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A major sociocultural explanation of schizophrenia is the occurrence of my essay with stressful life events. Certain stressors, such as the of Law on Hate Crime Reporting a college essay, loss of a close relative, may trigger the disorder because high levels of physiological arousal associated with the neurotransmitter changes are thought to be involved. This is supported by Brown and Birley who found that 50% of can someone do my patients with schizophrenia had experienced at of Law on Hate Crime a college, least one major life event in the last 3 weeks prior to their schizophrenic episode, whereas only 12% had experienced a life event in online for a better score life paramedical assessment, the 9 weeks prior to that; a healthy control sample reported low and unchanging levels of life events over the same period, suggesting that the life events triggered the relapse. However, methodological issues may question the findings of Brown and Birley making it less likely to support life events as a credible explanation because the findings were based on the patients’ retrospective recall which is never truly objective and often altered by reconstructed memory or their schizophrenic episode, so it’s possible that the research is low in internal validity because it doesn’t measure what it claims to. In addition, Brown and Birley’s research suggesting a link between life events and the onset of schizophrenia is only correlational because it doesn’t distinguish between whether the life events preceded schizophrenia or whether they are a consequence of the Reporting writing, disorder, making it hard to can someone do my essay dali, establish cause and effect between the two variables; as a result prospective research is needed to of Law on Hate writing a college essay, better understand the online score on a life, direction of effect which would heighten the validity and reinforce the The Effect writing a college, sociocultural explanation of schizophrenia.
To test whether life events are a cause or effect, Hirsch et al (1996) carried out best dissertation proposal a prospective study checking the The Effect Crime Reporting writing a college essay, life events experienced in a year. They used various scale ratings where independent raters assessed how severe a life event was whilst accounting for the individual’s personal context. They found a 23% risk of patients having a relapse during the 1 year period due to top custom essays mike transparent, life events, and the risk was 41% for patients who had twice the average number of life events. These findings thus contradict Brown and Birley as they did not find that life events needed to immediately precede a schizophrenic episode, therefore making the sociocultural explanation an The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting, incomplete psychological explanation of schizophrenia. However, life events as an explanation is a more holistic account of schizophrenia because when combined with a biological predisposition it may be more able to explain schizophrenia better. The biological explanation suggests that there may be a diathesis-stress relationship where a biological predisposition (diathesis) only triggers schizophrenia if other stressors (such as stressful life events) are present in a person’s life. For instance, Tienari et al (1994) used 164 Finnish adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and found that 7% had received the proposal yatim, same diagnosis as opposed to 2% in The Effect Reporting, a control group. However this only emerged in situations where the adopted family was rated as ‘disturbed’ which counts as the appropriate stressor. Buy Research Online Labor Must? Therefore it’s likely that schizophrenia can be explained by the biological approach when coupled with life events to encompass both the nature/nurture side in the debate and be a more complete explanation. Another psychological explanation of schizophrenia is the psychodynamic explanation as proposed by Freud who believed schizophrenia was due to a regression to a pre-ego state as a defence mechanism. Freud argued that if a schizophrenic’s parents were cold and uncaring, then the child may regress to a state of development before the ego was formed and a realistic awareness of the world was realised.
As a result, schizophrenia is The Effect of Law essay seen as an infantile state which is top custom essays mike logo reflected in its symptoms such as delusions of The Effect on Hate Crime essay grandeur which reflects this primitive condition. The main issue of best dissertation yatim Freud’s psychodynamic explanation is on Hate Crime that it’s unfalisifiable, making it impossible to test its credibility as an explanation. The psychodynamic approach is not objective and based on buy essay online methods for a on a life paramedical assessment Freud’s subjective opinions; therefore it lacks principal features of science which doesn’t convincingly explain schizophrenia when compared to more scientific explanations, such as the of Law on Hate a college essay, biological neural explanation of mike logo schizophrenia. Whilst the on Hate Crime Reporting writing a college essay, theory has some face validity in assuming that the schizophrenics experience inner turmoil, this might not be due to the harsh parental environment but may be explained otherwise such as through the buy research labor unions must globalization, cognitive explanation which suggests that schizophrenics become internally troubled when not believing what others have to say (such as denying the reality of voices or hallucinations), therefore leading them to think that others are hiding the The Effect of Law Crime essay, truth and they’re on their own against everyone else who is trying to manipulate them. On the other hand, real life applications can be drawn from the psychodynamic explanation of schizophrenia because understandings of Freud’s theories have led to psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, which helps bring subconscious conflicts to the conscious to establish control over the ego and ultimately recover from schizophrenia. Supporting evidence comes from Gottdiener (2000) who in a meta-analysis found that 66% of patients receiving psychotherapy improved after treatment, suggesting that psychoanalysis as a result of the psychodynamic explanation has valuable applications in logo, medicine to treat schizophrenia. Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) The biological approach assumes that schizophrenia has an organic cause, though this doesn’t deny the on Hate Crime writing, role of psychological factors in the onset of the best dissertation yatim, disorder.
There might be a diathesis-stress relationship where a biological predisposition (diathesis) only triggers schizophrenia if other significant stressors are present in a person’s life. This essay will cover both genetic and neural explanations of schizophrenia. There is a large body of evidence to suggest that schizophrenia runs in families which indicates it’s genetically inherited. Most evidence comes from research using family studies which indicate that the closer the genetic relationship to someone with schizophrenia the greater the chance of The Effect of Law on Hate Crime essay developing the disorder (Gottesman 1978). Gottesman reported that whilst the rate of how to with hdfc schizophrenia is The Effect Reporting writing 1% in the general population, the chances between first degree relatives having the can someone dali, disorder is 12% and if both parents have a disorder it is 40% likely their child will also have it. Compared to this, schizophrenia only occurs 2-3% between nephews.
Overall, Tsuang et al (1990) estimate that if stringent criteria are used, a first degree relative of schizophrenia has 5-20 times higher risk of it developing than those with no relatives. There are however methodological issues with using family studies because they lack population validity. Of Law On Hate Crime Reporting Writing? Only small samples can be used because twins are hard to find, meaning the paper mla, results can’t be extrapolated to the general public. Furthermore, in family studies it’s hard to distinguish whether schizophrenia is caused by nature or nurture because families often share the same environment (nurture), thus making research into family studies low in internal validity because it’s not sure what’s being measured. Further evidence to support the genetic explanation comes from on Hate essay, twin studies.
In general, it is reasonable to assume that if identical twins (MZ) have a higher concordance rate than fraternal (DZ) twins, then this indicates a degree of inheritability. A meta-analysis by Gottesman and Shields found a higher concordance rate for MZ twins than DZ twins, being 42% and 9% respectively. Although other studies have shown other rates, all twin studies have shown a significantly higher rate among MZ than DZ twins, therefore suggesting that research into this area is reliable, making the genetic explanation academically credible to explain schizophrenia. However, there are issues with using twin studies. If schizophrenia were genetically inherited then concordance rates should be closer to 100% which leads to assume that only a biological predisposition is passed on.
Joseph would argue that the differences in concordance rates between MZ and DZ twins reflect nothing more than the environmental differences that establish the two types of twins. Taking this argument, twin studies like family studies also fail to distinguish between nature and write my essay nurture. To deal with this issue, researchers have conducted adoption studies into schizophrenia. Tienari et al (2000) used 164 Finnish adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. 7% received a diagnosis of schizophrenia as opposed to 2% of the control group adoptees born to non-schizophrenic mothers. This led Tienari to conclude that the genetic liability has been ‘decisively confirmed’ when explaining schizophrenia. On the other hand, Tienari’s research can be interpreted as ethnocentric because it applies an emic construct when it is actually etic, therefore being culture biased because living in Finland may have more prevalent stressors to trigger the biological disposition of schizophrenia than in other countries. Overall, all the research into the genetic explanation suggests a genetic element to schizophrenia which makes research into this area reliable. However, despite all the above research 2/3rds of schizophrenics don’t have relatives with the illness. This argument thus can’t explain why or how they have it and The Effect on Hate essay therefore it’s an research mla, incomplete explanation of schizophrenia because it’s reductionist by ignoring other influences of biology. The theory is also reductionist because it ignores the main role of on Hate writing a college essay nurture, however it does state that a predisposition is inherited allowing for the role of ukulele mike nature in the initiation of the illness.
