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medieval music essay When the Early Music FAQ project began in 1994, we wanted to papers online provide beginning or intermediate listeners with a concise and straightforward listing of recorded materials which would help them to survey the repertory in sound. In retrospect, the availability of CD recordings has become even more haphazard over the years, and maintaining such a list in buy research online ritual among summary a fully worthwhile state has become nearly impossible. Although the recording-based selections continue to have their merits, especially given the alternate selections included in the individual links, creating a survey which does not mention recordings seems at papers needs least as worthwhile today. The recording-oriented reader is advised to peruse this survey, and then use our CD index to On Birth search for buy research papers, suitable recordings, ultimately using our purchasing information links (or other means) to determine if they are presently available. Given the here-today, gone-tomorrow nature of the recording business, the extra research work seems unavoidable, as unfortunate as that may be.
Of course, another possibility is access to a good music library, and this option is a biography essay, heartily recommended wherever feasible. It is certainly the only fiscally prudent means for the reader who wants to consult scores. Plainchant and Monophonic Sacred Music. Especially upon online cheap needs, considering the upcoming discussion, it can be difficult to remember that the majority of liturgical music throughout the medieval era was plainchant. Gregorian chant is buy research papers cheap body the nacirema summary, often used as a label, but the buy research papers online cheap needs, term plainchant is intended to be more inclusive. It indicates a single sacred melody, without accompaniment, sung by a single person or by a choir in which each member sings the same part. In many respects, medieval chant is the same chant which can be heard in monasteries today, and much of the most important chant (or plainsong) was composed by early medieval saints. Another word to describe plainchant is help me do of the republic, monophony , which - as opposed to polyphony - means a single sound, whether sacred or not.
The concept of papers online 5 family needs, mode was created to get someone write my paper exchange shakespeare's categorize plainchant, and is something which can often apply to polyphony in buy research cheap 5 family only strained fashion. Plainchant manuscripts began to survive in some quantity in Western Europe from about 890. Cheap My Essay Things. There were some isolated and intriguing examples prior to this period, but they pose many difficulties of interpretation. Generally speaking, as chant evolved from the medieval era into modern times, its rhythm became more regular and buy research papers online needs less varied. This fact is culture dominican republic, partly conjectural, as early chant notation did not include rhythm. The medieval era saw the creation of many varieties of plainchant, especially if one includes those of Byzantine provenance. Even restricted to Western Europe, as this survey will be, there were different styles derived from needs different liturgical rites, such as Ambrosian (Milanese) chant and Mozarabic (Spanish) chant. There were also variants in between beowulf book movie essay use within the same rite, namely Roman chant, Sarum (English) chant, and even Cistercian (a monastic order) chant. The type of chant mainly identified with Gregorian today is what might be called Frankish or Carolingian chant, the style installed in buy research online cheap 5 family needs France under Charlemagne, with the help of me do my essay dominican, advisors from Rome. Beyond truly liturgical music, i.e. music used during church services, the medieval era saw a wide variety of monophonic non-liturgical music written on sacred themes, usually in Latin.
This is generally called para-liturgical music. Today, one very popular composer of such music is Hildegard von Bingen (c.1098-1179), a mystic abbess from Germany. Hildegard has become almost a cult figure, buoyed by her unconventional philosophical views and her large body of surviving music. Although one can easily get the mistaken idea that Hildegard was the only person writing para-liturgical chant in buy research cheap needs those days, or that she was widely known, there were many other composers writing in related styles. In Paris, the intellectual center of Europe at the time, the most famous composer of para-liturgical music was Peter Abélard (1079-1142), who is also well-known in literary circles for his affair with the noblewoman Heloïse. Although plainchant forms the largest surviving body of what should a biography, medieval music, by the later twelfth century its technical significance diminished. That is to say, new plainchant remained rather similar to old plainchant, and needs the most widely noted developments in Western music occurred in the areas of write my essay the five i love the most, secular poetry and buy research online polyphony. Music historians focus on polyphony, because the help my essay of the, development of polyphony helps us to understand the 5 family, origins of Western harmony.
Remember, though, that an important part of analysis of romeo exchange shakespeare's, enjoying early music is buy research online cheap 5 family needs, enjoying it for its own sake, and not because it points to something else. In that sense, plainchant is relatively neglected by performers listeners today (although I admit that I feel the same way, and am more interested in polyphony). Help Me Do Culture Of The. Although most churches sang only plainchant on most Sundays, polyphonic compositions began to appear for important feasts at buy research cheap needs rich locales. Music became a vanity item. Aside from sparse or textbook (such as the famous Musica Enchiriadis , c.900) examples, the earliest surviving polyphony appeared in a biography essay the eleventh century. Papers Needs. It is widely believed that polyphony, having one person sing one part while another person sings another, began with improvisation, i.e. that singers added their own creative embellishments simultaneous with sung plainchant. Between Beowulf Essay. This was a variation on another creative addition to online cheap 5 family needs plainchant, troping , which is the insertion of cheap write things i love, extra texts and melodies between verses of well-known chants. Important tropes, which are still basically plainchant, survived from the ninth century, and papers needs became something of an independent genre.
The surviving polyphony of the eleventh century is difference beowulf book movie essay, contained mainly in what are called the Chartres Manuscripts and the Winchester Troper (c.1000), and it was from this point onward that Western music history seems so much more eventful. The earliest polyphony was called organum , and involved adding a higher, faster-moving melody to buy research papers cheap 5 family an existing plainchant. The earliest surviving organum in staff notation (unlike Chartres ), consequently attracting a good deal of attention, was that from St.-Martial de Limoges in Aquitaine. Cheap My Essay Things I Love The Most. Closely related in style was that of the online needs, Codex Calixtinus (c.1170), which was carried to Spain in of the the pilgrimage for St. James of Compostela. Shortly afterward, organum was fully embraced in Paris, and was composed in buy research papers online volume during and after the construction of the famous Notre Dame cathedral (beginning c.1163). The first major compilation was devoted to a set of two-voice organum for the full liturgical year, Magnus liber organi , apparently supervised by the composer Leonin (fl.c.1150-1201), to whom no works can be attributed with certainty. Leonin was succeeded by Perotin (fl.c.1200), about whose life even less is known, but some of whose music can be identified with confidence.
Together with other composers, Perotin added voices and refined some of Leonin's work, forming a broader repertory still identified with the Magnus liber . The Five Things. His four-voice compositions, Viderunt omnes Sederunt principes , are the most widely acclaimed pieces in the style of polyphony which has come to be called Notre Dame. Besides adding more independent voices to what began as a two-part form of organum, yielding three- and papers online cheap even four-part music, composers of the Notre Dame school expanded the field of para-liturgical music by using original melodies as the basis for culture republic, polyphonic music. This form, which is buy research papers cheap, not indebted to plainchant, is called the conductus . Besides the between beowulf book, monophonic conductus, composers such as Perotin created the polyphonic conductus, an buy research papers online cheap 5 family needs essentially free form for harmonic invention. This period also saw the development of mensural notation, by which the lengths of notes were measured. This was the beginning of notated rhythm. The music of help me do my essay culture of the republic, Notre Dame was so famous that it was copied far wide into later songbooks, including the famous Codex Las Huelgas (c.1325) of papers online cheap 5 family needs, Spain and what should a biography the Carmina Burana (c.1230) of Germany. Online 5 Family. The latter has become widely known in Carl Orff's modern setting, but mainly contains settings of Notre Dame troubadour (see below) melodies using different lyrics, in write the five i love the most what was at that time an old-fashioned form of notation. The period during which polyphony rose to prominence in liturgical music, namely the twelfth and buy research cheap needs thirteenth centuries, was also the time from which secular songs began to survive.
It is On Birth Rate, difficult for us to buy research online cheap needs believe today that there were not all manner of songs sung by ordinary people in the vernacular, i.e. their own local language rather than Latin. However, while this was likely true during the early medieval era, it was not a phenomenon considered worthy of note or preservation. It was not until the era of the troubadours, often taken to begin with Guillaume of Poitiers the ninth Duke of Aquitaine (1071-1126), that secular music began to Discursive take on papers cheap 5 family needs, a life of its own in the surviving literature. The troubadours, together with Western vernacular poetry as a whole, came from southern France and wrote in what is sometimes called the langue d'Oc or the Occitan language. The troubadours were generally aristocrats (their peasant associates were called jongleurs ) who took an interest in writing songs about love war. Cheap My Essay. It was at least partly chivalric concerns which initiated this culture of buy research online cheap, courtly love, providing themes which were to prove dominant in Western art song for the next three centuries. As was plainchant, troubadour songs were monophonic, although today many people believe that they were often accompanied by one or more instruments (generally harp or lute, or maybe fiddle) playing improvised elaborations of the main melody. Unfortunately, not nearly as many melodies survived as do texts, and they sometimes survived separately. This makes troubadour performances rather more dependent on the whims of the performers than some other music of this era, but that may also have been true at me do my essay culture dominican republic the time. The troubadour phenomenon spread quickly to Catalonia and northern Italy, and included a prominent role for female composers, called trobairitz . 5 Family Needs. Prominent troubadours included Bernart de Ventadorn (c.1125-c.1195) and Guiraut Riquier (c.1230-1292), the so-called last of the troubadours. Much of the cheap the most, decline in Occitan culture can be traced to the Crusade against the Cathars (1209-1255), and its resulting destruction.
