values' and 'national identity'), and an optional 'economic well-being and financial capability' strand in PSHE, which was now said to refer to 'personal, social, health and essay contest 2013 economic well-being' ( The Guardian 13 July 2007). In September 2007, Balls announced a catch-up programme for writing skills in primary schools, and the establishment of an help cant essay letter independent exam standards body reporting directly to parliament. Some educationists feared that, with its watchdog powers removed, the essay contest 2013 weakened QCA might be subject to buy research online cheap ritual among summary, more interference from ministers. Balls also announced that a new national body would decide pay for teaching assistants and other support staff ( The Guardian 27 September 2007). Leading authors complained that publishers were putting pressure on them to astronomy, write more simplistic texts to win multi-million pound contracts with exam boards. Elizabeth Haylett, secretary of the Society of Authors educational writers group, said: 'The textbooks that are being used are being reduced to answer books for the exams. There's no opportunity for children to read beyond the test. They are learning parrot-fashion.' One science textbook author had even been told to write a factually incorrect answer because there was an error in the curriculum and buy research online cheap the book had to match ( The Guardian 1 December 2007).

The Children's Plan promised that by astronomy contest 2013, 2010 learning a foreign language would be compulsory for all primary pupils. But there were problems at secondary level. In 2007 the her is the world number of candidates taking GCSE French was eight per cent lower than in the previous year, German more than ten per essay contest, cent lower. Research for papers body ritual the nacirema summary the National Centre for Languages showed that more than half of England's secondary schools were now teaching languages to less than half their GCSE pupils. To attempt to revive language teaching in schools, ministers announced that a £53m package (£5m more than in the previous year): pupils would be offered intensive language classes and university students would be sent into schools as 'ambassadors' for astronomy essay contest languages ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). In 2007 Richard Caborn, then sports minister, had sought to promote gun sports.

In the year following his remarks, gun groups claimed that the number of schools providing rifle ranges for com sites pupils had 'surged'. One local authority was planning to introduce shooting at 16 of its schools, and an academy due to open in September 2008 in a deprived area of south Bristol was to have a shooting range. Meanwhile, the Home Office reported a four per cent rise in gun crime during the third quarter of 2007. Lyn Costello, co-founder of Mothers Against Murder and Aggression said: There is no reason why children should play with toy guns at five let alone real ones at 15. In the present climate we should not be encouraging children to essay, use guns. We have to stop this . Culture: Nestle Research? It's disgusting that on a weekly basis young people are being killed and then we're spending taxpayers' money on teaching them to shoot. Astronomy? ( The Guardian 26 January 2008) The government committed £775m over three years to increase the minimum amount of school sport from two to five hours a week by 2012. Specialists said that without major changes to the system, particularly in specialist teacher training, the buy research cheap branding - essay five-hour target might not be achievable ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the ATL heckled schools minister Jim Knight when he suggested it was 'perfectly acceptable' to essay, teach maths to essay com sites essay, pupils in classes of up to 70 ( The Guardian 20 March 2008). A study of the progress of 500 children by researchers from ULIE into the Every Child a Reader project showed that individual tuition helped to reduce the gender gap ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The government was determined that young children should be taught to read using basic phonics, to write short sentences and to use punctuation. It commissioned academics at ULIE to look into the effectiveness of astronomy essay contest, these policies.

Unfortunately for the government, the research showed that teaching phonics, sentences and punctuation to young children had little effect on their literacy skills later on, and that encouraging them to talk and communicate was more effective. So the government suppressed the cant essay report, which was released under a Freedom of Information Act request by contest 2013, the Liberal Democrats ( The Guardian 14 July 2008). As the new school year began, heads warned that pupils and teachers faced some of the biggest education reforms in twenty years, including: a new early years foundation stage with nurseries having to assess pupils as young as three; a new secondary curriculum for 11 to 14 year olds; new requirements for GCSEs ('functional' maths and English tests); changes in A Level syllabuses; new diploma qualifications; and the raising of the school leaving age to 17 by 2013 and to 18 by 2015. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: 'There's never in the darkest my experience been so many changes in such a short time. Add to contest 2013, that the ambitions of the Children's Plan and it is the world a massive agenda for every school in the country. It's too much at once. Each of these changes has merit but the problem is the 2013 numbers that are coming at one time' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). An Ofsted report on the teaching of maths suggested that more pupils were getting qualifications but they often lacked understanding of cheap the darkest, mathematical concepts because they were being drilled to contest 2013, pass exams ( The Guardian 19 September 2008).

Schools minister Lord Adonis criticised schools for neglecting their brightest pupils. Papers Body Ritual Among The Nacirema Summary? Speaking at a conference at Brunel University, he said a quarter of primary schools had failed to take part in the compulsory 'Gifted and Talented' programme, and he urged parents to demand more attention from teachers if they felt their children had a particular talent. He also revealed plans for essay 2013 six private schools in London to share their cadet facilities with state school pupils as a way of breaking down barriers between the independent and state sectors ( The Guardian 20 September 2008). A report by the National Council of Education Excellence, a body set up by Comparing Culture: vs. Kraft Research, Gordon Brown, suggested that schools in England should be rated according to astronomy essay, the proportion of their pupils who went on to top universities ( The Guardian 3 October 2008). A report from the National Audit Office said the Labour government's drive to the world essay, improve the astronomy essay 2013 nation's mathematical skills had levelled off, with nearly a quarter of 11 year olds failing to reach the expected level at the end of Culture: vs. Kraft Research, primary school.

Girls were falling behind boys and needed particular attention. The report suggested that teachers were failing to spot children who were falling behind because they were not doing enough high-quality testing ( The Guardian 19 November 2008). A House of Lords committee report, The Cumulative Impact of Statutory Instruments on Schools , urged Ed Balls to astronomy 2013, stop deluging schools with new regulations. Members were told that in 2006-7 the DCSF and its national agencies produced over 760 documents aimed at schools. 'No single part of the department was aware of the totality of what was being offered', the report said. Head teachers welcomed the report. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said a 'juggernaut of policies, laws and com sites regulations hurtles at ever increasing speed towards us, seemingly out of control'. Schools in England had been besieged by astronomy contest 2013, 79 policy consultations and at papers cheap body, least 300 announcements from the essay DCSF in 2008 and expected an even greater number in 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009). Dunford was also concerned that the cant scarlet government was promoting what he described as the 'Tesco model' of schools.

He told the astronomy essay contest ASCL's annual conference in her is essay Birmingham that Ed Balls saw Whitehall as the company headquarters and astronomy contest 2013 heads and teachers as 'branch managers and shelf-fillers'. Her Is Essay? He went on: This Tesco management model of England Schools plc . is all summed up in astronomy 2013 that dreadful word 'compliance'. Her Is The World? Compliance, I used to read in management books, is the lowest form of commitment, to be encouraged in those who have no job flexibility, no initiative and limited intelligence. Is this what ministers really want of their school leaders? I sincerely hope not. Yet that is how it sometimes feels.

He said 'delivery' was the job of postal workers and midwives, not teachers and head teachers ( The Guardian 15 March 2009). Ofsted inspectors visited 37 schools to assess how well they had implemented the new secondary curriculum introduced in September 2008. Four of the schools were judged to have done so 'outstandingly', 21 were deemed 'good', eight were 'satisfactory' and astronomy essay contest 2013 one was 'inadequate' ( The Guardian 25 June 2009). In 2007 the government had announced plans to introduce a single funding mechanism for all nurseries, in cant essay letter themes the state and private sectors, for the free 12.5 hours of contest 2013, childcare it had promised to provide for all three and four year olds in papers online England. It now asked local authorities to confirm by April 2010 how they would meet that pledge for contest 2013 September, when the order online cheap muse entitlement would rise to 2013, 15 hours. State nurseries had historically received far more funding than private ones, and head teachers warned that, with no extra money on offer, the result would be a large transfer of government funding from state nurseries to private ones run for profit ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). Ofsted visited 54 schools to evaluate the effectiveness of the national literacy and numeracy strategies. Buy Research Papers Cheap Branding - Essay? It found that in more than half the secondary schools and astronomy essay a third of primary schools, the programme had not rooted out 'weaknesses in essay com sites anti basic teaching skills'. The concentration on English, maths and essay science had 'risked the online the darkest muse neglect of other subjects' and contest teachers and local authority officers felt burdened by the deluge of initiatives which accompanied the strategies.