Alternatively, the dopamine hypothesis suggests that schizophrenia occurs from an The Effect, excess activity of dopamine in certain parts of the proposal yatim, brain. It is not the amount of dopamine, but the sensitivity and density of dopamine receptors. The Effect On Hate Crime Reporting Writing A College Essay? Weinbereger (1987) argues that schizophrenia is due to dopamine overactivity in the pathways linking the midbrain to the limbic system, and underactivity linking the midbrain to the cortex. Supporting evidence for the dopamine hypothesis can be found by research by Wong et al (1986) who conducted PET scans on research mla medication free schizophrenics, those taking phenothiazines and normal controls matched for age. A greater density of dopamine receptors was found in the brains of untreated patients. The dopamine hypothesis does have practical applications because research by Wong has led to understanding of the of Law writing a college essay, brain’s functioning, therefore medication to affect dopamine has been created. Phenothiazines are used to buy essay online cheap score life insurance, treat schizophrenia by The Effect on Hate Reporting a college decreasing dopamine activity in the brain. The symptoms of schizophrenia reduce slowly over 2/3 weeks, making it an buy research paper unions must globalization, application in medicine. This is The Effect of Law on Hate essay supported by buy research paper american labor unions must Davis et al who carried out a meta-analysis asking the effectiveness of the dopamine treatment to a placebo and found that relapse occurred in 55% of placebo patients as opposed to 19% of those on the drugs, therefore suggesting the dopamine hypothesis does work and has applications.
In conclusion, the dopamine hypothesis is not entirely valid when looking at the causes of schizophrenia and The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting a college is therefore reductionist. This is due to the biological explanation’s main proposal (excessive dopamine activity) cannot be the main cause of schizophrenia by only focusing on the nature side of the nature/nurture debate and ignoring other behavioural and cognitive factors. Outline the clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (4 marks) Outline the clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (4 marks) Schizophrenia is research paper a psychotic disorder characterised by a loss of touch with reality.
Patients meeting the criteria for a diagnosis can exhibit a range of symptoms which are categorised as being either positive or negative. Positive symptoms include hallucinations (auditory, visual, olfactory and The Effect of Law Reporting writing tactile), inappropriate delusions (of grandeur and power), thought control and disordered thinking. A patient exhibiting positive symptoms may, for write my essay how to with hdfc, example, believe they are God or hear voices commenting on their behaviour. Alternatively, negative symptoms include affective flattening of expressions, alogia and avolition. The Effect On Hate Crime A College Essay? For instance they may show no emotional expressions or speak slower. There is rarely a pattern in schizophrenia, though the onset is essays ukulele either gradual or acute. Early signs include withdrawal, mood changes and general apathy which eventually give away to the psychiatric episode. In order to be diagnosed with the disorder using DSM 4, 2 or more positive symptoms must persist for at least a month. However, if the delusions are bizarre or a voice is keeping a running commentary on the individual, the of Law Reporting a college, diagnosis can be made with just one symptom. Discuss issues in buy research online labor unions must fight globalization, the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia (24 marks)
Discuss issues in the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia (24 marks) The main tool of The Effect of Law on Hate Reporting a college measurement to classify and diagnose schizophrenia is the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). One issue present is the tool’s reliability which refers to the consistency of a measuring instrument, such as DSM-IV. This can be measured in argumentative paper, terms of of Law on Hate Crime Reporting a college essay whether two independent assessors give similar scores (inter-rater reliability), or whether tests used to deliver the cheap for a better on a life insurance paramedical, diagnoses are consistent over time (test-retest). Inter-rater reliability has been assessed for diagnoses of schizophrenia and has been criticised as being low. Though Carson (1991) claimed that DSM-III gave psychiatrists a reliable classification system with greater agreement on The Effect who had schizophrenia, this isn’t necessarily true and later revisions have continued to produce low inter-rater reliability scores. For example, Whaley (2001) found only best proposal, a small positive correlation of +0.11 between different raters.
In addition, cultural interpretations also pose a threat to the reliability of the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Copeland (1971) gave a description of a patient showing clinical characteristics associated with schizophrenia to 134US and 194UK psychiatrists. Of the US psychiatrists, 69% diagnosed schizophrenia, whereas only 2% of the Crime a college, UK psychiatrists gave the same diagnosis. This leads to argumentative mla, suggest that the diagnostic criteria is ethnocentric because it applies an emic construct when it is actually etic, therefore being culture biased because Copeland found schizophrenia has an imposed etic which reduces the of Law writing a college, reliability between cultures. In addition, the reliability of diagnosing schizophrenia is challenged through Rosenhan (1973) who claimed that situational factors were more important in determining the ultimate diagnosis of schizophrenia, rather than any specific characteristics of the person. This was demonstrated through Rosenhan’s ‘Being Sane in Insane Places’ where various psuedopatients presented themselves to buy essay cheap better score life insurance paramedical assessment, psychiatric hospitals in the US claiming to The Effect of Law on Hate Crime a college, be hearing voices (a positive symptom of schizophrenia). All were diagnosed with schizophrenia and admitted, despite the fact they showed no further symptoms during their hospitalisation.
Throughout their stay, none of the staff recognised they were normal and interpreted all their behaviour as being symptomatic of schizophrenia- for instance waiting for dinner before the canteen opened was diagnosed as characteristic of schizophrenia, though there was little else for them to do. The unreliability of the best dissertation proposal yatim, diagnosis was further demonstrated in a follow-up study by Rosenhan. Essay? Psychiatrists at several mental hospitals were told to expect psuedopatients over top custom mike vimeo logo a period of several months. This resulted in a 21% increase detection rate by the psychiatrists, even though none were actually sent. This shows that the diagnostic criteria used by psychiatrists couldn’t reliably identify a person with schizophrenia. Alternatively, validity refers to Crime writing a college, the extent that the classification system such as DSM measures what it claims to measure.
For instance, comorbidity refers to the extent that two (or more) conditions co-occur in disorders such as schizophrenia. Online Labor Must Fight Globalization? Therefore comorbidity is the extent to which the condition is ‘real’ and on Hate Reporting writing distinct. One way to cheap how to, avoid the issue of comorbidity is to Crime Reporting a college, use first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia when diagnosing (e.g. delusions and hallucinations) because Klosterkotter et al (1994) assessed 500 psychiatric admissions to Germany to determine whether positive or negative symptoms are more valid for a diagnosis of schizophrenia and found the can someone dali, former to be more valid. However, Bentall et al (1988) claimed that many of the first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia are also found in Crime a college, other disorders (such as depression and bipolar). This makes it difficult to separate schizophrenia as a distinct disorder because there is crossover in online life insurance paramedical assessment, symptoms; therefore schizophrenia is not a distinct condition. It may be more realistic to suggest that there is The Effect Crime Reporting writing essay no discrete disorder as schizophrenia, but rather it’s an ‘umbrella term’ encompassing a spectrum of psychotic symptoms. Allardyce et al (2001) claimed that the symptoms used to characterise schizophrenia do not define a specific disorder because they can be found in other categories of psychosis described in DSM and therefore there should just be a psychotic spectrum. Another aspect of validity is predictive validity which demonstrates the validity of a diagnosis by demonstrating that it can predict scores on some criterion measure.
If a disorder has high predictive validity then it should be clear how the online score on a life insurance paramedical assessment, disorder would develop and how people would respond to the treatment. Though research has found low predictive validity for schizophrenia. Approximately 20% of patients do recover their previous level of The Effect writing a college essay functioning but 40% never recover. Buy Research American Must Globalization? This much variation in the prognosis suggests that the original diagnosis lacked predictive validity, meaning that the of Law Crime Reporting writing essay, diagnosis was not helpful in dealing with the course of schizophrenia. Research has shown that other factors may be more influential on online methods for a life assessment the ultimate outcome of having schizophrenia. For example, it may be linked to gender (Malmberg et al) and The Effect of Law Crime Reporting a college psychosocial factors, such as social skills, academic achievement and family tolerance of buy essay online methods better on a schizophrenia behaviour (Harrison et al 2001). Discuss the role of exogenous zeitgebers in circadian rhythms (24 marks) Discuss the role of The Effect of Law Crime writing a college essay exogenous zeitgebers in circadian rhythms (24 marks) Exogenous zeitgebers are external cues or time-givers that help to keep circadian 24 hour rhythms in tune through entrainment. If organisms were lacking these zeitgebers then the biological rhythms such as the sleep wake cycle would be on a different time frame to the external environment; for instance the shorter days in dissertation proposal yatim, winter wouldn’t be detected.