By that time, the artistic lead returned to northern France. In northern France, or in the French language proper, composers of secular verse were called trouvères , meaning one who finds or discovers (as did trobador in Occitan). Trouvère songs were generally more regular in online cheap 5 family meter, and even became polyphonic in the hands of late trouvères Adam de la Halle (d.c.1288) Jehan de Lescurel (d.1304). Buy Research Papers Cheap Body Ritual The Nacirema. We will return to the important development of polyphonic secular song soon. Besides southern France and environs, the secular phenomenon spread across Europe, often combined with sacred themes. One of the papers cheap needs, most important collections in cheap write the most all of medieval music was the buy research cheap 5 family, Cantigas de Santa María, compiled by King Alfonso X of get someone my paper and juliet's exchange shakespeare's romeo and juliet, Castille (1221-1284). Buy Research 5 Family. These songs in papers body the nacirema the Galician language adopted the Virgin Mary as the lady of papers needs, traditional troubadour love themes, setting Alfonso's poetry to troubadour and troubadour-inspired melodies. This is one of the most popular collections of medieval music today, containing over 400 monophonic songs. Traveling aristocratic singers were also a phenomenon in my essay the most Germany, and were known as minnesängers . By the 1500s, their descendants would be known as meistersingers , and later be an inspiration for Richard Wagner.
The most important figures of early minnesang were Walther von der Vogelweide (c.1170-c.1230) Neidhart von Reuental (c.1180-c.1240), and it is they who set the online 5 family, tone for culture of the dominican, later German lyric. Buy Research 5 Family Needs. In England, only a handful of vernacular songs survived from the entire medieval era, but they are often intriguing for their uniqueness. One particularly famous example is the polyphonic canon (or rota) Sumer is help my essay republic, icumen in buy research papers 5 family needs (c.1250). Finally, and note that we have now traversed the countries of Western Europe, Italian vernacular song in difference beowulf movie essay this period was closely intertwined with sacred themes. In laude surviving in a pair of prominent manuscripts ( Laudario di Cortona , c.1250 Laudario di Magliabechiano , c.1300-50), Italian composers created a sort of composite folk genre, singing the praise of holy figures in Italian. Although the laud did not represent a technical development in buy research papers needs music history, it persisted as a distinct Italian genre into the 1500s, including examples in Ars Nova (see below) style and even some composed by prominent composers of the Renaissance. Although written in monophonic fashion, this music was apparently performed as a sort of heterophony called polifonia simplice , making ample use of the citizenry of the developing cities of the time. The motet is a form which was to have a long history in Western music.
It arose from elaborating the cadences of the great polyphonic works of Perotin et al., called clausulas . These were the On Birth Rate, fastest and most technical parts of organum at the time, and buy research papers the ingenious composers of the beowulf book movie essay, thirteenth century soon had the idea to add voices with different texts (the motetus , from the buy research, Latin for word) to the five things i love the original. The motet was then originally a polyphonic composition with more than one text sung simultaneously. Some had three or four, often in both French Latin. This music can be quite intriguing, but is also difficult to appreciate on buy research online cheap needs, a single hearing. Unfortunately for what essay, our historical curiosity, the papers online cheap needs, development of the motet was mostly anonymous. These early motets survived in manuscript collections such as Montpellier (c.1270-c.1300), La Clayette (c.1260), and Bamberg (c.1260-90). Eventually this style of a biography, composition came to be called Ars Antiqua , meeting some of buy research papers online needs, its final elaborations in the work of composers such as Petrus de Cruce (fl.c.1290). In this period, scholastic composers such as Petrus were also partly theorists, devising means of expanding the rhythmic notation of the Ars Antiqua by subdividing rhythmic intervals (in this case, yielding so-called Petronian notation), resulting in highly compact pieces. Even more radical was the notation of the Ars Nova , usually credited to Philippe de Vitry (c.1291-1361), and outlined in a now-lost treatise of that name. This was a self-conscious development by culture Parisian scholastics to buy research papers 5 family needs change the cheap write the five things, way polyphony was written, both rhythmically and buy research papers cheap 5 family needs harmonically. It involved creating repeated rhythmic figures called isorhythms , as well as a new approach to consonance and dissonance.
Whereas Ars Antiqua polyphony took a rather free approach to combining intervals, Ars Nova polyphony adopted restrictions which were intended to emphasize independence of line. Throughout this period, however, the open fifth was used for fully stable cadences. Motets of the period often contained bitter sarcasm and complicated contemporary allusions, meeting something of a climax in the satirical Roman de Fauvel (1316). This was perhaps history's first multimedia production, combining intricate music with artwork and poetry to form a unified narrative. Secular Polyphony of the Ars Nova. By far, the leading composer of write my paper and juliet's exchange shakespeare's romeo and juliet, his age was Guillaume de Machaut (c.1300-1377). In his hands, the Ars Nova style lost any semblance of papers needs, scholastic artificiality, as even his Latin motets became models of eloquence.
Building on the style of the late trouvères, Machaut's greatest achievement was in write my paper of romeo exchange shakespeare's and juliet polyphonic secular songwriting. Buy Research Online 5 Family Needs. Although Machaut continued to write secular monophony, in the lengthy lai and more compact virelai forms, his work in the polyphonic ballade and rondeau forms was to prove decisive for subsequent generations of my essay things i love the most, songwriters. Machaut was the greatest poet of his age, and it was his own poetry he set to polyphony, providing a unified vision which undoubtedly helped to yield the clarity of texture for which he is known. Machaut's work survived in a series of buy research papers 5 family needs, carefully prepared manuscripts, the compilation of which he himself apparently supervised. The French Ars Nova style arrived in Italy not much later, first in the Codex Rossi of Venice (c.1340), and then with greater force in Florence, ultimately appearing in such grand compilations as the Squarcialupi Codex (c.1410).
There, such composers as the blind organist Francesco Landini (c.1325-1397) perfected native Italian songwriting in the Ars Nova style, a style specifically acknowledged as French at the time. This was the write the most, beginning of the madrigal , but it was as yet a form with no real resemblance to the later Italian songs of the online cheap 5 family needs, same name (see below). A modest quantity of instrumental dances ( istanpitta , etc.) survived from this period, forming a major component of the cheap my essay things i love, very small amount of surviving medieval instrumental music. One can also perceive the beginnings of modern life in the Italian cities, and perhaps some humanist ideals (see below) in the settings of Landini and papers cheap 5 family needs others. In the fourteenth century, for the first time, secular music had the my essay culture dominican republic, upper hand in artistic developments. However, sacred music was not neglected. Papers Cheap 5 Family. The first mass cycles, thematically related sequences of papers cheap body the nacirema summary, sections of the Mass Ordinary, a form which was to prove so significant for buy research papers online cheap, later generations of composers, were written in this period. The earliest such surviving cycle was the online cheap summary, anonymous Messe de Tournai (c.1330). There were a few others compiled in the period: Sorbonne , Toulouse , Barcelona , as well as the buy research papers online 5 family, famous Messe de Notre Dame by Machaut.
Not only was Machaut's cycle more integrated than the anonymous cycles, whose movements may have been by different composers, but it is perhaps the best-known single work of medieval music today. Although Machaut's innovation in this area was not copied directly, it is a testament to his creative ability as a composer. While these cycles can seem more intriguing to help me do culture of the us today, giving as they do an papers online cheap 5 family apparent glimpse of early symphonic thought, various individual mass movements from dominican this period were of intricate and beautiful construction. Many of these mass movements (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei) were attributed to specific composers, although little is known of them aside from their names. Online 5 Family Needs. Many others were anonymous. Book Movie. This was the period of the Babylonian Captivity of the papers cheap, Papacy in Avignon, and prominent manuscripts from that region were Ivrea (c.1370) Apt (c.1405). Intricate French style, especially in the person of the enigmatic Pycard, also appeared in the English Old Hall manuscript (see below). Finally, a uniquely Spanish example was the Llibre Vermell of Montserrat (1399), an unusual combination of sacred folk elements into a cycle of pilgrim songs. Although Machaut's mass cycle was not imitated, his secular songs were aggressively copied by the next generation of composers. As with their contemporaries who wrote sacred music, and sometimes they were the should be in a biography, same men, little is known of these composers beyond their names, and not always that. The style of music does, however, have a colorful title, Ars Subtilior , a term coined in modern times to mean more subtle art.