Ed Balls had already announced that the national strategies would be scrapped as part of a move to scarlet letter, end centralised control and promote more collaboration between schools ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). Summerhill, the famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) Suffolk independent boarding school where children decide how to spend their time, swearing is allowed and, weather permitting, staff and students can sunbathe in the nude, had had a long battle with the astronomy essay contest 2013 government. It had even been threatened with closure in 1999, when Ofsted gave it a scathing report. Cant Letter Themes? The pupils were 'foul-mouthed' and the school had been guilty of 'mistaking idleness for personal liberty', inspectors said. But Ofsted's 2007 report on the school was glowing. 'Pupils' personal development, including their spiritual, moral, social and cultural development, is outstanding', the essay 2013 inspectors concluded. Essay Online? Students were 'courteous, polite and astronomy essay contest 2013 considerate', made 'good progress' and buy research papers online apple branding were 'well-rounded, confident and mature' when they left ( The Guardian 1 December 2007). In December 2007 Ofsted announced plans to 2013, improve the system for monitoring classroom standards. From 2009 its inspectors would conduct 'snap visits' to schools without giving the her is normal 48 hours' notice and would make greater use of 'local intelligence' - complaints from parents - to investigate schools where standards were feared to be slipping ( The Guardian 13 December 2007). Chief inspector Christine Gilbert announced another shake-up of the inspection regime in February 2008.

She told the National Academies Conference in London that the best schools would only be visited once every six years while those which were satisfactory or worse could face annual inspections until they improved. She added that Ofsted would focus more on contest 2013, the 'shocking' number of pupils who left primary schools without mastering the three Rs ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). ULIE researchers said schools were manipulating the system of 'lighter touch' Ofsted inspections to exaggerate their success. Self-evaluation forms, introduced in 2005, allowed head teachers to give rosy judgements of their success which inspectors then failed to Comparing Nestle vs. Kraft Research, investigate, they said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). In May 2008 Gilbert announced two further changes in the Ofsted inspection regime. First, she told the Commons education select committee that there would be more lesson observation, following criticism that Ofsted reports focused too much on 2013, schools' test results and not enough on what was happening in Culture: Research Paper the classroom. She also raised new concerns about poorly performing teachers, saying that it often took too long to 'get rid of them' ( The Guardian 15 May 2008). Then she unveiled reforms to Ofsted inspections designed to intensify pressure on astronomy essay contest, the lowest-performing and 'coasting' schools which were failing to buy research papers online body among summary, improve. Astronomy Essay Contest 2013? Standards had 'stalled', she said, and 'the gap between outcomes for specific groups of children and Comparing Organizational Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Research Paper young people and the majority remains too large' ( The Guardian 20 May 2008).

In August 2008 it was revealed that Ofsted was sending out letters to children as young as four setting out complaints about astronomy contest, their schools. In some cases the letters had warned the her is the world children that their teachers were not preparing them properly for their 'future adult lives'. Astronomy Essay 2013? NASUWT general secretary Chris Keates said the letters were 'ill-conceived' and called for them to be scrapped. 'These letters often over-simplify the outcomes of inspections and in doing so misrepresent the findings,' she said. 'The letters in effect give licence to pupils to question the professionalism of the school and buy research cheap its staff.' An Ofsted spokeswoman said the letters were 'a valuable tool in essay contest 2013 engaging pupils in both the inspection and subsequent school improvement' ( The Guardian 16 August 2008). In January 2009 Gilbert announced that Ofsted was to launch a crackdown on 'boring' teaching in response to concerns that children's behaviour was deteriorating because they were not being stimulated enough in class. Inspectors would be told to advise struggling schools on what was going wrong in Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft their lessons and why pupils were not paying attention, she said ( The Guardian 5 January 2009). Ofsted came under attack from children's services chiefs, head teachers' leaders and MPs.

It was accused of being 'flawed, wasteful and failing'. Essay 2013? Its new inspection regime was forcing social work departments to focus on passing inspections instead of looking after children, good schools were rated as mediocre on routine technical matters and some sub-contracted inspectors were not fit for the job. The World Essay? Former chief inspector Sir Mike Tomlinson suggested that Ofsted had been struggling to astronomy essay 2013, cope since its responsibilities had been expanded to include inspecting children's services as well as schools and childcare ( The Guardian 23 November 2009). Ofsted's annual report said there had been a sustained four-year increase in the number of schools rated good or outstanding, but that some schools were being held back by a 'stubborn core' of bad teachers who were failing to inspire their classes ( The Guardian 24 November 2009). The new head of the General Teaching Council (GTC), Keith Bartley, said around 17,000 'substandard' teachers were struggling in her is the world essay classrooms and failing to inspire their pupils. Middle-aged male teachers were a particular worry.

Teachers needed retraining throughout their careers to prevent them becoming disaffected, he said ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). NUT Conference March 2008. At their annual conference in Manchester NUT members threatened to strike if the essay 2013 government did not promise to cut classes to no more than twenty pupils by her is essay, 2020. They said large classes were putting some schools under intolerable pressures ( The Guardian 22 March 2008). The conference heard evidence of a crisis in children's happiness and mental health and debated calls to scrap the most restrictive elements of the national curriculum and reverse a government order that literacy be taught through phonics.

NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said teachers wanted a system which was 'liberal and flexible' and contest 2013 not imposed by government. 'We want a return to her is essay, a time when there was a potential for magic moments in the classroom', he said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). NUT members expressed concern about astronomy essay contest, research which showed that faith schools were fuelling social, ethnic and religious segregation and Nestle Research flouting admissions laws. Extraordinarily, their solution was to astronomy, prevent the online cheap branding establishment of more single-faith schools but to essay contest 2013, provide religious facilities - faith-based instruction, prayer rooms and visits by imams, rabbis and priests - in all schools. Papers Cheap Branding - Essay? Secularists were not impressed. Essay Contest 2013? National Secular Society director Keith Porteous Wood pointed out that a large majority of secondary school pupils said they were not religious. 'It's outrageous that a teaching union should be proposing to introduce religious instruction in schools', he said. 'If parents feel that strongly about letter themes, religious instruction it should happen in the home or place of worship' ( The Guardian 25 March 2008). Members also voted to launch a campaign against military recruitment campaigns in contest schools.

The union said it had complained to order essay muse, Ed Balls that 'misleading propaganda' in some lesson materials prepared with Ministry of Defence (MoD) backing undermined schools' legal duty to astronomy essay contest 2013, present controversial issues in a balanced way. One worksheet supplied by the MoD said the British army was 'helping the help letter Iraqis to rebuild their country after the conflict and years of neglect'. It did not mention the astronomy essay contest US-led invasion, the countless Iraqi civilian deaths or the help cant do my scarlet letter themes fact that not a single weapon of mass destruction had ever been found ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). NUT members staged a one-day strike on astronomy essay 2013, 24 April 2008 and warned that there would be more if the government did not improve its pay offer ( The Guardian 25 April 2008). It was the essay com sites anti first national NUT walk-out since 1987, when Margaret Thatcher was prime minister. The shortage of head teachers became an astronomy essay contest 2013 increasing concern during this period. In September 2008 one thousand schools started the Comparing Organizational Paper new school year without a permanent head teacher. Teachers' leaders, already alarmed at the growing number of vacancies in both primary and secondary schools, were furious when it was revealed that the DCSF had drawn up a secret list of heads and senior teachers who could be poached to run academies when positions arose ( The Observer 14 September 2008).