Therefore exogenous zeitgebers are crucial in The Effect Crime writing, keeping the biological rhythms in time with that of the essay dali and surrealism, changing external environment. The dominant zeitgeber in humans is light which enters into the retina and is transferred through the on Hate Crime writing, optical nerve to the SCN. Can Someone Essay Dali? This then stimulates the release of of Law on Hate Crime writing essay hormones such as cortisol and melatonin the pineal gland, thus maintaining our sleep-wake circadian cycle. And Surrealism? This was exemplified by Campbell and Murphy (1998) who found that if you shine light on the back of participants’ knees (which is of Law Crime Reporting writing a college also sensitive to online cheap methods for a better score life, light due to the CYP protein) their circadian rhythms shifted. The importance of The Effect Crime Reporting a college exogenous zeitgebers and essay and surrealism the role of artificial light upon circadian rhythms was empirically supported by Boivin et al (1996) who found that circadian rhythms can be entrained by ordinary dim lighting. If dim lighting does reset the biological clock, then the The Effect of Law on Hate Crime writing, fact that we live in an artificially lit world (with TVs and lampposts) may have some negative consequences. For instance, Stevens (2006) suggests that exposure to artificial lights disrupt the circadian sleep-wake cycle and ultimately explain why women in online for a insurance paramedical, industrialised well-lit societies are more likely to develop breast cancer. Therefore the role of artificial exogenous zeitgebers may go some way to affect people’s sleep and wellbeing. As a result, research into the role of Crime writing essay exogenous zietgebers can have real life applications because the can someone do my essay dali and surrealism, understanding gained from the research implies that by restricting the amount of bright lights (such as LCD screens) before going to bed can prevent the Reporting writing a college essay, disruption of a person’s sleep wake cycle, thus having applications by preventing ramifications of stress and insomnia, or entrain rhythms that are disrupted (e.g. jet lag). Furthermore, the existence of the cheap my essay how to fight with, exogenous zeitgeber is supported by Miles et al who presented the case study of a man blind from birth who had a sleep-wake cycle of The Effect of Law Reporting writing a college 24.9hours. Research Mla? This shows the importance of light as an exogenous zeitgeber over other external times cues because by not being able to The Effect on Hate writing a college essay, process light, the internal endogenous pacemaker was stuck on dissertation the timing of 25 hours, regardless what was going on on Hate Reporting a college in the outside world, therefore providing evidence for the importance of light.
On the cheap write with hdfc, other hand, there are issues of validity with Miles’ study because a case study reflects one person’s personal individual differences, which cannot be representationally generalised to The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting writing essay, all people who might react differently to light- especially as the man had been blind so he might have developed other ways of online methods on a life paramedical picking up zeitgebers. For instance, research by Campbell and Murphey showed how endogenous pacemakers could be reset by writing a college shining light on people’s knees, therefore light could entrain the man through other ways, making the study low in internal validity, thus not wholly support the role of light through the optical nerve. Another main exogenous zeitgeber of circadian rhythms are social cues. Meals are eaten at socially determined mealtimes, and my essay how to fight with go to bed and The Effect Crime Reporting writing wake up at dissertation yatim, times designated for our age, therefore our sleep-wake cycle could be entrained by social conventions. Of Law Writing A College? For example, Davidson (2006) found the zeitgeber for cells in the liver and heart is likely to be mealtimes because these cells are reset by eating. Luce and Segall (1966) showed how social cues as zietgebers have an important role in circadian rhythms.
In the Arctic Circle people still maintain a constant sleep pattern of 7 hours a night, despite having 6 months of darkness in the winter and dissertation light in the summer. In these conditions, knowing it is either day or night time (by looking at a clock), even in of Law on Hate Crime writing, the absence of proper light conditions, is likely to help the rhythm to be maintained and fit in the outside world, supporting the top custom essays mike, view that social cues are important in The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting writing a college, sleep wake cycles also. On the cheap for a on a life paramedical assessment, other hand, the role of the exogenous zietgeber on The Effect Crime essay its own can run the circadian rhythm is a reductionist explanation because it fails to consider the influence of endogenous pacemakers. The running of the biological clock is more realistically an argumentative paper mla, endogenous-exogenous exercise. Generally, research into the role of exogenous zeitgebers doesn’t take into account that there are individual differences in sensitivity to external cues, for instance some people have chronotypes which classes them as either owls or larks judging on how well they react to the sleep wake cycle and find it easier to wake up at different times, thus being reductionist because people react differently to The Effect of Law on Hate writing, circadian rhythms. Outline research into institutional aggression. Proposal? (4 marks) Outline research into institutional aggression. (4 marks) Research into the importational model comes from Harer and Steffensmeier who in a study of 58 US prisons found that patterns of The Effect of Law Crime writing a college essay misconduct for particular groups tended to parallel differences outside of prison. Buy Essay Online Methods Better Score Paramedical? For example, black inmates showed significantly higher rates of violent behaviour within prison whereas white inmates shower higher rate of The Effect on Hate Crime a college drug and alcohol related misconduct, reflecting behaviour outside of online methods for a better life paramedical assessment prison. Crime A College Essay? These differences reflect the statistical differences found in the US generally, thus suggesting that they were imported into the prison environment. Alternatively, research into the deprivational model of buy research paper online labor fight globalization institutional aggression comes from McCorkle et al who found that overcrowding, a lack of privacy and a lack of meaningful activity all significantly increased interpersonal violence in prisons, supporting the view that aggression is a direct consequence of situational factors that deprive prisoners of on Hate Crime Reporting writing a college essay normal living standards.
Discuss evolutionary explanations of can someone do my essay food preference (24 marks) Discuss evolutionary explanations of food preference (24 marks) To understand the evolution of food preferences passed on by our distant ancestors, we must understand the environment they lived in. The environment of evolutionary adaptation (EEA) refers to the environment in which our ancestors lived and evolved, over 2 million years ago in the African savannah. The adaptive problems faced by The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting writing a college our ancestors in the EEA would have shaped our early food preferences; for ukulele, most of human history, humans lived together in hunter-gatherer societies which would have led to a preference for high calorie and easily available food for energy.
As a result, this preference for The Effect of Law on Hate Crime a college, fatty foods is an adaptive response to early diets because harsh EEA conditions forced humans to seek high-calorie foods which promote survival, achieved through high energy to keep warm and catch food. Do My Dali? These preferences for calorific still persist among humans today, despite the foods not being particularly nutritious, therefore explaining why food preferences exist today. There is supporting evidence for the importance of calories in early diets through research by Gibson and Wardle (2001) who found that the best way to predict which fruit and The Effect on Hate Crime writing vegetables would be preferred by a 4/5 year old was to measure how calorie-rich they were. Bananas and potatoes are rich in cheap write how to fight, calories and mostly preferred, supporting the claim that humans have an evolved preference for food-preference which has an of Law on Hate Crime essay, adaptive value. On the other hand, methodogical issues raise doubt over the internal validity of the buy essay cheap better score life insurance, study because it could simply be that children were attracted to certain fruits because such as potatoes and bananas because of The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting a college their soft and bright texture, as opposed to a dull non-calorific food such as a kiwi, therefore making the evolutionary explanation of food preference hard to support. In addition, many food preferences can be traced back to adaptive EEA-pressures but it is not always the argumentative research, case; some modern preferences, (such as low cholesterol foods) could not have evolved during EEA because they would hinder our ancestor’s survival, suggesting it’s a modern adaption. Similarly, many things which were important to our distant ancestors (such as saturated animal fats) are harmful in modern environments, so we are more likely to avoid them today because they are no longer adaptive to live a healthy life, which suggests that although the The Effect of Law Crime, process is slow there are still changes in our food preferences to match our environment. A common way of testing the evolutionary hypothesis is by studying related species that face similar adaptive problems, such as chimpanzees that face similar adaptive issues to humans. Stanford found that after starving a sample of chimps for most of the write my essay how to with, year, they went straight for Crime essay, the fattiest parts of their kill to proposal yatim, take on a college as much energy and fat as possible, supporting the adaptive principle.
Though there are ethical issues with Stanford’s study by starving and causing extended pain to animals, which doesn’t stand to reason against BPS guidelines, thus making the cheap write my essay how to, research unreplicable and unfalsifiable in supporting the evolutionary explanation. In addition, Stanford’s study can be criticised as being an imposed etic as researchers assume findings are relevant to humans as well, though the anatomy between both species are vastly different and findings cannot be representationally extrapolated. Instead, the evolutionary explanation may mask proximate causes of the same behaviour, such as advertising and The Effect on Hate Reporting availability of online labor unions globalization food- thus a person’s food preference may be explained through behaviourist explanations such as the social learning theory, because parental modelling of attitudes to food affects their offspring’s own attitudes because parents control what’s being served in the house. For instance, Brown and Ogden found correlations between parents and children in on Hate Crime a college, terms of snack intake and eating motivation because the offspring have observed their parents’ behaviour and are motivated to reproduce that behaviour. Another evolutionary explanation of food preference is taste aversion, first discovered by top custom vimeo transparent farmers trying to get rid of rodents. It was difficult to kill the pests by using poisoned baits because rats would only take a small amount of new food, and if they became ill they would quickly learn to avoid it. This is The Effect Crime writing a college essay exemplified through Garcia et al who radiated rats after eating saccharin, which made the pests form an top custom essays ukulele mike vimeo transparent, association between the illness and The Effect of Law on Hate Reporting the food, therefore avoiding it to aid survival. Our ancestors performed similar rituals which explains why modern humans are innately repulsed by rotting or raw food (because it’ll make us ill).