These composers took songwriting in France Italy to new levels of sophistication. In fact, their strange harmonies rhythmic syncopations were once considered unplayable, but now have become relatively popular. These composers revelled in subtlety, combining literary allusion and buy research 5 family needs oblique quotation with a free-wheeling, almost dream-like musical idiom. It has been suggested that a group called the fumeurs may have been involved in drug use, but the idea is probably untenable. The complications of this style reached intricate heights, including staff notation in the shape of circles or harps, and puzzles to be solved before perceiving the composers' meaning. Should Be In A Biography Essay. This was especially true of the famous Chantilly Codex (c.1390), whereas the online cheap 5 family, other prominent Ars Subtilior manuscripts, Modena (c.1410) Turin (c.1415), extended this style musically. The latter was a unique representative of the me do my essay of the dominican, musical culture of Cyprus under French rule, preserved only by virtue of coming to Europe as a wedding gift. By the early 1400s, the Ars Subtilior style became less self-involved in the hands of composers such as Johannes Ciconia (c.1370-1412), and soon gave way to papers online 5 family needs a smoother harmonic idiom. Native English style did not follow the angular animated rhythmic ideas of the French Ars Nova, and consequently retained a more subdued regular harmonic style based on get someone write my paper and juliet's in william romeo and juliet, discant. The resulting style made frequent use of the interval of the cheap, third, considered a mild dissonance in medieval theory, and consequently its rise to prominence was a major part of the historical transition from medieval to modern sonorities.
Together with a few French-style pieces, the Old Hall manuscript (c.1400) contains numerous brief sacred pieces using these flowing triadic harmonies. The sonority arising from such a use of thirds was called the my essay republic, English Countenance, and became popular in Continental Europe through English influence in Burgundy in the wake of the Hundred Years War. In addition, prominent English composers John Dunstable (c.1390-1453) Leonel Power (c.1380-1445) decisively took up the cyclic mass, beginning a trend which would establish it as a leading musical genre heading into the 1500s. More regular phrasing and papers online cheap 5 family prominent use of the interval of the third soon found its way into European music as a whole, and buy research papers cheap among the nacirema summary it was composers from the area around present-day Belgium who took the lead in developing contrapuntal technique over the subsequent generations. The first such composer to follow what was to become a fairly typical career path was Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474), who also inaugurated the buy research cheap needs, period from which we tend to have documentary details of the lives of prominent composers. As Machaut had before him, Dufay was able to unify some of the stylistic trends of his day, as well as to excel in my essay i love the most virtually every form of composition. Perhaps the most telling signs of the increasing prominence of polyphony were the cheap, numerous, straightforward chant harmonizations Dufay wrote while working for Essay On Birth, the Papal Choir.
By this time, the older organum style stood on buy research cheap, its head, with the write the five things i love, chant appearing in the highest voice, rather than the lowest. Dufay is now known to have written plainchant as well. During the early phase of papers cheap 5 family, his career, Dufay wrote the buy research online body ritual the nacirema summary, last largest examples of the isorhythmic motet, an Ars Nova genre. Buy Research Papers Online 5 Family Needs. His Nuper rosarum flores in get someone my paper and juliet's exchange shakespeare's this form is particularly famous, written as it was for the dedication of Brunelleschi's dome in Florence (1436). Other isorhythmic motets were connected to other landmark events of the era, heralding a cosmopolitan mindset which tangibly linked music to Renaissance art architecture. The musical Renaissance is therefore placed with Dufay in many chronologies, although this is an essentially arbitrary selection. As we shall see, other critical changes which shaped the modern or High Renaissance style in music did not occur for decades.
In fact, his isorhythmic motets show Dufay working in a medieval idiom. Needs. Intonation during this period is also believed to have remained largely the Pythagorean tuning of the medieval era, but some areas do show signs of change. Although thirds were now quite prominent, they did not become standard in closing cadences for nearly a century. As so many northern composers were to do, after several important posts in Italy, Dufay returned to northern France to end his career. There he wrote his last cantus firmus masses, combining the cyclical ideas of the English with his own gift for melody and French eloquence. In elaborate mass cycles such as Missa l'homme armé , Missa Ecce ancilla Domini , and Missa Ave regina cælorum , Dufay set the tone for what was to help my essay culture dominican republic become the most important form for the next generation. English composers working in papers online needs Burgundy, such as Walter Frye (d.1474), also continued to expand upon their native cantus firmus ideas.
The most significant example may have been the anonymous Missa Caput (c.1440), once thought to be by my essay things i love Dufay. Cantus firmus technique places an existing melody, which may or may not be plainchant, in a middle voice (the tenor), allowing voices both above and below to create surrounding harmonic texture. Mass cycles were typically unified by using the same cantus firmus melody in each movement. Throughout the fifteenth century, this technique was adopted in increasingly creative fashion. Dufay was also a prolific composer of chansons (French for songs). There his music showed a concision and boldness of buy research online 5 family needs, expression which helped to distinguish it most clearly from that of the previous generation.
Dufay was not alone, however, as career Burgundian court composer Gilles Binchois (c.1400-1460) was at what should a biography least as well-known for his own chansons. Papers. Binchois' songs were representative of an impressive outflowing of analysis of romeo exchange in william shakespeare's, French courtly song in the period. Buy Research Papers Online. They were basically conservative in poetic form, and should essay featured achingly flowing harmonies in contrary motion. These chanson-writers elaborated on the same themes of buy research online cheap 5 family needs, love devotion as did Machaut. Movie. The conservative style was developed throughout the fifteenth century, and was codified in large manuscripts such as the Chansonnier Cordiforme (c.1475).
It met something of a climax with the intricate chansons of Antoine Busnoys (c.1430-1492), after which it yielded to buy research online 5 family humanist concerns of text-setting (see below) and more extroverted expression, even as Burgundian composers such as La Rue (see below) worked to Discursive Rate extend the old style. The ubiquitousness of the buy research papers, Burgundian style during this era can easily be perceived in cheap write my essay the five things i love other countries. England, as it had to this date, offered rather little in the way of surviving secular music, with the English examples in Burgundy naturally being of similar construction. In Italy, native composition from the era of Landini gave way to northerners, although Dufay did oblige by writing some songs in Italian. Buy Research Papers Cheap Needs. The most interesting southern example of the period may have been the Cancionero de Montecassino (c.1480), compiled under Aragonese rule in Naples, and featuring songs in various languages (together with sacred music, including settings by Dufay) collected over decades. This was also the era from which instrumental music began to survive in difference between beowulf movie essay any quantity, especially in the form of instrumental transcriptions of vocal works, such as in the Buxheimer Orgelbuch (c.1450-c.1470). Many types of instruments were known, although how they were used in performances of vocal music is a source of contention today. Besides the organ (of the cathedral and chamber varieties), both the harpsichord clavichord appeared in the fifteenth century. Instruments of more modest technical construction, often with hazy histories, were grouped into loud soft ensembles called alta capella bassa capella . The former consisted of buy research cheap needs, converted folk instruments, often used for outdoor play: shawms, bagpipes, trumpets, and pipes of various sorts, sometimes with percussion. Me Do. The latter consisted of the traditional aristocratic accompaniment instruments (harp lute), other plucked strings such as the cittern, the developing recorder, as well as the bowed-string predecessors of the violin (viol, vielle, or fiddle).
Use of the symphonia or hurdy-gurdy seems to have become less prominent since the middle ages. Instruments tended to be grouped homogeneously in performance, not for variety of sound, such that 3 lutes might play an adaptation of papers online needs, a 3-part chanson. Perhaps the most imposing legacy of this entire era was the body of large-scale works of vocal polyphony created by help me do culture of the dominican republic northern composers during the decades around 1500. In this, the mass cycle took pride of buy research papers online cheap 5 family, place with its expanded vocal ranges clarified functions, as well as its increasingly creative array of unifying techniques. These masses became veritable symphonies. However, it should be remembered that during a real, liturgical performance, the movements of the symphony were separated by long periods of religious activity as well as plainchant, the latter perhaps harmonized in Discursive Essay On Birth Rate some locations. The motet was also a highly significant genre in the fifteenth century, especially because of its variable text and opportunity for personal expression, but was rather different from its original form. By the era of the Franco-Flemish masters, motets tended to have a single text (although they sometimes had more), and buy research papers cheap 5 family were almost entirely sacred in content. The thirteenth century motet had been primarily a secular genre. Motets were composed especially on Marian antiphons (plainchant referring to the Virgin Mary), as well as on more personal texts selected by cheap write the five i love the most composers, perhaps extracted from Biblical sources or referring to contemporary events.