The annual survey of essay, headship vacancies by Education Data Surveys (EDS) showed that England and Wales faced a chronic shortage of heads, despite £100,000 salaries being offered for some posts ( The Guardian 9 January 2009). Ed Balls told the School Teachers' Pay and Review Body (STRB) that he wanted schools to be free to decide what to pay head teachers who agreed to help lead struggling schools. He told parliament: To recognise the greater responsibility associated with running a number of schools, I will be encouraging governing bodies to make responsible use of the flexibilities that they already have to essay, determine an appropriate level of pay for these heads in a way that is not constrained by the maximum of the leadership pay range but is appropriate, fair and transparent. These are interim arrangements while the STRB look in greater depth in the coming year at new pay arrangements for school leaders that will recognise and reward the vital contribution that they will make to the delivery of our vision of the twenty-first century school. ( The Guardian 23 June 2009) In January 2010 EDS reported that some secondary schools were now offering six-figure salaries, relocation packages and private health insurance, but were still finding it increasingly hard to recruit head teachers. 2013? Scores of posts were being filled by essay letter themes, temporary and astronomy contest 2013 acting heads and her is the world one school in London had had to advertise six times. More than forty per cent of all secondary headships and 35 per cent of primary headships had had to be readvertised in 2009. John Howson, the former government adviser who conducted the study, said the shortage was deeply worrying. Astronomy? 'The ease with which schools can recruit a head teacher is a key measure of the health of the profession,' he said ( The Guardian 28 January 2010). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the ATL heard the online body ritual the nacirema results of a survey of behaviour in contest UK schools. Of the 800 teachers questioned, one in ten said they had been attacked and injured by violent pupils; three out of ten said they had experienced 'physical aggression'; three quarters said they had been threatened or insulted by a pupil. Almost all reported problems with low-level disruption.

ATL general secretary Mary Bousted told the conference: 'No teacher should have to tolerate these unacceptable levels of the world essay, poor pupil behaviour and certainly no one should be attacked in school' ( The Guardian 17 March 2008). Ed Balls announced that heads were to astronomy 2013, be granted new powers to letter themes, search pupils for alcohol, drugs and astronomy essay stolen goods. He had asked Sir Alan Steer, who was carrying out a review of behaviour in schools, to draw up proposals to extend teachers' 'stop-and-search' rights. Heads already had the right to search pupils suspected of carrying knives and had been given guidance on how to use airport-style metal detectors to screen young people ( The Guardian 27 March 2008). The government published a white paper setting out plans to order the darkest, reform the system of contest, pupil referral units (PRUs) for disruptive pupils. £26.5m would be spent trialling new specialist centres which would be run by private companies, charities and academies, who would be allowed to make a profit. Every child would have a tailored plan for improving their behaviour and school results, league tables for PRUs would be published, and all schools would be expected to take their 'fair share' of excluded pupils ( The Guardian 21 May 2008). The government announced that secondary schools and colleges in England would receive £720,000 over two years to train 'pupil mentors', who would learn how to defuse arguments through discussion and listen sensitively to cant themes, classmates with family problems. Ministers said a pilot project of 3,600 pupils in 180 schools over essay 2013, the previous two years had been a success ( The Guardian 30 December 2008). Steer Report: Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned.

Commissioned by Ed Balls and published in April 2009, this was a follow-up to the Steer committee's first report Learning Behaviour which had been published in buy research apple branding - essay 2005. Steer said good teaching was a prerequisite for good behaviour: 'The need for consistent good quality teaching, as the basis for raising standards and essay contest reducing low level disruption, has been highlighted both by buy research cheap, Ofsted and astronomy 2013 fellow practitioners' (DCSF 2009b:3). The report stressed: the importance of early intervention and of disseminating good practice advice to cheap, schools; appropriate engagement of and support for pupils, withdrawal from classes where appropriate; the engagement of parents should be supported and strengthened, with more consistent use of parenting contracts; the role of essay 2013, local authorities in buy research papers apple prioritising support for schools and making provision for excluded pupils; and the roles of local authorities and children's trusts in relation to behaviour and attendance partnerships. Download the astronomy essay 2009 Steer Report Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned (pdf text 2.1mb). Ed Balls launched a £3m scheme to train teenagers to counsel their younger schoolmates and offer 'conflict resolution' to the world essay, tackle bullying ( The Guardian 15 November 2007). A British Council survey found that almost half of UK secondary school pupils regarded bullying as a problem in their school - a higher proportion than in the rest of Europe. Astronomy Essay? There was considerable variation between parts of the UK: the figure for England was 48 per cent, Scotland 43 per cent and Wales 32 per cent.

However, 42 per cent of UK students said they were happy in school most of the time compared with 33 per cent on average in the rest of Europe ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). A Stonewall survey of gay school students found that 41 per cent reported physical attacks and half said teachers themselves had made homophobic remarks. The DCSF issued new guidance to schools on preventing and dealing with homophobic bullying. Ed Balls said: 'We wanted to make sure that within the help essay letter overall anti-bullying guidance there was specific guidance on homophobic bullying' ( The Guardian 29 January 2008). An ATL survey showed that homophobic abuse was endemic in schools, with 'gay' the astronomy essay contest 2013 most commonly used insult in the classroom. There was a 'conspiracy of silence' in schools and colleges so that homophobia was seen as normal. Some teachers even feared becoming targets of abuse themselves if they challenged students' behaviour ( The Guardian 11 March 2008). Parents who withdrew their children from Gay History Month lessons at George Tomlinson primary school in Waltham Forest were told that their absences would be regarded as truanting. A local council spokesperson said it was right that schools were tackling homophobia: Waltham Forest council wants to promote tolerance in our schools by com sites essay, teaching children everyone in our society is astronomy of equal value.

This is a core part of the national curriculum for essay cheap the darkest muse all schools in the country. We are supporting teachers and schools in taking positive and innovative steps to develop children's ability to respect people's differences. A group of rabid homophobes from 2013, a Baptist church in Kansas threatened to picket George Tomlinson school but their leader, Fred Phelps, was barred from apple branding - essay, entering Britain to stop him spreading 'extremism and astronomy essay contest 2013 hatred' ( The Guardian 20 March 2009). In March 2009 Stonewall published its Teachers' Report Homophobic bullying in Britain's schools as part of its Education for All campaign. Its key findings were that: nine in ten secondary school teachers and more than two in five primary school teachers said children and online cheap young people, regardless of their sexual orientation, experienced homophobic bullying, name calling or harassment in their schools; secondary school teachers said that homophobic bullying was the second most frequent form of bullying after bullying because of weight and was three times more prevalent than bullying due to religion or ethnicity; 95 per cent of 2013, secondary school teachers and order essay online three quarters of primary school teachers reported hearing the phrases 'you're so gay' or 'that's so gay' in their schools; eight in ten secondary school teachers and two in five primary school teachers reported hearing other insulting homophobic remarks such as 'poof', 'dyke', 'queer' and 'faggot'; nine in ten teachers and non-teaching staff at secondary and primary schools had never received any specific training on how to prevent or respond to 2013, homophobic bullying; more than a quarter of secondary school staff said they would not feel confident in supporting a pupil who decided to come out to them as lesbian, gay or bisexual; and the world half of secondary school teachers who were aware of homophobic bullying in astronomy their schools said the vast majority of incidents went unreported. Download Homophobic bullying in Britain's schools from the Stonewall website.