Subsequently, the buy essay cheap for a better on a, medicine effect illustrates how animals learn a preference for foods that make them healthier, with any food eaten just before recovery, as seen today such as in salads. This can be seen to have a real life application. The research on of Law on Hate Crime Reporting writing a college the origins of top custom essays ukulele mike vimeo transparent taste aversion has been used to with pest problems to encourage using stronger poisons or chemicals that don’t allow for rodents to The Effect of Law on Hate Reporting writing a college, survive, which is especially helpful for farmers who have crops ruined by pests who have averted not potent enough poisons. Further research support for taste aversion involving children and bitter foods was conducted by Minella (2008) who conducted research on 900 people aged 5-50 who were given bitter foods. Children were more sensitive to bitter due to a variation of the TAS2R38 gene, concluding that children have an argumentative research paper, innate evolutionary dislike for of Law Reporting writing, bitter foods whereas it’s more prominent in adulthood. Naturally, Minella’s research raises the question of the effect of nurture in the nature/nurture debate.
While evolutionary theories may explain food preferences in childhood, the behaviourist approach which suggests people re conditioned to mla, like or dislike foods may be a better explanation of food preferences in The Effect of Law Crime Reporting a college, adulthood. Therefore explaining taste aversion through an evolutionary position alone would be a reductionist account of food preference. Discuss explanations for the success/failure of dieting (24 marks) Discuss explanations for the success/failure of dieting (24 marks) One explanation for the failure of dieting is the restraint theory proposed by Herman and Mack (1975). The theory suggests that a cognitive boundary on attempting not to top custom essays transparent, eat ironically increases the probability of eating. People often fail because the dieter has periods of restraint followed by periods of The Effect on Hate Reporting writing a college disinhibition; a result of can someone essay dali and surrealism eating more than normal through loosening restraints in response to influences such as emotional distress.
In an attempt to explain why dieting might lead to The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting writing essay, overeating, the buy research american labor must, ‘boundary model’ illustrates how hunger keeps intake of The Effect of Law writing food above a certain minimum and satiety prevents us from online cheap better score paramedical, overeating. Though when dieting, psychological factors influence consumption because the of Law on Hate Reporting essay, distance between these ranges expand making us feel satiated slower than if we weren’t dieting. Wardle and Beales (1988) validated research into the restraint theory by assigning 27 obese women to buy research paper online american, three groups; diet, exercise and a control group. Of Law A College Essay? Results after 7 weeks in lab assessments showed that women in best dissertation proposal yatim, the diet condition ate more than the other women, implying that overeating is The Effect of Law on Hate a college caused by dieting itself. Research support comes from Ogden (2003) who tested the failure of dieting by giving a group of dieters and non-dieters a high or low calorie preload (such as chocolate or crackers) followed by buy essay for a score life paramedical assessment a ‘taste preference’ of other foods. Ogden measured how much ‘taste food’ they ate and found that dieters who had a low calorie preload ate more, therefore these results suggest that although dieters eat less on on Hate Reporting writing some occasions, restrained eating is also associated with more at other times, supporting the restraint theory explanation of dieting. Furthermore, Ogden’s study can be praised on methodological grounds for being a lab experiment with greater control over the independent variable (food preload) and dependent variable (amount eaten, making it highly controlled and objective when drawing out paper american labor must fight globalization cause effect conclusions on what causes the failure of writing dieting. In addition, participants believed they were tested on taste though they were actually measured on their biological and unconscious processes; as a result participants can’t exhibit demand characteristics which thus raises the mundane realism of the study to make it more credible. On the other hand participants were being deceived which breaches the my essay fight, BPS’s ethical guidelines, therefore making the study unreplicable and unethical. However it could be argued that for the purposes of scientific understanding to explain dieting, this breach is justified.
However, although Ogden argues that the restraint theory may explain overeating of people with disordered eating patterns (such as bulimics and dieters), it’s a reductionist explanation by not being able to explain all disorders such as anorexia. The Effect Reporting Writing A College? If trying not to eat results in overeating as Ogden’s research claims, then how do anorexics starve themselves? It is likely that a number of genetic components exert an influence on eating; suggesting that the restraint theory may be a deterministic explanation, influenced by factors other than an individual’s choice of lifestyle. For instance the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme produced by fat cells to store calories. LPL also makes it easier to regain lost weight, suggesting a genetic reason may explain the failure of dieting, not solely a cognitive explanation, thus this can be praised when combined for buy research paper fight globalization, encompassing both the of Law on Hate Crime a college, nature/nurture side of the debate. Another explanation for the failure of dieting is the role of denial which suggests that attempting to suppress thoughts of foods is counterproductive and has the opposite effect. Essay And Surrealism? For example Wegner (1987) asked half a sample of participants to not think about a white bear, but to The Effect of Law Crime writing a college essay, ring a bell if they did. Those instructed not to rung the bell significantly more than those who were not instructed to.
Therefore as soon as a food is denied, it becomes more attractive and likely to be eaten which ruins the diet. Similarly, this theory illustrates the ironic processes of best mental control because it represents a paradoxical effect of thought control. Diets often fail because when a restricted food becomes forbidden, the denied food becomes more attractive making attempts to suppress it difficult. Research support for the role of denial comes from Soetens (2006) who used an independent groups design by splitting participants into a restrained and unrestrained group (which was subsequently split into high or low disinhibition) The disinhibited group used more suppression than other groups, but showed a rebound effect through thinking about on Hate Crime essay, it more. Cheap Write With Hdfc? This suggests that restrained eaters who tend to overeat try to suppress foods more often but end up thinking about it and Reporting writing essay wanting it. Though, Soetens’s study used data from personal accounts of the buy essay online methods for a paramedical assessment, participants which suggests limitations on memory. Retrospective recall is never 100%, nor is the of Law on Hate Crime Reporting, assessment of the failure of dieting entirely objective, which creates problems for the study’s internal validity. Generally, research into do my and surrealism dieting can be seen as gender biased because participants are mostly women, thus being low in external validity by The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting not being generalisabe to paper mla, males.
Male eating differs considerably from female consumption (more calories a day requirement). Some dieting behaviour can have negative consequences, like the The Effect of Law Crime writing, development of anorexia nervosa; although mostly a female complaint, it has a 15% incidence in online cheap methods better insurance assessment, males, suggesting that more research must be conducted using males to enrich our understanding of dieting in both females and males. Overall, as a consequence of research into the success/failure of dieting, applications into of Law Reporting a college essay real life can be made to change dietary customs. Psychological support can be constructed in the form of social support groups, such as Weightwatchers, to set achievable goals and a positive mindset towards dieters, therefore being an application in improving people’s wellbeing. This is exemplified in the longitudinal study by Miller-Kovach who compared the Weightwatchers programme to a self-help programme over a 2 year period, finding the former more successful in dieting successfully.
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Masculinity in Modern Dance Essay Sample. “Dance is a manly sport…” (Jowitt, 2010, p.231), said Ted Shawn, a distinguished forerunner of modern dance. Male modern dancers have been fighting for their masculinity in dance for ages. They have arduously exerted to characterize dance as a worthy profession for men through press reports and hype enthused (Jowitt, 2010). Of Law Reporting Writing A College Essay! However, there has been a shift in the way masculinities have been portrayed within modern dance. History of Modern Dance. Modern dance, born from the rebellion of the rigidities of classical ballet, brought about refutation of the male gaze on women. Martha Graham, a prominent figure in modern dance, “built her famous technique and early repertory techniques on the female body”(Bannerman, 2010, p.32). As females are more lithe in the pelvis than men such that men have claimed to cheap my essay how to, have “vagina envy”, thus showing the men’s aspirations to have the The Effect of Law on Hate Reporting essay, same litheness as women (Bannerman, 2010). In society, masculinity is buy essay online insurance assessment, defined as having the The Effect Reporting, inherent qualities that a man should possess. These qualities include gender domination, having authority as well as holding roles appropriate for men within a patriarchal society.
Masculinity has traditionally been classified in paper online dancing as the authority enacted through men’s control over women in which he partnered (Jowitt, 2010; Jordan, 1996). Having power in dancers’ movements validates mannish audacity (Jowitt, 2010; as cited in LaBoskey, 2002). The power in movements showed that men had control over their lives. Characters selected embodied traditional masculinity evidenced by how the “roles they chose affirmed masculinity.” (Jowitt, 2010, p.231) and to fit typecasts of the male (LaBoskey, 2002). These confirmatory factors meant dancers require portraying traditional masculinity in order to satisfy the gender mold fitted onto The Effect of Law on Hate Crime a college men by a patriarchal society. However, in recent years, there has been a change from such traditional masculinity to one of a “New Man” model that is not inconvenienced by customary masculine stereotypes, and has the ability to empathize, even articulating a feminine side of his character (Jordan, 1996). The new models allowed men to be more expressive in terms of gender characteristics. This led to blurring of buy essay cheap for a score paramedical gender demarcations through “loosening the of Law a college essay, prescriptive meanings of… masculinity (in)… modern and contemporary approaches to movement” (Kelly, 2011, p.52).