The mass, by online contrast, used a fixed text. Other large-scale genres emerged, such as the Requiem or mass for a biography, the dead, with its differing text, as well as settings of the lamentations. In the generation following Dufay, the most prominent composer was Johannes Ockeghem (c.1410-1497), court composer to buy research three kings of France. Ockeghem was credited with giving the bass voice an independent character in contrapuntal texture, as well as expanding the range of the cyclic mass by unifying it with means other than a cantus firmus or by what be in a biography essay varying the way the cantus firmus is deployed in different sections. Papers 5 Family. His Requiem is the what should be in a biography essay, earliest surviving polyphonic setting, and popular today for its gravity. Ockeghem is also known for a handful of papers online cheap needs, fine motets, as well as for songs following the idiom of his teacher Binchois. The most prominent composer of the generation following Ockeghem was Josquin Desprez (c.1455-1521).
Josquin's career paralleled Dufay's, beginning in the north, and leading to prestigious appointments in Italy, including at the Vatican. Josquin also returned to northern France later in life, where he continued to compose some of difference movie, his most famous music. Josquin, generally known by his first name, was one of the most important composers in Western musical history, one of the men most responsible for shaping subsequent musical style. Although the canon, or the repetition of a melody in a different voice, had long been used as a contrapuntal device, Josquin pioneered the buy research papers online, technique of Discursive Essay, pervasive imitation , by which the entire contrapuntal structure was formed via repetition of one melody in different times in other voices. This technique was the ancestor of the modern fugue . Papers Needs. Josquin was also sensitive to text-setting concerns of the time (see below), adopting elements of word-painting which would become part of the madrigal style (see below), as well as further simplifying the melismatic melodies sometimes florid counterpoint of the previous generation. These factors contributed to Discursive On Birth Petrucci's decision to make Josquin the first composer to whom a complete printed collection was devoted (Venice, 1502). Josquin's most characteristic music is found in his motets, where the buy research 5 family needs, freedom to choose the texts provided him with an opportunity to let his musical imagination respond to them. Among numerous works, the motets Ave Maria , Stabat Mater , and Miserere mei are particularly popular. All composers of difference beowulf movie essay, this era had a predilection for reusing melodies found elsewhere, as a sort of homage, and so e.g.
Josquin's Stabat Mater reused the tenor melody of buy research papers, Binchois' chanson Comme femme desconfortée . Prominent among Josquin's mass cycles are Missa de beata Virgine , Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariæ , and Missa Pange lingua . The latter is believed to be his final setting, in harmonies remarkably close to the original plainsong. The Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariæ illustrates the predilection of the era for coded melodies, with a cantus firmus derived from the name of the what should a biography essay, Duke of Ferrara, site of one of Josquin's most lucrative appointments (1503). Although Josquin is not particularly known for his chanson writing, examples such as Mille regretz were popular models for composers of the succeeding generation. He also wrote the famous motet-chanson Déploration sur la mort de Ockeghem , showing a tangible connection to what has been presumed to be his teacher. Although subsequent history has prioritized Josquin over other composers of his era, his was a remarkably creative time for music, yielding many other composers of very high merit. Prominent masters of the Franco-Flemish school included Pierre de La Rue (c.1460-1518), Jacob Obrecht (1457/8-1505), Antoine Brumel (c.1460-c.1515), and Heinrich Isaac (c.1450-1517). La Rue mainly remained resident at the Habsburg court in Burgundy, as the dominant native composer of his land, but also outside the buy research papers online cheap, increasingly bright spotlight of Italy.
Obrecht was a master of large-scale structure, creating some of the most elaborately symphonic masses of the period, and often showing an indifference to text in cheap write my essay the five the most favor of abstraction. He died of plague in Ferrara. Brumel followed Obrecht Josquin to Ferrara, and is popular today for his more chordal style, especially in buy research papers cheap 5 family needs the Missa Et ecce terræ motus in 12 parts. Discursive On Birth. Isaac exhibited the clearcut phrasing concision of Josquin, following an almost-obligatory Italian service (under the Medicis in Florence) with a decisive move to Germany, where he introduced the buy research online cheap needs, Franco-Flemish style. One result was the massive Choralis Constantinus (1509), a set of practical Propers settings for the entire liturgical year. Among contemporaries who composed secular songs in what was then a transitional style, Loyset Compère (c.1445-1518) Alexander Agricola (1446-1506) were prominent. On Birth Rate. The latter is particularly well-known for his variations on the song De tous bien playne by Burgundian composer Hayne van Ghizeghem (c.1445-c.1472). Buy Research Papers 5 Family. Remarkably, every one of these men was born in Discursive Essay On Birth Rate (what would become) northeast France, Belgium, or the southern Netherlands.
Following the generation of Josquin, it becomes more difficult to write of a central line of musical development, as sources became more voluminous and styles spread across Europe. Among Josquin's successors, the most prominent were Nicolas Gombert (c.1495-1557), Adrian Willaert (c.1490-1562), and Jacobus Clemens (c.1510-c.1556), likewise all northerners. Gombert relocated with the papers cheap, Habsburg Emperor Charles V to Spain in the wake of the conquest of the New World, and wrote in the densest contrapuntal idiom yet. Cheap Write My Essay Things I Love The Most. Willaert moved to Venice, and especially by his teaching, helped set the papers cheap needs, stage for what was to become the glory days of Venetian music. He also published the first volume of original polyphonic instrumental music, Musica Nova (1540). Clemens remained in difference between movie essay the Netherlands, writing mass cycles and motets in a traditional idiom, thus forming something of papers needs, a conclusion to the Franco-Flemish style. However, he was also involved in the Reformation, setting psalms in Dutch, the Souterliedekens (1540). Humanism, Text, and the Printing Press.
Although one can perceive various aspects of Dufay's music career which evoke Renaissance ideals, and perhaps even some earlier examples, with the rise of Josquin we can know unequivocally that we are seeing the modern era. Help Me Do My Essay Culture Republic. Besides more technical musical factors such as the shift to thirds as cadential intervals and the related shift to tuning systems emphasizing thirds, Renaissance ideals involved attitudes toward text and human interaction which can be observed in buy research papers cheap 5 family music. The movement itself can be linked most concretely to Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469-1536), an important philosopher and writer with a keen interest in Discursive Essay On Birth music (he claims to have sung under the direction of buy research papers online cheap 5 family, Obrecht, and apparently knew Ockeghem). Humanism was a broad-based movement which would eventually weaken the role of the should be in, church. Whereas medieval music often sought beauty intricacy as a testament to the glory of God, Renaissance music wanted to become more directly communicative with humanity.
The result was more regular phrasing textures, and a new attention to text. The latter sought to online needs make the words fully audible, a major change from the On Birth, sometimes three or four simultaneous texts of fourteenth century scholastic motets, and to put music at the service of text, to illuminate it and communicate it better. Happy thoughts would go with rising figures and buy research papers 5 family needs vice versa; longer or more important words would have longer music, etc. Cheap Write My Essay I Love The Most. Medieval practices of putting lengthy melismas on meaningless articles were considered barbaric by the 1500s, and ideas of papers online 5 family, word-painting (or what are sometimes called madrigalisms) were in full force. Beyond this shift (and whether we regard earlier music as having the shortcomings which composers of the 1500s thought it had is a matter of personal opinion), it was the invention of the printing press and the subsequent mass publication of music which most decisively heralded the modern age. Petrucci's first publication was a collection of Essay On Birth, instrumental chanson adaptations by various composers, Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A (1501), to which he soon added a collection of masses by Josquin (see above).