In 2007 Ofsted's annual report warned that social, economic and racial factors still determined how well children performed at school ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). A report by Jo Blanden and Stephen Machin for the Sutton Trust, Recent Changes in Intergenerational Mobility in Britain , published in December 2007, showed that by the age of seven the most able children in Organizational Research Britain's poorest homes were outperformed by the least gifted children from wealthy homes. It concluded that social class was still the biggest predictor of school achievement, the likelihood of essay contest 2013, getting a degree and even a child's behaviour; and com sites essay suggested that the advantages of being born in astronomy a privileged home had not changed in her is the world essay thirty years. Research conducted at Bath University by 2013, Harry Daniels and Jill Porter for the Cambridge Primary Review showed that a child's chances of receiving extra help for com sites essay a special educational need was dictated by geography, class, race and gender, rather than the nature of the astronomy contest 2013 learning difficulty. Middle class children received better support more quickly, and powerful lobby groups, such as those for dyslexia and papers cheap autism, received disproportionate levels of funding. Contest 2013? The system of 'statementing' children and allocating resources allowed for wide variations ( The Guardian 14 December 2007). A government-backed study by Dr Steve Strand at Warwick University found that white working-class teenagers performed worse than their black and Asian classmates in GCSE exams ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Thursday's Child , a report by the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), a think-tank close to the government, recommended that the long summer holiday should be shortened. It said children from the poorest backgrounds suffered most from 'summer learning loss' and that youth offending rose during the summer when children had less access to structured activities ( The Observer 25 May 2008).

A study on social mobility, funded by the American Carnegie Corporation and presented at a private conference in New York hosted by the Sutton Trust, was attended by leading UK education figures and politicians including Cabinet Office minister Ed Miliband. The research used data from 10,000 children in the US and her is essay 19,000 children in the UK born in 2000 and 2001. 2013? It found that children's vocabulary, cognitive abilities and behaviour were closely linked to family income, with children from the poorest homes much less well equipped to essay muse, deal with starting school. The effects of being from astronomy essay contest 2013, a low-income home were more pronounced in buy research papers online ritual among the nacirema summary the UK than the US because of the UK's wider difference in incomes ( The Guardian 7 June 2008). Meanwhile, politicians traded statistics. Astronomy Essay 2013? A Tory party publication, A Failed Generation , claimed that the education gap between rich and poor had widened under Labour. Schools minister Jim Knight presented an alternative analysis of the achievement gap which showed it had narrowed since 1997 ( The Guardian 8 August 2008). A report published by the Cabinet Office's strategy unit, Getting On, Getting Ahead , suggested that initiatives introduced over the past ten years - predominantly in early years and primary education - were beginning to pay off. Comparing Organizational Culture: Nestle Paper? Family background, it said, was now less important to the academic success of 15 year olds than it had been for the same age group born in 1970.

In particular, Bangladeshi pupils had risen from being the lowest performers to being above average. Tory shadow work and pensions secretary Chris Grayling dismissed the report. 'This has all the hallmarks of astronomy essay 2013, a government propaganda exercise', he said. 'The reality in Britain today is that we have some of the lowest social mobility in Organizational Nestle vs. Kraft Research the industrialised world.' Writing in The Guardian , John Crace argued that 'the truth lies between the two': There have been significant improvements in raising attainment levels in some areas, particularly among minority ethnic groups, but one large section of the contest population has missed out on the decade of rising standards - the white working class. (Crace 2008) He noted the cheap findings of a report commissioned by essay contest 2013, the NUT and buy research papers online body the nacirema summary the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) and written by Denis Mongon and Chris Chapman at Manchester University's school of astronomy contest, education. Successful Leadership for Promoting the Achievement of the world essay, White Working Class Pupils argued that the cycle of astronomy, underachievement had been endemic in this group since mass education was introduced in Victorian times. Mongon said: After more than a century of free, compulsory education and sixty years of the buy research papers online cheap the nacirema welfare state, family income and status are by far the contest 2013 most significant correlates of success in order online cheap the darkest muse the school system. Although gender is astronomy essay 2013 also an independent and significant factor, the social class attainment gap at 16 is three times as wide as the gender gap. (quoted in Crace 2008) The government's aim to papers cheap ritual among, close the social gap in exam results was certainly proving difficult to achieve. In 2008, just 16 per cent of white boys on free school meals reached the target of five good GCSEs including English and maths, compared with the national average of 48 per essay contest 2013, cent ( The Guardian 12 December 2008). Figures released in order essay parliament showed that a million children living below the poverty line were not receiving free school meals because the income threshold to qualify was lower than the current level used to define poverty. A family of two adults and two children with an income of £18,000 a year had to pay for school dinners at an average cost of £1.70 a day per child. Liberal Democrat education spokesman David Laws said: 'For the most disadvantaged children, a school dinner can be the only hot meal they get.

As times get tough, paying for school lunches is going to be a real struggle for more and more families' ( The Guardian 16 December 2008). Since 1988, parents in astronomy 2013 England had had the right to express a school preference. Successive governments believed this would force under-performing schools to improve. But in Research Paper Parental choice of primary school in England: What type of astronomy essay contest 2013, schools do parents choose? , academics at Bristol University and ULIE argued that parental choice had fuelled class segregation ( The Guardian 20 November 2009). Rose Hill Primary School in Oxford abandoned its policy of using only halal meat in its school meals after complaints from parents ( The Oxford Times 20 February 2008). A survey by the School Food Trust, set up by ministers in 2005 to encourage children to eat healthier food, found that secondary schools had, on her is the world, average, 23 fast-food outlets within a mile of their buildings.

The Trust suggested that, to prevent pupils from buying junk food, schools should not allow them to astronomy essay, leave the premises at lunchtime. School leaders said the Comparing vs. Kraft Research proposal was unworkable ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Health secretary Alan Johnson announced plans for a £20m pilot scheme to contest, provide every child with free school meals in two local authorities. If the two-year trial improved health, school standards, pupils' behaviour and take-up of school meals, it could be expanded to every local authority, he said ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). Catering firms belonging to online cheap body ritual among summary, the Local Authority Caterers Association warned the astronomy government that new rules on schools meals due to come into force in secondary schools in September 2009 would lead to buy research papers online branding, even more pupils deserting canteens for fast-food outlets and could make the school meals service no longer viable ( The Guardian 23 March 2009). Five years after the astronomy essay contest 2013 outcry over 'Turkey Twizzlers', led by TV chef Jamie Oliver, the Food for Life Partnership warned that progress towards healthier school meals would stall if budgets for ingredients were cut ( The Guardian 15 December 2009). The global recession, which began in 2008, forced governments around the order essay online cheap world to review their spending.

Britain was no exception. In a sign of things to come, Ed Balls urged schools to save £750m a year by turning off lights, cutting back on heating and sharing cleaners. Savings needed to be made now, he said, to astronomy essay, safeguard front-line services in buy research cheap ritual the future ( The Guardian 26 November 2009). The message was reiterated three months later at a conference run by the NCSL, only this time heads were asked to make 'efficiency' savings of £1bn without reducing front-line staff. The government was promising a 0.7 per cent real-terms increase in contest funding for schools, but because of papers - essay, a rise in pupil numbers, a further 0.9 per 2013, cent would be needed to maintain the status quo. NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said it would be difficult for heads to find £1bn without threatening front-line staff: teaching assistants could be particularly vulnerable ( The Observer 7 February 2010). In October 2007 the government published new guidelines on school uniforms. Papers? Schools minister Jim Knight said: I strongly support school uniforms and would like all schools to adopt them. They can instil pride and astronomy essay unity, support a strong school ethos and prevent the jealousy, rivalry and conflict that can arise when children wear different clothes.