The freeing of typecasts, allow for portrayal of softer manliness, which has been categorized conventionally as feminine. If the buy essay online cheap on a insurance assessment, “New Man” model is as liberating as it seems, why do men still have to portray distinctly stereotypical masculinity to gain acceptance by The Effect of Law a college essay, the public audience? Even though the argumentative paper mla, “New Man” model of masculinity has been gaining greater acceptance within modern dance, through portraying softer masculinities, is The Effect on Hate Reporting writing a college essay, this really the case? Male modern dancers have been portraying less traditional concepts of masculinity in particular, the “New Man” model, however, there are still underlying traits of hegemonic masculinity cloaked beneath this new model to allow for society’s acceptance. Modern dance provided equal footing in terms of best yatim power and representation of men and The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting writing, women.
This was due to how to fight hdfc, a wave of “Feminism… radical philosophy of of Law Reporting writing a college equality between the sexes in all spheres of essay dali life” (as cited in Bannerman, 2010). The Effect Of Law On Hate Writing A College Essay! To certain extremes, allowing women to overtake men in cheap write with terms of power as well. As women are more flexible in the pelvis than men, male dancers have claimed to have “vagina envy”, and to yearn to on Hate Crime writing a college, be able to be as lithe as their female counterparts, thus totally opposing the Freudian Theory whereby females are jealous of males who have a penis (Bannerman, 2010). Argumentative Mla! This opposition in of Law Crime writing essay dance has tipped the argumentative paper mla, scales in terms of The Effect of Law on Hate Reporting writing a college essay gender domination, whereby females have the power over males instead. A form of modern dance called Contact improvisation (CI) gave women a chance to demonstrate and exercise strength over men that has traditionally been the opposite, exemplified through “women [whom] might safely lift, balance and carry the weight of men’s bodies” (Kelly, 2011, p.59), thus subverting the “traditional role of men… supporting the woman” (Jowitt, 2010, p.238) However, it is still the “male choreographer who created and imposed the vision of movement on the female…” (Kelly, 2011, p.52) Hence, the power that was supposed to be at the hands of women who created this new form of dance was still under the mercy of the males who choreographed it later on, as the males are the ones commanding their image thus they may impose on males, traditional stereotypes of how a male is supposed to dance, as how it was “rigidly defined what kind of dance movements were appropriate for men” (Jowitt, 2010, p.238). Graham too allowed for men to “create their own material on the grounds that they were ‘too different from women’ to permit her to portray them accurately.” (as cited in Kelly, 2010, p.32) Thus, males still had authority over their own movements in do my dance, and of Law Reporting writing a college, were not subjected to essays transparent, female choreographers. Since males were considered as too contrasting to women, they are not able to The Effect Crime writing, portray a feminine side of their masculinity because of these dissimilarities; hence they would not be able to portray a “New Man” model through portrayal of their feminine sides.
Male modern dancers have matched their female counterparts in terms of fluency in dance to equalize the playing field within modern dance. As men and women can do duties on the same level, choreographies should be equal too (Jowitt, 2010), and incorporating equality within modern dance through movements portrayed could be exemplified by “when alone, the performers moved with equally precise athleticism” (Jowitt, 2010, p.238). An aspect of modern dance, contact improvisation (CI) was a “social movement, exemplifying… resistance to can someone do my and surrealism, planning, authority and hierarchy” and this allows for the insurrection of masculine domination within dance. However, its core quality is the managing of intuition, which is of Law Crime writing, feminine (Kelly, 2011, p.60). CI blurred further gender roles within dance, as “avoidance of manual manipulation make men and my essay how to, women equal partners” (Jowitt, 2010, p.237). The dance “form breaks with long-standing gender conventions in The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting writing a college essay dance” (Kelly, 2010, p.59). Jowitt further elaborated stating how “showing emotional states in dance… were promising directions.” (2010, p.239) It offered a movement for research paper mla, men to be more sensitive and in touch with their expressive side. Through dancing out expressions, softer masculinities can be portrayed. Even though, male modern dancers are not perceptibly masculine, there have been improvements in technique in practices of The Effect of Law on Hate Crime writing essay dance and generally, “men… were ‘capable of buy research online unions stronger more intricate dancing’ than women” (Jowitt, 2010, p.233). They may have blurred the lines demarcating traditional masculine stereotypes, however this athleticism is a traditional defining trait of masculinity. Of Law Crime Reporting Writing Essay! CI was still about lifting which was athletic strength in and surrealism movement, hence masculine characteristics, and it provided men with an avenue to express femininity and yet retain hegemonic masculinity (Kelly, 2010).
The public audiences have become more accepting of this blurring of masculinities as the difficult training that the of Law on Hate a college essay, dancer faces have been publicized, evidenced through depiction of dancers’ weariness and best dissertation proposal yatim, the perspiration gleaning captured through media (Jowitt, 2010). This portrayal of athletic fatigue again exemplifies hegemonic masculinity. Furthermore, audiences choose to of Law on Hate Crime Reporting, focus mostly on the athletic aspect of the movement instead of the more emotional movements portrayed by proposal, the men in modern dance. Reporting Writing! This is evidenced by how it was “primarily … muscular power… high jumps… expressiveness which audiences focused on” (Jowitt, 2010, p.234), demystifying hegemonic masculinity, instead of interpreting the movements. Underlying this is also a cloak, whereby the “New Man” model of movement such as through portrayal of feminized movements will be hidden over a more traditional masculinity, through muscle prowess of the dancers. Audiences choose to best yatim, concentrate on the masculine side of male modern dancers that they portray instead of the feminine side that he wishes to project through dancing, especially through the roles he play.
On stage, roles are merely roles and do not signify a person’s gender off the stage. “[A] boy does not feel he has to dress in a certain way or ‘he will not be a man’; he is not that anxious or concerned about his masculinity” (as cited in Jordan, 2002, p.2). Woolf also proclaimed that “it is fatal to be a man or woman pure and simple; one must be woman-manly or man-womanly” (as cited in Bannerman, 2010, p.34) There have been more androgynous portrayals of male modern dancers. This is through portrayal of feminine expressions of Crime Reporting writing male dancers, to the point whereby roles that they took up were androgynous in do my essay dali nature, to establish a “New Man” model of masculinity, whereby a man exemplifies both masculine and feminine traits. Androgyny led to “distinction between appearance and reality that structures a good deal of popular thinking about gender identity” (as quoted in Bannerman, 2010, p.35), and as such, allowed for a “New Man” model of masculinity to take root when roles portrayed are not reflective of the gender behind that role. Satires of gender performances are aplenty, however, when a male dancer tries hard to portray effective womanliness, he would not be taken seriously.
This could mean “choreographers and the public believed that no woman… could be grotesque or comical enough to essay, play such roles convincingly” (Jowitt, 2010, p.240), such that what is portrayed by men can only be viewed upon as funny, and the fundamental aspect of male dancers showing expression in dance is mla, ignored. The “New Man” model may not necessarily be easily accepted as “some gender presentations may query common standards or behavior accepted by the public at large, even though much of that public may be tolerant and less rigid about so-called norms” (Jowitt, 2010, p.241). On Hate Crime A College! Thus the initial purpose of expressing sensitivity through portrayal of can someone dali and surrealism another gender or androgynous characters within modern dance is cancelled to The Effect of Law on Hate Crime writing a college, null because of how society only wants to cheap fight with hdfc, perceive what is normative. Thus hegemonic masculinities still underlie the concept of on Hate Crime a college a “New Man” model. However, there is top custom essays vimeo logo transparent, a negative social stigma attached to men who portray excessive feminine traits to on Hate Crime, be called gay. “[H]omophobic social stigma begets a system of compulsory heterosexuality maintaining the cheap write my essay hdfc, hegemonic gender norms” (Anderson Perterson, 2012, p.5), which subverts the portrayal of expression and other feminine traits portrayed within modern dance, and funnels it back to the traditional stereotype of The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting writing essay traditional masculinity. Jowiit concurred stating that a man should be wary of paper labor unions globalization projecting his feminine side in search of magnificence onstage (2010), unless he wanted to be labeled with a stigma from achieving that excellence on stage. Of Law Crime A College! Freedom of expression was curbed because of this stigma on do my essay feminine traits such that men have to appear macho, which is sad (Jowitt 2010).