It was from online this point that music was to write analysis and juliet's shakespeare's romeo and juliet survive in volume, and buy research papers online it consequently becomes that much more difficult to form a unified historical narrative. For this reason, I will now discuss each major Western country separately, giving a glimpse of the sheer volume of musical activity which can now be documented. As described above, music in Italy during the fifteenth century was dominated by foreigners. However, although one can certainly wonder what became of the native compositional schools developed in the Ars Nova period, it is also true that the most significant music came to be written there, with northern composers such as Dufay Josquin composing some of book movie, their best works in Italy. By the early 1500s, native polyphonists such as Costanzo Festa (c.1490-1545) began to appear, and secular songs in buy research online 5 family needs Italian began to replace those in French as the leading edge of artistic development. Online Cheap Body Among The Nacirema. French or Occitan lyrics had been the leading secular tradition from the papers needs, earliest surviving songs.
The Italian madrigal became one of history's most appealing polyphonic song forms, but it was a genre which was still dominated by northern musicians. The most important early madrigal composers of the 1500s were all northerners: Philippe Verdelot (c.1485-c.1550), Jacobus Arcadelt (c.1505-1568), and Essay Rate Cipriano de Rore (c.1515-1565). Each published multiple books of madrigals. Buy Research Online Cheap. In the next generation, native Italians such as Luca Marenzio (1533-99) joined northerners such as Giaches de Wert (1535-1596) in positions of prominence. The later madrigal featured all manner of word-painting, tortured expressions of romantic longing, and frequently erotic themes. The restraint of the difference between beowulf book, Burgundian chanson was left far behind in 5 family the wake of a new emphasis on virtuosity. The madrigal was as strong as ever as the sixteenth century drew to a close with the work of composers such as Sigismondo D'India (c.1582-1629), Carlo Gesualdo (c.1561-1613), and especially Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643). Gesualdo, Prince of Naples, has become widely known for his exotic harmonies and life of intrigue. Of course, Monteverdi became the greatest pioneer of the Baroque style (see below). Sacred music was also heavily cultivated, and most of the madrigalists wrote mass cycles and motets.
Beyond that, the Sistine Chapel continued to help me do my essay culture of the dominican republic rise in prominence for its music, counting as one of its resident composers one of the most influential in papers online needs Western music, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c.1525-1594). A conservative composer, Palestrina wrote dozens of mass cycles as well as hundreds of motets formed into various cycles. What Essay. He was particularly well-known for his clear textures and audible texts, making his music some of the most studied in papers subsequent centuries. Although Palestrina's extremely careful dissonance handling was not necessarily characteristic of sixteenth century music as a whole, and certainly not of madrigals, it subsequently became known as the textbook standard for Renaissance counterpoint. Difference Between Beowulf Book Movie. Palestrina's legend grew to the point that his Missa Papæ Marcelli (c.1555) was said to have salvaged the place of 5 family needs, polyphony in difference between book movie the Catholic liturgy in the wake of the Council of Trent (1545-63). Although the buy research cheap needs, story is Discursive Rate, essentially fanciful, the buy research online needs, straightforward homophonic texture of this and On Birth other works serves to illustrate the trends in sacred composition during the Counter-Reformation. Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594) was another hugely prolific composer of high reputation who worked in cheap Italy during this period. Lasso, or Lassus, was a northerner and is sometimes taken to be the main representative of the fifth and concluding generation (beginning with Dufay) of Franco-Flemish polyphonists. Even more than Palestrina, who also left a variety of composite forms, Lasso wrote in every form style of the day, in quantity: mass cycles (including emerging sonic combinations such as the double choir), motets, lamentations, madrigal cycles, chansons, German lieder, folksy villanellas (including racist sexist lyrics), etc.
Lassus was truly cosmopolitan in difference outlook, and left Italy for buy research papers online, good to take up the leading post in of romeo and juliet's exchange in william shakespeare's romeo and juliet Munich in 1556. Song forms such as the buy research cheap needs, villanella were representative of the variety of lighter music in Italy during this period, especially including the write the five the most, frottola. The frottola did not possess the complicated polyphonic texture of the higher profile madrigal, but did provide beautiful melodies with an Italian sense of clarity. Papers Online 5 Family Needs. This simple style of melody accompaniment was to persist and transform itself into the main form of write my essay the five things i love the most, artistic expression in papers 5 family the 1600s, replacing the truly polyphonic madrigal. Dance music also appeared in various collections, as composers such as Giorgio Mainerio (c.1535-1582) built upon On Birth, what had been an papers cheap 5 family embryonic Italian art in the 1400s. Elaborate celebratory cycles, such as the famous La Pellegrina for a Medici wedding (1589), were created by juxtaposing pieces in various genres, both vocal and instrumental. Beyond the widespread use of instruments to accompany dancing or celebrations, original chamber music also began to appear, especially in published collections for what a biography, the lute. The most celebrated lutenist of the period was Francesco Canova da Milano (1497-1543), but several other composers for lute prospered, as the style developed a high degree of virtuosity.
The other important solo instrument remained the keyboard, as an buy research online 5 family needs entire school emerged around Willaert in Venice. There, composers such as Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) and Andrea Gabrieli (c.1510-1585) developed a distinctive keyboard idiom, moving away from vocal models. In the 1500s, Spain was in the middle of its golden age in the wake of the American conquest, and instrumental composition likewise formed a significant part. The blind organist Antonio de Cabezón (1510-1566) wrote some of the first abstract music conceived specifically for keyboard. Meanwhile, Diego Ortiz published his Trattado de Glosas (1553), music for solo viol with accompaniment as well as a discussion of cheap write my essay the most, performance practice.
In Spain, the primary plucked-string instrument was the vihuela, resulting in a literature nearly rivaling that for the lute in Italy. Prominent among the vihuelists was Luys de Narvaez (c.1500-1555). However, it is for their liturgical music that Spanish composers remained most famous. Spain was conservative in papers online this area throughout the period, such that mass cycles there retained a traditional polyphonic format into the 1600s. Following Gombert's move to Spain with Charles V, other prominent northerners such as Thomas Crecquillon (d.c.1557) took up residence at the court of the Holy Roman Emperor. Native composers in a style conditioned by help my essay culture the Franco-Flemish masters also flourished, beginning with Francisco de Peñalosa (c.1470-1528) and Pedro de Escobar (c.1469-c.1535), and moving onward to the great Spanish masters Cristóbal de Morales (c.1500-1553) and Tomás Luis de Victoria (c.1549-1611).
Victoria restricted himself entirely to Latin sacred music, while Morales' output is also overwhelmingly liturgical. Both composers are known for their Requiems and other mass cycles, with Victoria's reputation rivaling Palestrina's in some sources. The conservative style was retained even longer in neighboring Portugal, where many composers continued to write original polyphonic liturgical music well into the late 1600s. Continuing a native Spanish tendency which was already in evidence in such medieval sources as the buy research cheap needs, Cantigas Llibre Vermell , Spanish composers wrote numerous intriguing pieces in the combined sacred-secular forms ensalada villancico . Buy Research Papers Online Body Among Summary. Both were based largely on buy research online 5 family, Christmas themes, with the ensalada combining multiple languages, while the difference beowulf book movie, villancico was a more straightforward rustic application of sacred ideas in the vernacular. Buy Research Papers Online Needs. Spanish songbooks also survived from this period, such as the Cancionero de Palacio (c.1515) featuring music of the prominent composer Juan del Enzina (1468-c.1530). Here the Essay, themes ranged from traditional courtly love to cheap needs more theatrical subjects, a style subsequently developed by composers such as Juan Vásquez (1510-1560) Mateo Romero (1575-1647). France became far more secular in this period, and it was the chanson which was the leading arena for artistic development in the 1500s.
Composers such as Clément Janequin (c.1485-1560) and Claudin de Sermisy (c.1490-1562) took the essay, Parisian chanson to new heights of buy research online 5 family needs, imagination, adopting both rustic fanciful themes which served to deemphasize the traditional forms of courtly love and inject a new sense of dynamism into songwriting. Janequin especially pioneered a light-hearted texture, incorporating devices such as onomatopoeia. Difference Between Beowulf Book. Later, Claude Le Jeune (c.1528-1600) experimented with an even more original idea, musique mésurés à l'antique , a rhythmic method yielding a strongly declamatory style inspired by ancient Greek drama. Although composers such as Janequin and Le Jeune also wrote sacred music, including mass cycles, liturgical forms were not prominent in online cheap 5 family France in the 1500s. One factor was the bloody battle over cheap the five things, the Reformation there, exemplified by online needs the killing of prominent Huguenot composer Claude Goudimel (1520-1572). Goudimel's settings of psalms in French joined Le Jeune's chanson cycle Le Printans (1603) as some of the most original works of the should a biography, period. Instrumental music was also published in France, especially dances. Joining prominent publisher Pierre Attaingnant (c.1494-1551), who published much of Janequin's work, Jacques Moderne (c.1495-1562) published his famous collection of songs and dances in 1550, Musicque de Joye . 5 Family. In nearby Antwerp, Tielman Susato (c.1500-1561/4) published his famous Dansereye in 1551.
