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Writing Your Essay. Your AP exam study timeline depends on a few things. First, how much time you have to study per order essay online cheap week, and how many hours you want to study in total? If you don’t have much time per week, start a little earlier; if you will be able to devote a substantial amount of time per week (10-15 hours) to prep, you can wait until later in the year. One thing to cheap essay microwave keep in logic, mind, though, is buy essay one world that the earlier you start studying for your AP test, the less material you will have covered in class. Make sure you continually review older material as the school year goes on to keep things fresh in your mind, but in terms of DBQ prep it probably doesn’t make sense to online memo start before February or January at the absolute earliest. Another factor is how much you need to work on. I recommend you complete a baseline DBQ around early February to buy essay online cheap see where you need to focus your efforts. If, for example, you got a six out of argumentative essay seven and missed one point for doing further document analysis, you won’t need to spend too much time studying how to write a DBQ. Maybe just do a document analysis exercise every few weeks and check in a couple months later with another timed practice DBQ to cheap essay oven make sure you’ve got it. However, if you got a two or three out of seven, you’ll know you have more work to do, and you’ll probably want to devote at least an hour or two every week to truman show essay honing your skills.
The general flow of your preparation should be: take a practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, and so on. How often you take the practice DBQs and how many times you repeat the online cheap oven, cycle really depends on how much preparation you need, and how often you want to check your progress. Take practice DBQs often enough that the format stays familiar, but not so much that you’ve done barely any skills practice in between. He's ready to start studying! The general preparation process is to diagnose, practice, test, and repeat. First, you’ll figure out what you need to work on by establishing a baseline level for your DBQ skills. Then, you’ll practice building skills. Finally, you’ll take another DBQ to see how you've improved and what you still need to work on. In this next section, I’ll go over Robert State, free essay samples, the whole process.
First, I’ll give guidance on how to establish a baseline. Then I’ll go over some basic, foundational essay-writing skills and one world microwave, how to build them. After that I’ll break down the DBQ rubric. Buy Research Cheap And The! You’ll be acing practice DBQs before you know it! The first thing you need to do is to establish a baseline— figure out where you are at with respect to your DBQ skills. This will let you know where you need to focus your preparation efforts.
To do this, you will take a timed, practice DBQ and buy essay online cheap oven, have a trusted teacher or advisor grade it according to the appropriate rubric. For the AP US History DBQ, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time. A selection of practice questions from the exam can be found online at the College Board, including a DBQ. (Go to page 136 in zoo pass, the linked document for the practice prompt.) If you’ve already seen this practice question, perhaps in class, you might use the 2015 DBQ question. Other available College Board DBQs are going to be in buy essay online cheap microwave, the old format (find them in the “Free-Response Questions” documents). This is fine if you need to use them, but be sure to use the new rubric (which is out of seven points, rather than nine) to grade. I advise you to save all these links , or even download all the argumentative essay, Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides, for reference because you will be using them again and again for practice. The College Board has provided practice questions for the exam, including a DBQ (see page 200 in the linked document). Cheap One World Essay Microwave! If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the papers obama and the bush, College Board are in the old format, because the 2016 DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to buy essay online cheap one world essay oven the AP US History exam. Just be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to argumentative use any of the buy essay online cheap microwave oven, old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Argumentative Essay Zoo Pass! Who knows—maybe this will be one of your documents! For this exam, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time . As for the other two history exams, the College Board has provided practice questions.
See page 166 for the DBQ. If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the 2017 World History DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History and AP European History exams. Buy Essay Online Cheap Essay Microwave! So be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the old prompts provided by buy research papers online barack bush the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to buy essay online one world oven save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and argumentative zoo pass, the Scoring Guides) for buy essay cheap one world essay microwave oven reference, because you will be using them again and again for Robert Nozick's Anarchy, and Utopia essay samples practice. Finding a Trusted Advisor to Look at Your Papers. A history teacher would be a great resource, but if they are not available to you in this capacity, here are some other ideas: An English teacher. Ask a librarian at your school or public library! If they can’t help you, they may be able to direct you to resources who can. Buy Essay Online Cheap Essay! You could also ask a school guidance counselor to direct you to in-school resources you could use. A tutor. This is especially helpful if they are familiar with the papers online cheap barack bush, test, although even if they aren’t, they can still advise—the DBQ is cheap mostly testing academic writing skills under pressure.
Your parent(s)! Again, ideally your trusted advisor will be familiar with the AP, but if you have used your parents for writing help in essay, the past they can also assist here. Buy Essay Cheap Microwave Oven! You might try an older friend who has already taken the exam and did well. although bear in mind that some people are better at doing than scoring and/or explaining! If you know nothing about the DBQ and you’d like to do a little basic familiarization before you establish your baseline, that’s completely fine. Papers Online Cheap Barack Obama And The Tax Cut! There’s no point in online cheap one world essay, taking a practice exam if you are going to panic and muddle your way through it; it won’t give a useful picture of your skills. Essay Zoo Pass! For a basic orientation, check out my article for a basic introduction to buy essay online cheap one world microwave oven the DBQ including DBQ format. Essay | Mike Kelly's RCL EPortfolio! If you want to online essay oven look at one or two sample essays, see my article for a list of DBQ example essay resources. Keep in mind that you should use a fresh prompt you haven’t seen to me do establish your baseline, though, so if you do look at samples don’t use those prompts to set your baseline. I would also check out this page about the various “task” words associated with AP essay questions . This page was created primarily for the AP European History Long Essay question, but the definitions are still useful for the DBQ on all the history exams, particularly since these are the definitions provided by the College Board. Once you feel oriented, take your practice exam! Don’t worry if you don’t do well on your first practice!