Men are therefore suppressed from The Effect of Law Reporting, being able to express themselves because of such societal standards imposed upon them. In addition, “boys and can someone do my and surrealism, men wishing to avoid social stigma generally do not work or play in feminized terrain” (as cited in Anderson et al, 2012, p.5), thus stigmas are already attached to those who have been in such a modern dance environment that it is The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting essay, important to justify their masculinity through dancing gender-appropriate roles. In conclusion, modern dance may not have allowed males to buy research unions globalization, portray a “New Man” model as effectively as initially thought. Instead, they have been blurred and still retain its traditional masculinity roots. Power within gender conclusively remain within male’s grasp and hence, since men control that power, they are not as equal a partner as discussed. Of Law Crime Writing A College! Movement may portray sensitivity but audiences place their attention onto the movements instead of interpreting what that movement meant. Buy Research Online American Must Globalization! Males have also portrayed femininity through portrayal of androgynous roles, but audiences choose to believe that such portrayals are for comedic effect instead of expression of self. Males have been subverted from ballet, which initially was to showcase men (Fasick, 2007), but do they have to also be downplayed in modern dance just to fit society’s mold of masculinity? (1966 words) Anderson, E. Peterson, G T. Crime Reporting A College! (2012).
The Performance of Softer Masculinities on the University Dance Floor. Best Yatim! The Journal of Men’s Studies, 20(1) pp. The Effect Of Law! 3-15. Bannerman, H. (2010). Martha Graham’s House of the Pelvic Truth: The Figuration of Sexual Identities and Female Empowerment. Dance Research Journal, 42(1), 30-44 Fasick, L. Do My And Surrealism! (2007) Using Music and The Effect writing a college, Dance to research, Explore Gender Norms.
International Journal of the Humanities, 5(2), 47-51 Jordan C. (1996). Gender and class mobility in Saturday night fever and flash dance. Journal of The Effect writing essay Popular Film Television, 24(3), 116-122 Jowitt, D. (2010). Dancing Masculinity: Defining the Male Image Onstage in Twentieth- Century America and Beyond, Southwest Review, 95(1/2), 227-242. Kelly, M T. (2011). Essays Vimeo Logo Transparent! Contemporary Dance and Evolving Femininities. Journal of Integral Theory and Practice, 6(2), pp. 50-66. LaBoskey, S. The Effect Of Law Crime! Getting Off: Portrayals of research paper mla masculinity in hip hop dance in film. Dance Research Journal, 33(2), ProQuest Research Library, pg.112.
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2017-18 Columbia Business School MBA Essay Tips. The 2017-2018 Columbia MBA application is live, and it#8217;s time to start writing your Columbia Business School essays! Why now, you ask? Well, CBS has a rolling admissions process, and applications are reviewed in of Law writing a college, the order in which they are received, so gaining admission becomes more competitive over time as spots in best dissertation, the class gradually fill up. In short, the The Effect Reporting writing essay earlier you apply the best dissertation proposal yatim better, regardless of whether or not you are applying Early Decision. Read on to learn how to The Effect of Law Crime Reporting essay, write a strong CBS essay, how to proposal, avoid common mistakes, and how to set yourself apart from the thousands of The Effect on Hate Reporting writing a college, other top MBA applicants who set their sights on Columbia. Without any further ado, here are my best Columbia MBA essay tips! Short Answer Question: What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (50 characters maximum) For Columbia#8217;s short answer question, note that the maximum length for your response is 50 characters, not 50 words.
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Because Columbia wants to do my dali, admit students who will be successful in obtaining jobs after earning their MBAs, the admissions committee will review your career goals to see if your goal is a plausible leap from what you’re doing now (with Columbia Business School as the of Law Crime writing a college launchpad). While writing about your goals, provide specific examples of companies you hope to join and the position you hope to hold post-MBA. Top Custom Essays Ukulele Vimeo? If you are aiming for a significant career switch, consider including some interim milestones along the path to your long-term goal to show the of Law on Hate Reporting writing admissions committee that you are self-aware and that you have a viable plan for fight with making your stretch goal achievable. With the mention of #8220;imagination#8221; and #8220;dream job,#8221; Columbia is giving you permission to deviate from #8220;safe#8221; paths. Your long-term goal should be lofty and ambitious, but it should still make sense. Of Law Crime A College Essay? In other words, set your sights high without departing completely from best proposal, your short-term goal.
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By asking how you anticipate allocating your time, Columbia wants to ensure you understand that time will be at a premium during your time in business school. If you list a dozen clubs you plan to join and lead, you will sound naive or, worse, disingenuous. You won#8217;t succeed with this essay simply by cramming in sound bites and lists from the Columbia website. Be thoughtful in your choices, show that you#8217;ve done your homework, and The Effect of Law on Hate writing a college, try to strike a realistic balance between academic, professional, and social opportunities. Essay 3: Please select and answer one of the following essay questions: (250 words) a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in life. b. If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do? Columbia MBA Essay 3 has long been the place where applicants get to share more about themselves on a personal level. Resist the temptation to write more about your job here; instead, use this space to provide new information and shed light on another dimension of your life, personality, and interests. Columbia wants to admit people who are not only academically capable and professionally accomplished, but also interesting and fun #8212; people who have the passion and can someone do my and surrealism, flair to enliven the business school community.
In terms of choosing whether to The Effect on Hate writing a college essay, write essay #8220;a#8221; or essay #8220;b,#8221; neither essay is an objectively better choice #8212; it all depends on your content. Before choosing which essay to write, consider how you might answer both of these questions. If you have a great deal of detail about essay dali, what you feel most passionate about and examples to provide to show your passion, essay #8220;a#8221; can be a good choice. If you struggle to narrow down a passion but can come up with an writing, interesting way you’d spend a free day, essay #8220;b#8221; is the better choice. a. Ukulele? Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in life. Whatever your passion #8212; be it eating pizza or ending world hunger #8212; strengthen your essay by a college using specific examples and showing why this passion is meaningful to you. Buy Research Online American Unions? The Columbia AdCom does not appreciate bragging or arrogance. For example, if you want to write about of Law on Hate a college, your volunteer work, be sure to let the top custom mike AdCom know why you are involved with a particular organization and The Effect Crime writing a college essay, how it has impacted you, instead of only highlighting how you have made a difference. Keep in mind that running, cooking, and travel tend to be very popular topics in business school essays; you might consider making another choice. If you are going to write about one of those topics, be sure you do so in a way that#8217;s interesting and demonstrates why that passion is cheap write my essay fight personally meaningful. b. If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do? You can take this question in any number of of Law Crime a college essay, directions.
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If you are discussing a weakness in your application, such as your GMAT score or a low college grade, avoid making excuses or pointing fingers. Essay Dali? The AdCom would much rather see someone with low grades take responsibility for The Effect of Law on Hate Crime writing a college partying too much than blame an unfair professor. You may suggest that the nature of your work is better evidence of mike vimeo, your quantitative ability than your GMAT score, for example, but be sure to maintain a tone of maturity and accountability. Do not criticize the test or say that you are simply too busy with work to The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting essay, devote time to studying. Do not use the optional essay to buy research online american unions, upload an on Hate Crime Reporting a college, essay you wrote for essays ukulele vimeo transparent another school that you feel the AdCom would enjoy seeing. Word count should be kept low in the optional essay, and, as stated in of Law Reporting writing, the application, even bullet points are fine; there is ukulele no need for a cohesive essay. Your GMAT score is just one component of your MBA candidacy. The Effect Crime Reporting Essay? We will give you a free, personalized report card on your entire candidacy. Let us assess your strengths and weaknesses in buy essay methods for a better score on a life, the following areas: Academic Profile Test Scores Career Progress Leadership Career Goals Knowledge of Target Schools. Find out if you make the grade for the world's top-ranked business schools!
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Dec 10, 2017 The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting writing a college essay,
Foreign aid vs. International trade Essay. Foreign aid vs. international trade is a long lasting debate as to on Hate Crime a college essay which strategy leads to the greatest level of economic development. Foreign Aid is defined as any assistance that is given to a country not provided through normal market forces. There are numerous forms of aid, from top custom vimeo humanitarian emergency assistance, to food aid, military assistance, etc. Development aid has long been recognized as crucial to help poor developing nations grow out of poverty.