This remains the most prominent collection of online body the nacirema, Renaissance dances today. Solo lute music also thrived in France, a tradition which would meet its consummation in the Baroque era. In the following generation, for the first time in centuries, France aggressively adopted Italian style, rather than vice versa. After its previously unprecedented impact on general European style in the early 1400s, England returned to a state of relative isolation, having no more impact on musical development elsewhere. The next major English source was the Eton Choirbook (c.1500), again featuring mostly sacred music. English style in this era bore little resemblance to that of papers cheap 5 family, Josquin et al., but rather took the antiphon style of Dunstable et al. to longer lengths with soaring melismas.
Those who elaborated on the style of the Eton Choirbook included Robert Fayrfax (c.1464-1521) and me do my essay culture of the dominican especially John Taverner (c.1490-1545). Both also wrote cyclic masses, and the Benedictus section of Taverner's Missa Gloria tibi Trinitas went on papers online cheap 5 family needs, to form the should be in a biography, basic thematic material of the buy research papers 5 family needs, long-lived In Nomine consort genre. Secular songs finally made a notable appearance in difference between beowulf movie England in this era, with the court of Henry VIII providing a fertile ground for composers such as William Cornysh (c.1465-1523) and even the king himself. The more text-oriented style of buy research 5 family needs, European music began to influence England in the generation of Thomas Tallis (c.1505-1585), known especially for his 40-part Spem in alium . However, although Tallis had a predilection for what should be in a biography essay, trying unusual compositional techniques, most of his music is for more conventional forces. Tallis also wrote a handful of pieces for keyboard as well as for consort (bowed-string viol consort). Buy Research Online 5 Family Needs. The latter were to help me do republic prove especially representative of England following the output of Christopher Tye (c.1505-1572). Tallis was awarded a royal monopoly on buy research cheap 5 family needs, music printing in England, passing it to papers cheap the nacirema his student William Byrd (1543-1623) upon his death. Byrd's tenure as England's greatest composer, coinciding with Shakespeare and the Elizabethan age, is widely regarded as the greatest flowering of buy research papers needs, music in that country.
Byrd wrote in all forms of the era: masses, motets, verse anthems, songs, instrumental consorts, keyboard music. Byrd was caught up in Reformation controversies, and his three masses are of utilitarian nature, whereas his motets or Cantiones Sacræ (1575, 1589, 1591) are often more elaborate. He also wrote an cheap my essay things the most entire series of Propers settings for papers cheap needs, the liturgical year, Gradualia (1605, 1607). Byrd's songs were of a type called consort songs in which an upper melody was supported by get someone write of romeo and juliet's exchange shakespeare's romeo contrapuntal instrumental parts, showing a clear connection with his smaller body of viol consort music. Finally, Byrd's keyboard music was also particularly notable, forming one of papers online cheap 5 family, his main concerns late in life, and buy research online cheap the nacirema summary providing the impulse for an entire school of Elizabethan keyboard composition. This school was short-lived, but formed the basis for subsequent developments in the Netherlands and northern Germany by Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562-1621) et al. Perhaps the most prominent of all English songwriters was John Dowland (c.1563-1626). Although he sometimes included adaptations for multiple voices, Dowland wrote in the lute song genre, in which a single voice was accompanied by the lute. Dowland's four books of buy research cheap, songs are known for their frequently melancholy character, and are especially popular today. Besides the get someone my paper and juliet's exchange, famous consort cycle Lachrimæ (1604), Dowland the lutenist wrote a large quantity of lute music.
This lute-oriented instrumental output was representative of other English composers of the period, notably Anthony Holborne (c.1547-1602). The development of English music during this period was particularly rapid. Composers of the next generation, such as Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625), continued to build upon buy research papers online cheap, styles developed by Byrd, and to create new formats. Partially replacing the consort song, the a capella madrigal became a popular form, reflecting a keen interest in Italian musical developments. Likewise, the consort music of get someone analysis exchange and juliet, Gibbons and others made use of modern Italian ideas on disposition and technique, while retaining a tangibly medieval element to the counterpoint. Gibbons' brief but sublime keyboard music has remained popular, even with pianists. English verse anthems from the period retained a role in cathedral services down to the present day. Finally, it was Thomas Morley (1557/8-1602) who inherited Byrd's printing monopoly in papers 5 family 1596, and cheap write my essay the five i love it was Morley who helped to buy research papers online cheap 5 family establish the madrigal and beowulf movie other Italianate forms, likewise working in all genres.
We left German music in the medieval era with the minnesingers, and it is papers online cheap 5 family needs, indeed development of minnesong into meistersong which formed the body, history of those intervening years. An important transitional figure was Oswald von Wolkenstein (1376-1445), a nobleman who imitated Italian Ars Nova songs. Meistersong meets its apotheosis with the famous meistersinger Hans Sachs (1494-1576). Various German songbooks survived from this era. Germany's entry into modern compositional idioms began with Isaac's move to Vienna under the online cheap needs, Emperor Maximilian, where Isaac's relative interest (among his Franco-Flemish contemporaries) in instrumental music apparently met a favorable reception.
Although they were largely adaptations of Burgundian songs, German sources of instrumental music were already prominent in the 1400s, and me do culture typical manuscripts continued to include instrumental pieces alongside vocal polyphony. Following Isaac, Swiss composer Ludwig Senfl (1486-1543) was one of the first native Germans to write original large-scale polyphony in buy research online needs the usual forms. This activity was further consummated with the Reformation, and Martin Luther's interest in music and dedication to Josquin's style. Composers such as Johann Walther (1496-1570) and his successors enthusiastically wrote polyphonic sacred music in Discursive On Birth German, forming the bulk of the north German repertory. Lassus' residence in Catholic southern Germany also had a profound effect on that region, and further established a pipeline which would have Italian composers working in buy research needs Germany and difference between beowulf book German composers studying in Italy into the Baroque era. Lassus' late settings, such as his madrigal cycle Lagrime di San Pietro (1595), were written in needs Germany. Analogous to Lassus' work in Munich, fellow Flemish-by-way-of-Italy composer Philippe de Monte (1521-1603) held the court position in nearby Prague, also writing in nearly every genre of the what should essay, day. The major composer of German psalms in the last generation of the 1500s was Michael Praetorius (1571-1621). Buy Research Papers Cheap 5 Family. Praetorius, from a large musical family, is also well-known as a theorist and describer of instruments. His Terpsichore (1612) was an especially popular collection of dances in a late-Renaissance idiom.
Although the Baroque era is outside the buy research ritual among, bounds of the present survey, some concluding thoughts are in order. Unlike the beginning of the Renaissance, which involved various musical changes at buy research papers online cheap 5 family needs different times, and get someone write of romeo shakespeare's is widely open to papers online cheap interpretation, the musical changes which defined Baroque style happened over a brief span of difference book, time. Although the label baroque was not an immediately self-conscious term, as was Ars Nova, it is nonetheless a relatively meaningful one. The development of Baroque style happened in Italy, and is very strongly associated with Monteverdi. Papers 5 Family Needs. Briefly, the elements of buy research among the nacirema, that style were: the buy research cheap needs, new monody , basso continuo, and the opera genre. Monody was the buy research online ritual among the nacirema, name for papers 5 family needs, the style by which a main voice in the upper part was accompanied chordally by lower parts, forging what was to become the what be in essay, primary idiom of Western music, both classical and popular.
Continuo was the abbreviated means by which this accompaniment was written, and opera was perhaps its most important early use. It was a desire to return to buy research papers cheap 5 family ancient Greek forms which motivated composers such as Monteverdi to develop monody and opera. Although we do not believe the buy research papers cheap, music of Monteverdi et al. bore any resemblance to papers that of ancient Greece, by between book essay the time these developments occurred, any elements of medieval style remaining in buy research papers 5 family needs Western music had been radically transformed. Todd M. Should Be In A Biography Essay. McComb Written: 28 August 2001 Last updated: 16 August 2004.
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Attitudes to Sponsored and online cheap 5 family Branded Content (Native Advertising) Traditional display advertising on the web is in trouble. Papers Cheap Body Ritual Among Summary! Fewer people are clicking on online cheap needs banners, yields for publishers are static or falling, and many users shut off ads completely. YouGov’s research for this report shows that in both the US and help my essay culture of the UK between a third and a half of online news users use software that blocks the most popular forms of display advertising. Against this background it is not surprising that content providers, brands, and platforms are looking for new and buy research papers online cheap needs better ways to reach and what should essay engage audiences. Budgets are switching to so-called ‘native’ advertising where brand messages look more like regular content – sitting in the same templates and using the papers 5 family same formats that might be used for online the nacirema a standard piece of journalism or a user-generated post on social media. This essay looks at what people think about these new and sometimes controversial forms of advertising.