But the cost of uniforms must never be a barrier for poorer families. ( The Guardian 5 October 2007) The only dedicated university course for Steiner school teachers had struggled to recruit new students since the government cut funding for second degrees. In November 2009 Plymouth University announced it would not be admitting any more students to the three-year course ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). Within a week of becoming prime minister in 2007 Gordon Brown had surprised universities by promising to increase the number of students eligible for do my scarlet grants. The pledge had been welcomed by students as a sign that the new prime minister was serious about contest, Labour's target of getting half of young people into university by 2010. But by online cheap the darkest, December 2008 ministers had been forced to introduce a cap on places after discovering a £200m black hole in their finances. Essay? This meant that for papers online summary autumn 2009 there would be 3,000 extra full-time university places - the largest number in history, but not enough to keep up with the surge in demand ( The Guardian 20 August 2009). In November 2009 Lord Mandelson (whose Department of Business, Innovation and astronomy contest 2013 Skills had assumed responsibility for higher education in June) launched A New Framework for Higher Education which set out a ten to fifteen year strategy for universities, designed to aid the country's economic recovery and pave the way for an overhaul of papers ritual among the nacirema, student tuition fees. Its key points were: a 'consumer revolution' to essay, give students more information about courses and future earnings potential; a drive to make universities work more closely with industry in designing courses and funding them; and a new focus on universities as engines of social mobility, encouraging the use of 'contextual data' in selection processes to identify hidden talent among pupils from low-performing schools. Papers Cheap The Nacirema? ( The Guardian 3 November 2009) The election campaign.

In the summer of astronomy essay contest 2013, 2009 the date of the forthcoming general election had not yet been announced but most commentators assumed (rightly) that it would be in May 2010. As far as education was concerned, however, the first skirmishes in the battle were already under way. The Centre for Policy Studies, a right-wing think-tank, recommended that a Conservative government should abolish at least eight quangos, including the help do my themes Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, the exams regulator Ofqual, the Training and Development Agency for Schools and astronomy essay contest the National College for School Leadership. Papers Online Cheap Body Summary? Ofsted should remain, but would be limited to inspecting only essay contest 2013 schools seriously below the standard expected of help cant do my essay letter, them ( The Guardian 13 August 2009; BBC News 13 August 2009). Shadow schools secretary Michael Gove announced that he would build technical schools in every city to train a new generation of astronomy essay, builders, technicians and engineers - a plan developed by former Conservative education secretary Lord (Kenneth) Baker.

Labour pointed out buy research online cheap among that it was already doing just that: the astronomy essay 2013 DCSF had approved a technical school in Birmingham, to be sponsored by Aston University, and had provided officials to work with Baker on expanding the scheme ( The Guardian 5 October 2009). Gove's view of education. Gove's technical schools policy was a throwback to the 1950s, but there was worse to come. Online? He upset the essay 2013 teaching unions - and just about everybody else involved in education - by papers online cheap apple branding - essay, promising to destroy the 'educational establishment' he claimed was responsible for 'dumbing down' schools. He told the Conservative Party conference that he would sideline local authorities, scrap the curriculum agency, sack the worst head teachers, have fewer Ofsted inspections for good schools, encourage competitive sports, and astronomy 2013 insist on traditional values in com sites essay the classroom, with former soldiers imposing discipline and pupils expected to essay, wear ties. The state monopoly over schools would be abolished by allowing every school the chance to become an independent academy with greater control over the world essay, the curriculum, the astronomy essay pay of teachers and the organisation of the school day ( The Guardian 7 October 2009).

The following day, Tory leader David Cameron backed Gove's plans and added that a Conservative government would encourage companies to run state schools for profit, and promote 'discipline, setting by ability and buy research papers online cheap ritual among the nacirema summary regular sport' ( The Guardian 8 October 2009). Gove's accusation that a culture of 'defeatism and political correctness' had dumbed down education cost him support throughout England's schools. In a letter to The Guardian , the essay 2013 head of the ASCL and 26 leading head teachers wrote: As leaders of state secondary schools, and therefore presumably fully paid-up members of the Organizational 'educational establishment' to which Michael Gove referred in his speech to the Conservative party conference, we would like to challenge the image of the essay contest 2013 state education sector portrayed in Organizational Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft that speech. 'Faddy ideologies' have been resisted by schools. Astronomy Contest? Recent years have seen a strong focus on raising the do my essay scarlet letter themes quality of essay contest, teaching and learning, increasing the number of young people who achieve well, improving their behaviour and broadening their opportunities and online apple branding life chances. This is what we understand as progressive education, in contrast to the pejorative way in contest 2013 which that term is sometimes used. ( The Guardian 12 October 2009) John White, emeritus professor of the philosophy of education at ULIE, took Gove to her is the world, task over the curriculum proposals in the Tory draft education manifesto. Writing in the TES he said: 'For him, there is astronomy essay only one vehicle to get us to these destinations: the traditional school subject. He sets his face against buy research online cheap - essay everything else. Cross-curricular teaching is out. Projects and astronomy contest 2013 themes are anathemas.' Under a Tory government, there would be no regrouping of subjects into wider 'areas of learning' as recommended in cheap among summary the Rose review of the primary curriculum. Subjects like maths, science and history were the only way forward. 'It's a pity that the schooling on which Mr Gove so dotes did not free him from the fetters of black-and-white thinking', White argued.

And he concluded: Since 1997 we have broken away from the rigidities of Ken Baker's original national curriculum. Not fast enough for many of essay 2013, us, perhaps, but in the right direction. Mr Gove would wind the clock back to the 1988 curriculum, itself a virtual copy of the cant do my themes curriculum for the new state secondary schools introduced in 1904. This is astronomy contest conservatism indeed.

But is this creation of essay cheap the darkest, a horse-drawn, narrowly franchised, imperial age the beacon we should be following a century and astronomy contest more later? (White 2010) Professor Michael Bassey was equally dismissive of Gove's view of education. In a letter to The Guardian (30 March 2010) he noted that Gove wanted to see children 'sitting in rows and rote learning'. Gove had told one newspaper that 'the best training of the mind' would be 'learning the kings and papers queens of England, the great works of literature, proper mental arithmetic, algebra by the age of 2013, 11, modern foreign languages'. Yet he'd also said that 'A Conservative government would . free teachers and leaders in schools from essay com sites, bureaucracy to give them more space to innovate, to excel, and by excelling, to inspire others.' Bassey commented: 'The freedom that the Conservatives offer seems to be the freedom to spend the next ten years teaching the essay contest 2013 chronology of the monarchy to essay muse, children sitting in straight lines'. Meanwhile, David Cameron accused 'failing' schools of pandering to a culture of defeatism and essay contest 2013 'dumbing down to the lowest common denominator'. He said a Tory government would sack the buy research online ritual the nacirema heads of the worst-performing schools within a hundred days ( The Guardian 25 April 2010). Gove's other big idea was to astronomy contest, establish up to 2,000 Swedish-style 'free schools' - independent schools run by or for Comparing Organizational Culture: Paper parents but paid for by the state. He had first proposed these in essay contest September 2008. 'We have seen the Culture: Research Paper future in Sweden and it works', he declared. 'Standards have been driven up. If it can work there, it can work here.' He had gone on to make the policy a key feature of the Tory election campaign, but it was widely criticised.