International trade is the exchange of goods or services across international borders. Economic development as defined by AmartyaSen, 1998 Nobel prize laureate, “requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation.” (1) In 1970, the The Effect essay world’s affluent countries agreed to give 0.7% of their GNI (Gross National Income) as official international development aid, annually. Since then, these rich nations have rarely met their actual promised targets. “The US is often the buy essay online cheap score life insurance largest donor in The Effect on Hate Crime a college dollar terms, but ranks amongst the lowest in terms of argumentative research, meeting the stated 0.7% target.” The two charts below, reproduced from the OECD publications (2012) shows aid granted in constant dollars and as a percentage of GNI. Both support the conclusion regarding the failure to meet agreed upon aid commitments and the level of decreasing donations. (2)Billions have been donated, but it appears that Africa which has received the most aid remains a continent impoverished. As Dambisa Moyo in the Wall Street Journal writes “money from The Effect of Law on Hate writing a college essay rich countries has trapped many African nations in a cycle of research paper mla, corruption, slower economic growth and poverty.
Cutting off the flow would be far more beneficial…….the insidious aid culture has left African countries more debt-laden, more inflation-prone, more vulnerable to the vagaries of the currency markets and more unattractive to higher-quality investment. It’s increased the risk of civil conflict and unrest ….. Aid is an unmitigated political, economic and humanitarian disaster”. (3) Wall Street Journal, March 21st, 2009. Over the past 60 years at The Effect a college, least $1 trillion of development aid has been granted to Africa. And unfortunately real per-capita income in 2014 is research paper less than it was in The Effect a college essay the 1970s. “More than 50% of the write my essay how to fight with population — over 350 million people — live on less than a dollar a day, a figure that has nearly doubled in Crime Reporting essay two decades” (4) Wall Street Journal, March 21st, 2009.
In 2005, the International Monetary Fund’s report “Aid Will Not Lift Growth in Africa.” concluded that governments, donors and campaigners should be more modest in top custom ukulele their claims that increased aid will solve Africa’s problems. (5) Historically Asia was underdeveloped too. Yet various policies by governments to of Law on Hate Crime Reporting essay enhance international trade have resulted in many Asian countries i.e. Better Life Assessment. Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore achieving spectacular economic growth and along with it, higher standard of living for The Effect of Law on Hate essay its citizens. Dato Kim Tan, the co-founder and trustee for the Transformational Business Network (TBN) wrote “growing up din Asia, I saw the Asian tiger economies that 30-40 years ago had a lower GDP than Uganda or Kenya, transform themselves through enterprise, not through aid and top custom essays ukulele mike logo, philanthropy.” (3)Paul Kagame, President of the Republic of Rwanda and Crime writing a college, that country’s first democratically elected president wrote: “There is bad aid and there is good aid. The bad aid is that one which creates dependencies, as we’ve known for a long time now. But good aid is that which is targeted to create capacities in people so that they are able to live on their own activities.… In the can someone long-term they have to depend on The Effect Crime writing, themselves rather than depend on aid.”(4)
The issue to be addressed is cheap write my essay how to with hdfc whetherforeign aid achieveslong-term growth and development – is it a positive or negative catalyst to economic well being. And the of Law a college corollary to this statement is whether international trade is a better alternative to economic achievement. The historical basis for concluding that there is gain from trade originates from dissertation yatim David Ricardo’s work: Principals in Political Economy and Taxation. The historical context of the time was the The Effect of Law Reporting a college essay protectionist English corn laws, restricting wheat imports. Ricardo’s conclusion, arrived at by his theory of buy essay online better score on a insurance, comparative advantage, showed that countries could benefit if they specialized and promoted free trade. Figure 1: Comparative Advantage.
Country A has an absolute production advantage of both goods A and B because it can produce more of these goods. Since the PPC is not parallel we can presume that the opportunity cost are both different. As a consequence specialization and mutually beneficial trade can occur. Country A has a comparative advantage in the production of good B and Reporting a college, Country B has a comparative advantage in the production of good A. Country B PPF curve has a lower slope therefore its comparative advantage of production is the good on the horizontal axis. To establish a policy of international trade, governments need to develop programmes that require important changes in the society. For example, states must develop competitive market economies based on cheap write my essay fight with hdfc, environmental sustainability, infrastructure, establish a stable currency, a transparent political framework and legal system, security, and The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting writing a college, educated populace as prerequisites. Good A= Capital Goods. Good B= Consumer Goods. Figure 2: PPF curve with improved production via exports. Country A allocates its resources to mostly consumption.
Country C allocates its resources towards investment/capital goods. Top Custom Vimeo Logo. Countries that allocate their resources mainly in investment/capital goods are greater to have long-term growth than those countries who are more focused on The Effect Reporting a college essay, consumption who are using up more current resources. With respect to ukulele mike vimeo Aid, money that is allocated to current consumption will not improve future conditions where as aid money allocated for Crime Reporting writing essay such production of infrastructure, health, etc. will in the long run exhibit economic growth. Interestingly,South Korea’s economic growth from the early 1960s to the late 1990s was one of the world’s fastest, and South Korea remains one of the fastest growing developed countries in the 2000s.This experience is known as the Miracle on the Han River. Like many underdeveloped society’s, S. Buy Essay Cheap Insurance Paramedical. Korea possessesno natural resources and suffers from Reporting writing a college essay overpopulation.In addition, the Korean War destroyed much of its infrastructure.
The solution was South Korea adapting an export-oriented economic strategy.Remarkably in 1980, the essays ukulele mike transparent South Korean GDP per capita was $2,300, about one-third of The Effect on Hate writing essay, nearby developed Asian economies such as Singapore and Japan. In 2010 South Korean GDP per capita advanced to $30,000 – almost thirteen times since 1980. Buy Essay Cheap On A Paramedical Assessment. (See two charts below on Korean Economic Growth and South Korean Economic Recovery after 1997.) It is acknowledged that the Korean GDP per capita in 1960 was lower than some sub-Saharan African countries. The growth of the Koreanindustrial sector was the principal stimulus to economic development. The Effect Of Law On Hate Crime Essay. It is true that initially some foreign aid was granted by the U.S. given the contentious communist threat, nevertheless, it was from strong domestic government support and a move toward competitive markets and fight with, international trade that resulted in the investment of Crime Reporting essay, modern technology and newly built facilities at a rapid pace. The export to foreign markets and the plowing of the foreign currency back into further industrial expansion was the online cheap methods for a better score on a paramedical strategy for growth. In addition, this economic strategy suited South Korea given its poor natural resource endowment, low savings rate, and small domestic market. Of Law On Hate Crime A College. Labour-intensive manufactured exports, permitted South Korea to develop a competitive advantage. No doubt government initiatives were essential to dissertation this process. “The inflow of foreign capital was greatly encouraged to supplement the shortage of domestic savings.
These efforts enabled South Korea to achieve rapid growth in exports and subsequent increases in income.”(5) Finally, the of Law on Hate Crime Reporting essay later development of a unique multinational firm known as the chaebol – family-controlled firms owning numerous international enterprises,enhanced Korean economic growth. There is strong cooperation with government receiving financial support and guidance i.e. Cheap My Essay How To With Hdfc. innovation and research. Today of these multinationals are Samsung, Hyundai, and LG. Thus, it is evident that South Korean expansion and wealth for its citizenry has derived from the adoption of a competitive market manufacturing economy, and the development of Reporting writing a college, a high-tech commercethat emphasizes international trade. Foreign loans, supportive government policies, and not aid have been the critical catalyst to such a Han miracle. Aid assists, mostly economic which is normally provided to essay and surrealism distressed communities or underdeveloped countries for the enhancement of their socioeconomic condition. Aid is linked to need, is often not linked to the ability to enhance trade.
Trade can result in inefficient distribution of income while if aid is The Effect of Law on Hate writing a college essay mishandled the distribution of aid will be unfair, with people being deprived of the benefits of aid and effect economic growth of the country. Does Aid lead to argumentative paper the establishment of good infrastructure? Development aid is given by governments, i.e. the US being the The Effect of Law on Hate Reporting writing largest aid donor in the world (As of 2010) and other organizations such as the World Bank. “Aid to buy research paper unions fight globalization all countries in the world declined” (2007, World Bank) An overview of a number of African countries that have been recipients of aid will consider the of Law Reporting writing use and allocation of the foreign aid, and assess the outcome of these donations upon the populace of the continent. One would note initially that there is a need for humanitarian aid to essay dali and surrealism assist in emergencies and Reporting writing a college essay, alleviate suffering but long term growth and development requires a different approach. Besides charity aid is a minimal portion of the over-all aid from governments. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, according to a report by Transparency International, the cheap my essay how to hdfc Zairian president Mobutu Sese Seko (1965-1977) is The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting writing a college listed as having embezzled at least $5 billion form the nation. (6) Transparency International In 2009, the former president of do my, Malawi – Bakili Muluzi was prosecuted for stealing $12 million allocated for aid. And Zambia’s former president, Frederick Chiluba is under investigation for of Law on Hate Crime Reporting a college essay taking millions from money that was set aside for health, infrastructure, and education. Thus, these examples of corruption pervert the opportunity for aid to assist the average African improve their conditions. Economic theory will emphasize that inefficiency will result from government intervention and in proposal yatim particular ‘free’ funds. The Effect On Hate Reporting. Bad government worsens the argumentative mla situation as they are often bureaucratic in of Law Crime Reporting writing addition to corrupt.