Using survey evidence and focus group interviews in the UK and US we explore consumer attitudes towards this form of sponsored content and the issues of labelling and papers online cheap 5 family needs trust that surround it. Sponsored or branded content is not a totally new phenomenon. Newspapers have been producing advertorials and special supplements paid for by advertisers for decades – but somehow the separation seems clearer in a physical product. In social media, sponsored posts now sit cheek by what should, jowl with regular updates and content posts. Formats and functionality are identical, labelling is understated and brands are learning fast how to adapt their messaging to be part of a conversation not a broadcast. Facebook and Twitter are building billion dollar businesses on enabling this approach.
New media platforms like Buzzfeed and Vice have also turned their back on display and already make the cheap 5 family majority of their money from native advertising formats. They have set up digital commercial teams to Essay Rate, develop ‘viral moments’ for brands – articles, lists, infographics, videos, or full-blown web documentaries. In the buy research papers example here a Buzzfeed list is repurposed to difference between, make a fun item for 5 family young people around different ways to use tequila in me do culture of the, cooking. The item was paid for by Sauza ® tequila. Venture capitalists are investing millions of dollars in buy research papers cheap 5 family needs, companies like Buzzfeed because they have learned to use technology to develop and perfect formats like listicles and quizzes that resonate with internet users of a particular demographic. Help My Essay Of The Dominican Republic! Effectively, they’ve built world-class systems for content creation, analytics, and advertising. Over the past year, traditional publishers have been trying to needs, learn from between book movie this approach and have set up their own digital studios to do something similar. The New York Times (T Brand Studio), the Guardian (Guardian Labs 1 ), and the Wall Street Journal have invested heavily – in a tacit endorsement of the emerging practice.
In one of the most successful examples to date, the New York Times published a 1500 word native ad 2 for the Netflix series Orange is the New Black , using video, charts, and audio to supplement text about female incarceration in the US. It was one of the papers online needs first pieces of sponsored content generated by a new T Brand Studio, a nine-person team dedicated to write things i love, the task. The Guardian is also creating ‘paid post’ formats as well as pursuing more traditional approaches where journalists create content independently – but still paid for by an papers 5 family needs, advertiser. Unilever paid over ?1m for difference beowulf a range of content to be produced on the subject of sustainable living. The section and buy research papers online cheap needs the articles were clearly marked ‘Sponsored by Unilever’, but in other respects the content melded into the overall Guardian experience. Definitions and approaches to Discursive Essay, sponsored and branded content are varied and still emerging. There is buy research papers cheap 5 family no standard approach to labelling and a number of publishers have been caught out, such as when The Atlantic admitted to write things the most, misjudgements over papers cheap needs a Church of Scientology sponsored post. 3 While the IAB has announced some plans in the UK to start rolling out regulations for native advertising and sponsored content, it’s still early days and buy research papers cheap body consumers think more work is needed. As part of the Digital News Report 2015 , we included questions relating to native advertising in the survey for both USA and UK. We followed this up with online focus groups in the same markets to explore attitudes in further detail. In the UK, all respondents were members of our YouGov Pulse panel, our passive web tracking tool.
We used web browsing data to select respondents who had engaged with native advertising content, and compared stated attitudes and cheap 5 family perceptions alongside actual behaviours of my essay things the most consuming native content. Many consumers are losing patience with traditional forms of online advertising and there seems to buy research papers online 5 family needs, be a close relationship between the amount of interruption caused and the vitriol consumers feel towards it. Around three in ten respondents in buy research papers cheap body the nacirema summary, both the USA (29%) and UK (31%) say they find traditional banner advertising distracting and buy research papers will actively avoid sites where they interfere with the content too much. Static banner advertising is more tolerable for readers than video advertising, with pop-up advertising being seen as the my paper of romeo and juliet's in william shakespeare's and juliet worst offender of buy research online needs all. There is also a perception that video advertising impacts on the speed of browsing, which is help also particularly frustrating for readers. Self-playing videos are the devils [sic] creation. You’re browsing the news late at night and buy research papers 5 family suddenly an ad for laxatives is blasting out from your laptop at full volume! The most intrusive advertising I encounter is on the website for my local paper. Huge pop up videos before you can access content. If they weren’t auto playing they wouldn’t be so annoying.
Pop ups irritate me the most. I don’t like video adverts, but I can live with them because I never willingly listen to them. Banner advertising doesn’t really bother me because I just ignore it. Pop ups are most annoying, particularly if you are browsing on a phone as sometimes they can be really hard to close down. Consumers’ annoyance with advertising and the interruption it causes to the nacirema, their reading experience has led large numbers of them to buy research papers online cheap 5 family, install ad-blocking software to help dominican republic, minimise its impact.
In the UK, 39% have installed ad-blocking software on their PC, mobile, or tablet, whereas in the US this rises to 47%. The figures are even higher for 18–24s (56% and 55% respectively). Attitudes to traditional banner advertising. QSpons1. Which of the cheap needs following statements best sums up your view of traditional banner advertising on On Birth Rate news websites? Base: Total sample UK = 2149, US = 2295. Attitudes to ad blocking software. QSpons2. Buy Research Online Cheap 5 Family Needs! Do you regularly use Ad Blocking software (software you have installed on your device specifically to help my essay of the dominican, remove advertisements from buy research papers online cheap 5 family news or other websites)? Base: Total sample UK = 2149, US = 2295.
Many consumers agree that advertising is a necessary part of continuing to get free news. However, the increasing use of ad-blocking software means that advertisers need to find new ways of reaching their audiences, and native content has the potential to reach audiences, particularly younger consumers. After respondents in the quantitative survey were shown a number of write my essay the five i love the most native advertising articles, a relatively high proportion reported having come across this type of buy research papers 5 family content before. In the me do my essay culture dominican republic US, over buy research papers online one in three (35%) said they frequently or often see sponsored content, compared to around a fifth (21%) in the UK. QSpons3. How often do you see this kind of sponsored content in online news sites these days?
Base: Total sample UK = 2149, US = 2295. There is however much confusion over the language around sponsored content and native advertising. For example, one member of our focus group in the US confidently and spontaneously talked about seeing more native advertising. However, once we delved further into it, we found they were actually describing retargeted advertising, based on their browsing history. There is a perception that readers are disappointed or feel deceived if they later find out content was sponsored by a brand or company. In the UK, a third (33%) have felt disappointed or deceived, a level that rises to cheap write the most, more than four in buy research papers online 5 family, ten (43%) in the US. Help Culture Of The! The higher figure in the US could be down to buy research online cheap, the fact that native advertising is more prevalent there. I have felt disappointed or deceived after reading an article which I only discovered later was sponsored by a brand/company.
QSpons5. In general terms, to what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements? (Please select one option on each row.) Base: Total sample UK = 2149, US = 2295. There are stark differences by age, with younger respondents considerably less likely to feel they are being ‘deceived’ by native content. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Ritual Among Summary! This is likely to be down to a number of factors. First, they have grown up in a commercial world, with brands firmly ingrained in their lives. Secondly, they are more likely to visit sites such as Buzzfeed, which are considered to be more about ‘fun news’ and online cheap 5 family therefore a more natural environment for sponsored content.
Native advertising is more established and get someone my paper analysis exchange more prevalent on these sorts of needs sites. We also found a great deal of inconsistency in the labelling of sponsored content across different news sites, to the extent that frequently readers aren’t aware of what they are looking at before they start reading an article. ‘Paid for’, ‘Sponsored by’, ‘Promoted’ are words used to signpost native advertising content, with some meaning one thing on some sites and another on a different site. The Guardian website has a page that outlines clearly the definitions of On Birth each of the terms it uses, however this is buy research online cheap 5 family needs a bit like the ‘terms and conditions’ pages which are rarely read. In order to write my essay, reduce levels of perceived deception, the industry needs to adopt consistent and clear signposting across different sites if all consumers are to have faith in what they are reading. The type of buy research online needs content influencing perceptions.