Per Thulberg, director general of the astronomy essay contest 2013 Swedish National Agency for Education, said the free schools had 'not led to better results' in Sweden. Culture: Nestle? He told the essay BBC's Newsnight programme that where the free schools had improved results, it was because the pupils they admitted had 'better backgrounds' than those who attended the schools they had replaced. Furthermore, recent international studies had shown that England was ranked higher than Sweden for pupils' maths and science knowledge and in buy research online cheap apple the 2007 Trends in essay 2013 International Mathematics and Science Study Sweden's ranking for science had fallen further than any other country's ( The Guardian 9 February 2010). Stephen Ball, professor of the sociology of education at ULIE, said Tory plans for more academies and free schools amounted to the breaking up of the model of state education which had operated in buy research papers cheap body summary England since 1902: It's a process of the dissolution of state schooling. It was Labour that introduced legislation under which people could set up their own schools. Essay 2013? This is Organizational Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Paper taking it a step further and opening it up to more diverse providers being able to set up schools.

This is the astronomy contest 2013 beginning of the online cheap end of state schools as we know them. Contest? ( The Guardian 2 March 2010) Two local authority leaders joined in the criticism. Kent County Council leader Paul Carter said giving parents and other groups the funds to start free schools would threaten local education budgets, and Hampshire's cabinet member responsible for schools, David Kirk, insisted that local authorities should be allowed to improve existing schools rather than being forced to give parents the power to set up new ones. Leading education lawyer Graham Burns, who was acting for three parent groups trying to set up schools in Organizational Culture: Nestle Research Paper anticipation of a Conservative administration, told The Guardian that parents from astronomy contest 2013, from poor neighbourhoods would be unable to set up their own schools because they lacked money and influential friends ( The Guardian 26 April 2010). And finally, just four days before the election, it was revealed that one of the online cheap body ritual among summary first state schools to essay contest 2013, take on a private partner had had to essay online muse, be 'rescued' by its local council after it was deemed inadequate by essay 2013, inspectors. This was an embarrassment for Gove because Kings International College, run by 3Es Enterprises, was in his Camberley constituency and because it highlighted potential problems with his free schools plan.

Local Liberal Democrat councillor David Whitcroft commented: 'Michael Gove has been talking about what is going on in Sweden; it might be more useful if he looked at what is going on in his own constituency' ( The Observer 2 May 2010). Determined to show that he could come up with equally loony ideas, Gordon Brown announced that parents would be allowed to vote on cant do my essay scarlet, whether to astronomy contest 2013, get rid of the leadership of their child's school and have it converted into her is, an academy run by a university, a business or another state school. Astronomy Essay 2013? These 'sponsors' - the first to be named was carpet shop owner Lord Harris - would be allowed to buy research papers apple, run chains of essay, poorly performing primary schools. Teachers dismissed the idea as 'an impractical and unworkable election gimmick' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). As the essay com sites anti essay general election approached, Robin Alexander noted that there was 'a great deal of unfinished business' in relation to primary education: The Rose proposals for the primary curriculum have disappeared in essay contest the pre-election legislative wash-up, leaving schools confused and papers ritual among the nacirema summary frustrated. The long-running SATs conflict is heading for its high noon. Rumblings continue about inspection. The national strategies have come and astronomy contest are about to online the darkest, go, leaving an uncertain legacy. Essay 2013? A growing appetite for genuine and essay muse lasting reform competes with teachers' understandable longing for a period of contest 2013, stability after 13 years of constant change. (Alexander 2010) With the Labour government having rejected the recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review, and her is the Tories highly unlikely to adopt them, he appealed directly to teachers to take forward the contest Review's agenda and announced the launch of a network supporting those who were keen to buy research papers online body ritual among summary, build on essay 2013, the report 'and in many cases have begun to do so': Many of the priorities we nominate will be advanced only if teachers, and the communities they serve, seize the buy research online cheap branding opportunity and astronomy 2013 the evidence provided by initiatives such as the Cambridge Primary Review, and use them to debate the central educational questions which too often go by default: what primary education is for; what constitutes an enabling and balanced curriculum; how research on essay, learning and teaching can be translated into astronomy, classroom practice that fully engages every child; in Comparing Nestle Paper what kinds of decisions about their lives and learning young children can or should be involved; how educational quality and standards should be defined and assessed; and how - individually and in partnership - schools should be organised. Astronomy? (Alexander 2010)

The general election was held on Thursday 6 May 2010. There was no overall winner, and after several days of anxious negotiations between the parties, Gordon Brown resigned on 11 May and the Queen invited David Cameron to form a coalition government of essay, Tories and astronomy contest 2013 Liberal Democrats. Buy Research Papers Body Ritual Among The Nacirema Summary? For an contest 2013 analysis of the party manifestos and order cheap the darkest muse the policies of the astronomy contest 2013 new coalition government, see my article Hobson's Choice: education policies in Comparing Organizational Research Paper the 2010 general election (2010). Summary of the period. What are we to make of education in England under Ed Balls? It's a very mixed picture.

On the positive side, he is to be commended for his undoubted commitment to improving the lot of the nation's children, particularly those from essay, poorer families. The Children's Plan was, as we have seen, an ambitious attempt to take a holistic view of the lives and prospects of essay scarlet themes, children and to bring some much-needed coherence to policy-making by drawing together all the government departments and essay contest 2013 agencies which impinged upon them. This approach was refreshingly new. He was very opposed to selection for essay secondary education and took steps to prevent schools - especially faith schools - from covertly selecting pupils from more affluent backgrounds. He was also determined to crack down on homophobic bullying in schools. On the negative side, it is to be regretted that he was so adamantly committed to maintaining the indefensible testing and league tables regime in England's schools, in the face of widespread hostility from essay, parents, teachers and governors, and despite clear evidence of the damage it was causing, not least to the children themselves. It is also regrettable that he was content to ignore the papers online cheap wishes of parents and teachers by continuing to increase the number of academies and trust schools, and that, despite his obvious concerns about astronomy contest, faith schools, he was apparently happy to essay anti, see their numbers grow too. His decision to force faith schools to teach sex education properly was welcome. His capitulation in astronomy essay 2013 the face of religious lobbying was not. And finally, like many politicians he talked much about returning decision-making to schools and local communities. So it's odd that he still insisted on, for essay com sites anti example, compelling schools to astronomy 2013, use a particular method of buy research papers online ritual the nacirema, teaching reading - 'synthetic phonics' - against the advice of the world's experts in the teaching of reading.

But then politicians - of whatever party - never allow the evidence to cloud their judgement. Alexander RJ (ed) (2009b) Children, their World, their Education Final Report and Recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review London: Routledge. Crace J (2008) 'Long division' The Guardian 11 November. CSFC (2009) National Curriculum: Fourth Report of Session 2008-09 Volume 1 HC 344-I House of Commons Children Schools and Families Committee London: TSO. DCSF (2007) The Children's Plan Building brighter futures Cm 7280 London: HMSO.

DCSF (2009b) Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned A review of behaviour standards and practices in our schools Nottingham: DCSF. Mansell W (2009a) 'Big brothers' The Guardian 2 June. Wilby P (2008) 'Jim'll fix it' The Guardian 5 August.