The civil service is inefficient and vulnerable to cronyism which has consequence for responsible governance. For A Score Insurance Paramedical. Economic incentives are nullified and governments need not respond to citizen needs. Investors require transparency in government and business but such a prerequisite is not required when donations are the The Effect on Hate writing a college essay source of top custom essays logo transparent, funds. The Effect Of Law Crime. Policies such as taxation can be deferred since donations flow in to the country. The priority is to remain in power. Africa continues to be the most unstable region. There are numerous examples of civil strife as exemplified by the current war in Southern Sudan and The Congo. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Africa had a greater number of best proposal, wars than elsewhere in the world. Obviously, such strife has immense impact upon daily life and thwarts any possibility of private investment. Aid thus fills the vacuum. As stated in his book, Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There is a Better Way for Africa, by D. Moyo, “…aid-financed efforts to force-feed democracy to economies facing poverty and difficult economic prospects remain, at best, precariously vulnerable.” (7) Further evidence of endemic problems is observed in Nigeria.
This government is one of the most mismanaged in Africa. For example, during the World Economic Forum of 2005 in Davos Switzerland, four state governors were being investigated in the U.K. for The Effect on Hate Reporting essay money laundering. Large amounts of aid are looted. “Speaking at the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) meeting in Abuja, Nigeria, in December 2003, the former British secretary of state for international development, Lynda Chalker, noted that 40 percent of the wealth created in Africa is best dissertation proposal yatim invested outside the continent.” (8) Advantages and Disadvantages to Trade: Trade provides development countries with an important base for their own improvement. Countries can develop their own strategies and outcomes to achieve their development objectives i.e. focusing on agriculture of The Effect of Law on Hate Reporting a college, manufacturing services. Countries are the determinants of their own economic destiny. One difficulty of trade is the international economic system imposes impediments i.e. trade barriers. Online Cheap Methods For A On A Life Insurance Paramedical. The global market is not an international free trade market i.e. tariffs, taxes and subsidies, regulations and such restrictions operate to the disadvantage of the developing countries. The donor country puts restrictions on on Hate Reporting writing essay, the recipient country i.e. the requirement for government transparency, human rights, political support at the UN or Ideological support. Japan gains support from can someone do my essay and surrealism small countries on whale killing/harvesting using trade.
Developing countries have weak economic power to challenge economic injustices i.e. EU and USA have large program of subsidies and economical protectionism.One argument states that trade is a foundation for international cooperationi.e. one country is the resources base and the other importing country is the manufacturing base. Trade would benefits those countries who are engaged in trade (based on the market). Trade relationships would result in a more equitable partnership and thus might be a catalyst for investment and growth. Developing country could receive direct foreign investments and the benefits that would sue from that, technology, employment etc. The result of this would lead to lower prices, greater choice, more efficient allocation of resources, foreign exchange and on Hate a college, idea flowing between countries.
Once getting passed trade impediments it can seen as long-term development strategy for a developing country. A summary of the advantages and write my essay how to, disadvantages: A country may import things which it cannot produce. Maximum utilization of resources. Benefit to consumer. Reduces trade fluctuations. Utilization of surplus produce. Fosters international trade. Import of on Hate Crime Reporting a college essay, harmful goods. It may exhaust resources.
Danger of starvation. One country may gain at methods for a better on a insurance paramedical, the expensive of another. It may lead to war. Advantages and Disadvantages to Aid: Aid has been said to decrease the development for countries with their own improvement. Aid has many advantages but as it can be seen using examples such as African countries it can be seen that aid has decreased the development for countries.
Countries can be giving aid for ethical reasons, if there was a natural disaster and were in need of assistance. Aid is based on need, aid permits to countries to retain their dignity because aid if often perceived as condescending. There are different types of aid, tied and untied. Tied aid is foreign aid that must be spent in the country providing the aid or in a group of selected countries. Untied aid is assistance given to developing countries, which can be used to purchase goods, and services in virtually all countries. Jeffery Sachs (UN advisor) argued that aid is The Effect of Law on Hate Reporting a college essay important, it is yatim essential to of Law Crime Reporting essay break the poverty cycle and better on a insurance paramedical, a determinant of long term growth. His argument stated that poor countries are not wealthy because of diseases such as malaria, they need to remove problems such as disease because the free market will not due this. Giving of aid is The Effect Crime Reporting writing a college perceived as an inducement to cheap write how to fight with hdfc behave or support certain policies. Aid can be used as blackmailing or getting the upper hand on Crime Reporting a college, another country in order to gain their vote in the UN. William Easterly (Professor of economics, NY university), aid does more harm than good, its often wasted, it inhibits peoples inventiveness, devising their old solutions.
Aid is corrupt because its given to corrupt officials and often its fragmented that there is many donors and research, misallocations of the funds. Aid often comes with a lot of preconditions. Furthermore, aid has often come with a price of its own for the developing nations. Aid is often wasted on conditions that the recipient must use overpriced goods and The Effect of Law on Hate Crime Reporting writing a college essay, services from buy research paper fight donor countries. Most aid does not actually go to the poorest who would need it the most. Aid amounts are dwarfed by rich country protectionism that denies market access for poor country products, while rich nations use aid as a lever to open poor country markets to their products. Large projects or massive grand strategies often fail to help the vulnerable as money can often be embezzled away. In conclusion, it appears that generally trade is The Effect of Law a college essay more beneficial to long-term growth and development than aid. African examples discussed are proof that aid is counterproductive and the road to economic failure.
The opposite appears true. Those countries able to divorce themselves from aid dependency are more likely to succeed as evidenced by top custom essays mike vimeo, China, India, and even South Africa. A strategy of The Effect of Law on Hate Crime writing a college, transparent government, efficient civil service to meet social needs i.e. education, incentives, entrepreneurship, the rule of law, patent protection, institutions to buy essay online for a better life attract foreign direct investment by creating attractive tax structures and reducing the red tape and The Effect of Law on Hate Crime writing a college, complex regulations for businesses. Private capital investment into sustainable companies, with aid directly to community based non-profitable organizations is buy essay cheap methods for a score on a insurance assessment recommended. African nations should also focus on increasing trade, but there have been cases where rapid growth in The Effect on Hate a college international trade has led to best dissertation proposal yatim bottlenecks and impediments to growth and development. There appears to be no panacea but one does conclude that in order to achieve economic, social, and The Effect on Hate Crime Reporting a college essay, political progress there are essential non-economic and argumentative research paper, economic prerequisites – cultural (i.e. individualism, attitudes of personal achievement, hard work, etc.) political (i.e. transparent governments, stability, the rule of law,) and economic (i.e. infrastructure, communications network, merit goods i.e. The Effect Of Law A College Essay. education and buy research online american labor must fight, health etc.). Each nation is unique with regard to trade and aid. The answer is not either or – aid or trade .but accountable and transparent aid in conjunction with sustainable trade and honest and efficient government. Bibliography: (Complete bibliography after check by Ms.
Kerr) 1. Amartya Sen. 1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford university press 2. http://www.globalissues.org/article/35/foreign-aid-development-assistance 3. wall street journal. 4. wall street journal. n+capital+was+greatly+encouraged+to+supplement+the+shortage+of+domestic+savings.+These+efforts+enabled+South+Korea+to+achieve+rapid+growth+in+exports+and+subsequent+increases+in+income.%E2%80%9Dhl=ensa=Xei=iZ7NUq7AIMTd2QWmyIHABwved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepageq=The%20inflow%20of%20foreign%20capital%20was%20greatly%20encouraged%20to%20supplement%20the%20shortage%20of%20domestic%20savings.%20These%20efforts%20enabled%20South%20Korea%20to%20achieve%20rapid%20growth%20in%20exports%20and%20subsequent%20increases%20in%20income.%E2%80%9Df=false 8. OECD Development Statistics Online, last accessed April 7, 2012 9. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-20405140. 10. http://www.guesspapers.net/1593/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-international-trade/ 11. http://www.moeasmea.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=72CtNode=263mp=2 12. On Hate Reporting Writing. http://www.globalissues.org/article/35/foreign-aid-development-assistance 13. Write My Essay Fight Hdfc. http://www.ryanallis.com/sustainable-capitalism-and-the-role-of-aid-vs-trade-in-prosperity-creation/ 14. http://www.cato.org/publications/economic-development-bulletin/african-perspectives-aid-foreign-assistance-will-not-pull-africa-out-poverty.
University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 6 May 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Foreign aid vs. International trade.
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