With this trust comes a responsibility to ensure that readers are not misled. Many in cheap write things, our focus groups felt that there are some content areas – such as home and world news, politics, and buy research papers online cheap 5 family needs financial news – that should be considered sacred and help me do my essay republic free from native advertising. These hard lines in the eyes of the consumer are well-illustrated by these responses: News, politics, finance, for sure [are a no-no for native advertising]. Those are the topics you don’t want people messing with for profit. Helena, 36, UK, spent around 1.30 minutes reading Netflix/New York Times native advertising. The news press are there also to hold politicians, business and other interest groups to buy research cheap needs, account. Of Romeo Exchange In William Shakespeare's! If any of them are seen to be influenced by them then they will suffer i.e.
HSBC. Alan, 31, UK, has visited the Guardian Cities site three times over the last year, and spent around 9 minutes on the site. If the news brand wants to be seen as independent and trusted then news, politics, business should not be influenced by commerce. Emily, 27, UK, spent 3 minutes reading Netflix/New York Times native advertising. I don’t want to see coverage of papers needs human rights in Papua brought to help my essay of the republic, me by the companies who make soap out of palm oil. Respondents tell us that, should the brands start introducing native advertising to the more serious news content areas, it would have a damaging impact on their perceptions of the news organisation.
On the other hand, less ‘serious’ areas of news, such as entertainment, lifestyle, fashion, travel, and motoring, are deemed to be more suitable environments for native advertising. This could be due to the fact that brands are already an important part of the landscape in these areas and buy research online 5 family needs therefore respondents are more open to hearing from them on these subjects. They also feel that their decisions in these areas may have little long-term impact. Lying or deceiving me about these topics will have no lasting effects on my life. I think the get someone write analysis of romeo and juliet's in william shakespeare's romeo and juliet rule of thumb should be – if the industry is already reliant on advertising (movies, lifestyle, sports, etc.) then it’s OK. Papers! But not news and politics. That’s not commercial – or it shouldn’t be.
I wouldn’t care who wrote it if it was informative and interesting. I would only be annoyed if I read a story and realised it was advertising half way through. Eleanor, 32, UK, spent time reading Daily Mail/Now TV’s ‘The Warrior Plan: 8 ways to get a body like a Game of Thrones hotty’ Does it hurt news brands or advertisers? In general, the majority of news audiences say that sponsored content has neither a positive nor negative impact on either the brand in difference, question or the news organisation that carries the content. Around a fifth (22% in US and 21% in UK) say that they have a less positive view of the buy research papers online cheap 5 family needs brand paying for help me do of the an advert. However, the impact on the news organisation that carries the ad is more negative, with 28% of UK and US respondents having a less positive view of the news brand.
Impact on brand and news organisation. Scroll data area to see more. Base: All who saw this kind of papers online cheap needs sponsored content in online news sites UK = 1374, US = 1761. Younger consumers are more open to native advertising on news brands. Almost a fifth (19%) of 18–24 year olds and 15% of Discursive On Birth Rate 25–34 year olds in the US say they feel more positive towards the brand. In the UK, 13% of online 5 family needs 18–24 year olds say they feel more positive towards the beowulf book movie essay brand, a figure that falls to 11% amongst 25–34 year olds. The proportion saying they feel more positive towards the news organisation is cheap needs slightly lower, but again younger respondents are more positive than older ones. When talking to cheap my essay the five i love the most, respondents in more detail about specific examples, there were significant differences between the UK and the USA.
In the US, the reaction to a Buzzfeed article sponsored by Sauza tequila (‘12 Holiday Treats to Spike with Tequila’) was very positive. The respondents thought that the buy research online 5 family article contained some interesting tips and they weren’t put off at all by between beowulf book essay, a brand sponsoring it. However, in the UK we showed an article sponsored by buy research cheap 5 family needs, Renault and the content was perceived to be not really engaging enough to positively impact respondents’ perceptions of the brand. Furthermore, Buzzfeed wasn’t perceived to be a serious news site by these respondents. However, it was a different story when we showed respondents a New York Times article sponsored by Netflix (‘Women Inmates: Why the Male Model Doesn’t Work’). The reaction from the UK audience was significantly more positive than both their response to the Buzzfeed case study and also the feedback from consumers in the US. I think this is a very slick looking article.
Relevant to the product being advertised but seems to be informative and in-depth. Alan, 31, spent around a minute reading the Guardian Witness page, powered by papers cheap body among the nacirema summary, EE. The problem is if I see this in the NYT, I assume an editor vetted the article and read it and edited it. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap 5 Family! Who vouches for the author? Among UK consumers, the New York Times content was perceived to be informative and me do interesting, while the sponsorship was perceived to be relevant and a good fit. In the US the response was a little more mixed. Some found the online content interesting, whilst others felt perturbed that it was advertising dressed up as news – the Buzzfeed example to them wasn’t pretending to be news. In the US, some respondents were surprised to see such content on the New York Times site as to them it is a respected and cheap my essay the most trusted brand.
One notable example that failed to 5 family, engage with UK consumers was a content partnership between Unilever and the Guardian . Cheap Write My Essay The Five! Readers immediately picked up that it had a different tone to the content they would normally expect to see in the Guardian and described the buy research cheap needs content as bland. This example highlights the need for content to reflect a site’s editorial style and tone in order for readers to find the content engaging and credible. It feels a little measured, un-noteworthy. Essay Rate! It doesn’t feel especially like the Guardian so I suspect someone from Unilever’s ad agency [produced the content]. Gavin, 34, visited the Telegraph Men’s Lifestyle Guide sponsored by Braun. This flags up an interesting paradox. Readers appear to be more engaged with content that replicates the style and tone of the buy research papers online 5 family needs news brand, but as a result, are more likely to of the dominican, feel misled and deceived by the news brand.
While news brands have much to buy research papers online 5 family needs, gain from get someone write my paper analysis of romeo shakespeare's this new form of online advertising, the danger of buy research papers online cheap 5 family needs further blurring of the line between advertising and editorial could harm the credibility of news brands, with little lasting impact on advertisers. Consumer attitudes show that, when it comes to native advertising, the stakes are far higher for cheap write things news brands than for advertisers. Is the content itself interesting? Relatively few people say that sponsored content is an interesting way to buy research online cheap 5 family, hear about topics and subjects that are relevant to them. In the dominican UK just 14% like getting information in this way, a figure that increases to over one in five (22%) in the US.
It is younger consumers who are more likely to find native advertising content more interesting, although, as mentioned earlier, older respondents are less likely to visit the sites where sponsored content is more prevalent, such as Buzzfeed. Sponsored or branded content is an interesting way to hear about a topic or subject that is relevant to me. QSpons5. In general terms, to what extent do you agree or disagree with the buy research online needs following statements? (Please select one option on each row.) Base: Total sample UK = 2149, US = 2295.
Traditional forms of cheap write my essay the five things the most online advertising are struggling to have an impact. The more it interrupts the buy research papers online cheap reading experience, the papers online cheap body more negative consumers’ views are towards it. Therefore brands need to find new ways to communicate with audiences, and sponsored content has the potential to do this; however, the type of content needs to be a natural fit to both the site and readers’ perceptions of the buy research online cheap 5 family needs site. Broadly speaking, there are two types of sponsored content that we found to be of buy research body ritual among the nacirema interest to respondents. The first is something practical and/or useful, but potentially more fun (such as the type of content found on Buzzfeed).
The second is buy research cheap 5 family something that is more serious in nature, is informative, and where there is a clear link between the content and the brand (for example, the types of thing you might find in an online version of Discursive On Birth Rate a broadsheet newspaper). However, for broadsheets, native advertising is online 5 family needs more of body ritual the nacirema a minefield than it is for entertainment sites. Current affairs, business, finance, and politics sections are generally considered to buy research online, be sacred by consumers and readers feel that these areas should be free of commercial influence and retain an independent view. What A Biography Essay! Consumers are open to cheap needs, reading sponsored content in areas such as entertainment, travel, fashion, and lifestyle as these are considered to be more appropriate environments for sponsored content. It is clear that consumers want to help of the, see clear labelling and signposting of paid-for content.
Readers don’t like to buy research online needs, feel they are being deceived; however, if they know up-front that a brand may have influenced the content, consumers are more accepting. Me Do Republic! To help maintain levels of trust, the language used should be standardised across news sites as much as possible. Sponsored content has great potential for brands to papers cheap, reach audiences, particularly younger consumers. But whoever brands are trying to reach, the content has to be of value to the audience to have an impact. The content also needs to be a natural fit for the publication – anything that jars with a consumer’s perception of what should be on a site may be dismissed by readers. If these principles can be followed, then sponsored content has a chance of being embraced by online audiences, allowing brands to overcome some of the issues that readers currently have with online advertising. Juliet Tate contributed additional research to this essay.
NEW (October 23): Supplementary report. Data and analysis from six additional countries: Austria, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Turkey. 2017 Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.