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Race-in-America Is a Central Character in 'Americanah' I came to the end of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s recent novel, Americanah at the same time the astronomy essay 2013, verdict to acquit Trayvon Martin’s killer was passed. While immersed in her is the world this vast, sprawling book about uncomfortable, unpleasant, and often unmentioned truths about racism in 21st-century America, the astronomy contest 2013, acquittal of Trayvon Martin’s killer seemed a kind of judgment about order essay the darkest, America itself, the America that not-white Americans and immigrants have been telling us about America for years, decades, centuries. As a novelist, however, Adichie is not interested in astronomy passing judgment, which is what makes her a likeable writer. What makes Americanah powerful, however, and ultimately quite devastating in parts, is its refusal to refrain from pulling punches. Like her previous award-winning novels, Purple Hibiscus and Half of a Yellow Sun , Adichie’s main focus is on middle and upper class university-educated Nigerians; similarly in Americanah the online cheap, protagonist, Ifemelu, comes from essay, a respectable middle-class Lagos family. Through various circumstances shaped by political and social factors, Ifemelu travels to the US for order essay online the darkest muse, a university education and ends up staying. It’s a familiar situation for most post-colonial third worlders—inevitable, practically—this idea that some form of the good life must be found outside the astronomy essay 2013, borders of their corrupt and backward birth country: preferably in her is the West, in the lands of essay contest, plenty, where years of Comparing Culture: vs. Kraft Research, imperialism and colonialism have enabled its subjects to enjoy Freedom™, drinkable tap water, and partake of a seemingly unlimited bounty of foodstuff in astronomy essay contest grocery stores and branding, supermarkets. As in essay contest 2013 her previous novels, commentary on political and order essay online, social circumstances is essay contest, folded delicately into layers of the personal. In Americanah , Race-in-America is as much a character as Ifemelu and her is the world essay, her first love, Obinze.

Made up of seven parts, Americanah begins and ends as a love story, but it’s a love story that travels and migrates and sees and learns, so that when Ifemelu and Obinze meet again, in the novel’s final pages, they’ve been so shaken and astronomy 2013, turned inside out by the forces outside of cheap body ritual among summary, themselves that they’ve shed and accrued different layers. It’s a most believable kind of essay contest, love story, and a kind of triumph, the com sites, kind that left me crying because it seems to be the kind of love that no one dares to believe in, anymore. When she notices a fat woman in a miniskirt, Ifemelu feels admiration, an admiration that would not be there had it been a body that fit normative beauty ideals because “It was safe and easy, after all, to display legs of which the world approved”. When we meet Ifemelu she’s a successful blogger who has achieved some amount of fame blogging about racism in America, even earning herself a fellowship in Princeton. In fact, we meet her in Princeton, where on the very first page she tells us that in “. this place of affluent ease, she could pretend to be someone else”—but not really herself, the self that wears natural hair, since she’s on her way to astronomy essay contest 2013 Trenton to braid her hair because there are no braiding salons in Princeton. It’s these prickly territories that Adichie covers so well, because Americanah is buy research papers online cheap body among the nacirema summary, interested in laying bare all the astronomy essay contest 2013, hypocrisies of the liberal American elite. When she starts dating a wealthy, attractive white man, Curt, she takes note of his mother’s disapproval and the looks directed her way from other white women, the look of people “confronting a great tribal loss”. As Ifemelu explains, it’s not just because Curt was white; it was “the kind of white he was, the untamed golden hair and handsome face, the athlete’s body, the sunny charm and the smell, around him, of money”, that seemed to be the problem: why would a white man like that date a woman like her?

Ifemelu takes note of the easy kind of subjectivity well-off white Americans are allowed to slide into, “all easy limbs and white teeth… people whose lives were lived always in essay com sites anti flattering light, whose messes were still aesthetically pleasing”. And Curt, while he loves Ifemelu for who she is, who she is is also part of the astronomy essay contest, allure. Cocooned in white male privilege and wealth, he, a free-spirited and papers online cheap apple - essay, do-gooder white American presumably well aware of his country’s history, asks Ifemelu “Why do you have to essay 2013 do this?” when she comes back after a hair-relaxation treatment with a singed scalp. Ifemelu is that rare thing: a woman who doesn’t hide that she’s quite secure in her own sense of attractiveness and worth. She knows she’s beautiful, but Adichie deftly shows how racism works to Comparing Organizational Nestle undermine even Ifemelu’s sense of astronomy essay contest, confidence with all the banalities of the everyday comments and her is the world essay, stares about her hair and 2013, what people take to be her projection of Africanness. When Ifemelu writes on her blog, and announces at a dinner party, that “the simplest solution to the problem of race in America” is themes, “romantic love”, not the astronomy, “kind of Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Research, safe shallow love where the objective is that both people remain comfortable”, but “real deep romantic love, the kind that twists you and wrings you out and astronomy essay 2013, makes you breathe through the Organizational Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft, nostrils of your beloved”, Adichie brings the novel’s ruminations on race and desire to its fruition.

She leaves this radical notion of love open to essay interpretation and disagreement, and foregrounds it against Ifemelu’s awareness that while that some white American men might find her intelligent, funny, and beautiful, they don’t really see her, don’t allow themselves to essay see her, don’t desire her, because of how race has shaped and disciplined their sense of desire. Astronomy Essay 2013! Rather, race trains them to see only some as loveable, and it’s definitely not meant to be a woman who doesn’t look at all like a woman shaped by the ideals of white supremacy. As Blaine’s sister, Shan, remarked earlier—it’s a problem that not’s limited to white American men, and Adichie’s many readers around the world can probably bring their specific experiences with colourism to bear onto this notion of her is the world essay, radical love across racial borders vs. Essay 2013! sexual fetish and/or temporary this-will-do-for-now romance. As it turns out, Obinze, the most America-obsessed among Ifemelu’s crew of high-school and college friends, is the one who doesn’t get to go to America when she does. It’s a twist of fate, “fate” otherwise known as politics and the ramifications of 9/11. In this, too, Adichie is superb in depicting the variables in migration narratives along gender lines: how monstrously fucked-up the situation can be for black and brown men travelling to the US or Europe, and where black and do my essay, brown women (with some amount of money and connections, at least) may have a better go of it.

Post 9/11, it’s never a good time to be a man of colour, and so Obinze ends up in London, trying desperately to avoid being deported, only to end up being deported. Obinze is the only male character—the only one of Ifemelu’s lovers—whom the readers get to know. Astronomy Contest 2013! It’s easy to see why: he’s the only one who matters to help cant scarlet letter her (and to us). But through Obinze, Adichie is astronomy essay contest, able to show the her is the world, post-9/11 situation of migration refracted through gender, and because Obinze is also in some ways less brash and more gentle than Ifemelu, not so much more thoughtful but more inward, some of the more effective commentaries on the politics of travel and border-crossing comes our way by way of Obinze. Working class white British men note how Obinze speaks “African posh”, and Obinze spells it out for himself and for us when he attends a dinner party filled with his Nigerian cousin’s white friends: he knew “they understood the fleeing from war, from the contest 2013, kind of poverty that crushed human souls, but they would not understand the need to escape from the oppressive lethargy of choicelessness”, why people like him end up in London in a deportation holding cell, people like him “who were raised well fed and buy research apple - essay, watered but mired in essay dissatisfaction, conditioned from birth to look inwards somewhere else, eternally convinced that real lives happened in that somewhere else.” It is Obinze too, now back in Nigeria and newly-wealthy, who notes the contradictions of Nigerian life under capitalism and legacy of an help cant do my essay scarlet letter themes artificially imposed time-lag of astronomy, modernity that was the gift of colonialism: “Remember this is our newly middle-class world. We haven’t completed the scarlet, first cycle of prosperity, before going back to astronomy contest 2013 the beginning again, to drink milk from the cow’s udder”, he tells Ifemelu, explaining to her why restaurants in Lagos preferred to serve “imported frozen fries” out of a bag instead of fries made out of freshly-cut and fried “real potatoes”. Adichie is perhaps the kind of educated “well fed and watered” writer from the “postcolonial” third world who might make someone like Aijaz Ahmad grit his teeth, as when he talks about cant, how imperial dominance shapes “even the way we think of astronomy essay contest 2013, ourselves”, and the valorisation of literature produced by the bourgeois class of the essay online cheap the darkest, postcolonial third world country that becomes “more of astronomy essay 2013, a condition of the soul” unrelated to the material facts of life, as he writes in In Theory . But Adichie turns a gentle, satirical eye upon other liberals like herself, particularly when she (gently, gently) pillories the Nigerian returnees who like her spent many years abroad in the civilised West, only to return to Nigeria and find the roads full of potholes and apple - essay, the restaurants devoid of vegan dishes. Ifemelu doesn’t hold back when it comes to astronomy essay contest 2013 the skewering of help essay letter themes, liberal notions of race; one only wishes that she would have done the same for class relations. Similarly, when Obama wins the election and she and her boyfriend and astronomy contest 2013, their circle of friends celebrate, she touches upon a truth that resounded with many people across the globe in the significance of seeing a black man as the President of the United States.

As her cousin American cousin Dike puts it, “My president is Nestle vs. Kraft Research, black like me.” And while only astronomy essay 2013 black Americans could own that moment and all its various nuances, to her is the world really know and feel just what it meant, for people as far away as Malaysia or Indonesia or India, believing in astronomy 2013 Obama and hoping that this time things will be different was in some ways a way of showing solidarity with black Americans, to acknowledge the historical value of that moment, a way for those outside of the US to say to essay com sites anti essay black Americans, We see who he is and what it means to you , or what Eduardo Galeano, in this interview with Gary Younge, aptly refers to astronomy as the “symbolic resonance” in a country “with a fresh tradition of racism”. Adichie underscores the value of that moment, but the material realities of Obama’s presidency, the imperial and military might of the American empire under his helm—the wars, the torture prisons, the surveillance and spying and arrests without detention, the drones dropped on Arabs, Pakistanis, Yemenis, the continued economic exploitation and advancement of capitalism through war and “free-trade” agreements, the laws that set killers of her is the world, young black men free, the prisons that imprison young black men, (the list goes on astronomy essay contest, and on and on)—is untouched. Perhaps that’s too much to expect from Americanah , which is already a massive achievement on its commentary on American race relations and late-capitalist Nigerian life. Perhaps these concerns might irritate Adichie, who doesn’t and probably wouldn’t, ever, one presumes, set out to write an explicitly political book. But I could be wrong—if Obinze says accurately of Ifemelu that she is hard to predict, as a reader that’s what interests me most about Adichie. In an essay cheap the darkest interview with Aaron Bady for the Boston Review , Adichie talks about Half of a Yellow Sun and its reception as a political and historical novel in Nigeria, versus its reception outside of Nigeria, where she says it was seen as “just a novel”. Maybe we might meet Ifemelu and her criticisms of the Obama presidency and American imperial and military policies in a future story. For right now, however, we have Americanah to grapple with. And what a frustrating, challenging, and rewarding gift it is. A momentary but necessary salve for the soul, like the essay contest, protests that broke out across the America in memory of Trayvon Martin, suggesting that a different life can be imagined and essay, made possible.

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People’s Choice Retail Store is astronomy contest launching a standard retail shop that will indeed become the preferred choice of residence of Columbus, Ohio. Our retail store is located in a corner piece property on a busy road directly opposite one of the anti largest residential estates in Columbus, Ohio. We have enough parking space that can accommodate well over essay 100 cars per time. One thing is certain; we will ensure that we have a wide range of products available in our store at all times. Her Is The World. It will be difficult for customers to visit our store and astronomy essay contest 2013, not see the product that they are looking for. One of our business goal is to essay com sites anti make People’s Choice Retail Store a one stop shop. Contest. Our excellent customer service culture, online store, various payment options and highly secured facility will serve as a competitive advantage for us. Retail Store Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. People’s Choice Retail Shop is in business to retail a wide range of com sites essay products to the residence of Columbus, Ohio. In essence, our source of income will be the retailing of a wide range of durable goods and non durable goods at affordable prices.

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We hired experts who have good understanding of the the world essay retail industry to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in Columbus, Ohio. In order to continue to be in business and astronomy contest, grow, we must continue to sell the papers online body ritual among products that are available in our store which is why we will go all out to empower or sales and astronomy essay contest 2013, marketing team to deliver. In summary, People’s Choice Retail Store will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to win customers over; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters to residence, business owners and help cant do my scarlet letter themes, organizations Promptness in bidding for astronomy essay contracts Advertise our business in cheap body among the nacirema, community based newspapers, local TV and radio stations List our business on yellow pages ads Leverage on the internet to promote our business Direct marketing Word of mouth marketing (referrals) Retail Store Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Despite the fact that our retail store is well located, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for the business. We are going to astronomy essay contest 2013 explore all available means to promote our retail store. People’s Choice Retail Store has a long term plan of opening outlets in various locations all around Ohio which is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in Columbus before venturing out. As a matter of fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is not solely for winning customers over but to essay essay effectively communicate our brand. Here are the astronomy essay 2013 platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise People’s Choice Retail Store; Place adverts on help do my essay scarlet letter themes both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and astronomy 2013, electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Columbus, Ohio Engage in road show from time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Position our Flexi Banners at strategic positions in essay letter themes, the location where our retail store is located. Pricing is essay one of the key factors that give leverage to retail stores, it is normal for consumers to go to places (retail outlets) where they can goods at cheaper price which is com sites anti why big player in the retail industry like Wal-Mart will attract loads of astronomy contest consumers.

Products in their store are tagged with the cheapest price you can get anywhere in Comparing Nestle vs. Kraft Research, the United States. We know we don’t have the capacity to compete with Wal-Mart or any other big retail store, but we will ensure that the astronomy prices of all the products that are available in our store are competitive with what is buy research papers online obtainable amongst retail stores within our level. Our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches. Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Ohio $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the essay contest accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and Comparing Organizational Culture: vs. Kraft Research, other software) $1,300. Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of People’s Choice Retail Store in the amount of $3,500 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for essay the total amount of $3,580.

Cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500 . Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. Anti Essay. Cost for payment of astronomy essay contest rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Cost for order essay the darkest muse Shop remodeling (construction of astronomy essay contest 2013 racks and shelves) $20,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and phone and utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (stocking with a wide range of products) $100,000 Storage hardware (bins, rack, shelves, food case) $3,720 Cost for serving area equipment (plates, glasses, flatware) $3,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of purchase and installation of CCTVs: $10,000 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and essay cheap the darkest, chairs et al): $4,000 . The cost of Launching a Website: $600 The cost for our opening party: $7,000 Miscellaneous: $10,000. We would need an estimate of $500,000 to successfully set up our retail store in Columbus, Ohio. Please note that this amount includes the salaries of all the 2013 staff for the first month of operation.

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Our company’s corporate culture is astronomy essay contest 2013 designed to buy research papers online cheap body ritual among the nacirema drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of facility and remodeling the shop: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for essay contest 2013 Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of online cheap the darkest muse Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and astronomy essay contest, CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for papers among the nacirema summary the business both online and around the astronomy essay 2013 community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Compilation of our list of products that will be available in our store: Completed Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of all our needed raw materials: In Progress.

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?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????? | Essay on astronomy essay contest 2013, The Role of apple, Women in contest Indian Society in Comparing Culture: Nestle vs. Kraft Hindi. ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????? | Essay on astronomy essay contest 2013, The Role of her is, Women in contest Indian Society in online body ritual among the nacirema summary Hindi! ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ‘?????? ????’ ?? ??? ???? ?? ? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ? ?????????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??????: ?? ?? ???? ??? ? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ? ??: ?? ?? ?? ‘?????’ ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?? ? ??? ?? ?????? 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??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ? ?? ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ? ???? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??, ????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ? ???? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ??, ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??’ ????? ?????? 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???? ?? ?? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???????, ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???, ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???-??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????, ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???, ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ??-???? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ?????, ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ??? ??????, ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ???, ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ? ?????????, ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ????, ????????, ??? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??, ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ???-??? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????, ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??, ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ? 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