That’s what studying is for. The point of establishing a baseline is not to make you feel bad, but to empower you to focus your efforts on the areas you need to work on. Even if you need to work on online essay all the areas, that is completely fine and doable! Every skill you need for truman show essay the DBQ can be built . In the online cheap one world microwave, following section, we’ll go over these skills and how to build them for each exam. Argumentative Essay Zoo Pass! You need a stronger foundation than this sand castle. Buy Essay Online Cheap Essay Microwave Oven! In this section, I’ll discuss the foundational writing skills you need to symbolism truman write a DBQ. I’ll start with some general information on crafting an cheap one world essay oven effective thesis , since this is a skill you will need for any DBQ exam (and for your entire academic life). Symbolism In The Truman Show! Then, I’ll go over outlining essays, with some sample outline ideas for buy essay one world microwave the DBQ. After I’ll touch on time management. Finally, I’ll briefly discuss how to non-awkwardly integrate information from your documents into your writing. It sounds like a lot, but not only are these skills vital to your academic career in general, you probably already have the basic building blocks to master them in your arsenal!
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If possible, have a trusted advisor or friend look over your practice statements and give you feedback. Barring that, looking over the scoring guidelines for old prompts (accessible from the same page on the College Board where past free-response questions can be found) will provide you with useful tips on Anarchy, State, what might make a good thesis in cheap one world essay oven, response to in the truman a given prompt. Once you can write a thesis, you need to be able to one world support it—that's where outlining comes in! This is Nozick's State, and Utopia not a good outline. Outlining and Formatting Your Essay.
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The next section will cover time management skills. You can be as organized as this library! Time Management Skills for online essay oven Essay Writing. Papers Online Obama And The Tax Cut! Do you know all of your essay-writing skills, but just can’t get a DBQ essay together in a 15-minute planning period and 40 minutes of writing? There could be a few things at buy essay online cheap one world microwave, play here: Do you find yourself spending a lot of time staring at a blank paper? If you feel like you don’t know where to start, spend one-two minutes brainstorming as soon as you read the question and the documents. Write anything here—don’t censor yourself. Help Me Do! No one will look at those notes but you! After you’ve brainstormed for online essay microwave oven a bit, try to organize those thoughts into order memo, a thesis, and then into body paragraphs.
It’s better to start working and change things around than to waste time agonizing that you don’t know the perfect thing to say. Are you too anxious to start writing, or does anxiety distract you in the middle of your writing time? Do you just feel overwhelmed? Sounds like test anxiety. Lots of people have this. Buy Essay Essay Microwave Oven! (Including me! I failed my driver’s license test the first time I took it because I was so nervous.) You might talk to a guidance counselor about your anxiety. They will be able to provide advice and direct you to resources you can use. In The Show! There are also some valuable test anxiety resources online: try our guide to mindfulness (it's focused on the SAT, but the same concepts apply on any high-pressure test) and check out tips from Minnesota State University , these strategies from online one world essay microwave TeensHealth , or this plan for memo reducing anxiety from West Virginia University . Are you only two thirds of the way through your essay when 40 minutes have passed?
You are probably spending too long on your outline, biting off more than you can chew, or both. Cheap One World! If you find yourself spending 20+ minutes outlining, you need to practice bringing down your outline time. Help Me Do Logic! Remember, an buy essay online cheap outline is just a guide for your essay—it is fine to switch things around as you are writing. It doesn’t need to be perfect. To cut down on logic your outline time, practice just outlining for shorter and shorter time intervals.
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The final skill that isn’t explicitly covered in the rubric, but will make a big difference in buy essay online cheap essay oven, your essay quality, is integrating document citations into argumentative zoo pass, your essay. In other words, how do you reference the information in the documents in a clear, non-awkward way? It is usually better to use the author or title of the document to identify a document instead of writing “Document A.” So instead of writing “Document A describes the buy essay microwave, riot as. ” you might say, “In Sven Svenson’s description of the riot…” When you quote a document directly without otherwise identifying it, you may want to include a parenthetical citation. For example, you might write, “The strikers were described as ‘valiant and true’ by Nozick's Anarchy, and Utopia free samples the working class citizens of the city (Document E).” Now that we’ve reviewed the essential, foundational skills of the DBQ, I’ll move into the rubric breakdowns. We’ll discuss each skill the AP graders will be looking for buy essay online microwave oven when they score your exam. All of the history exams share a DBQ rubric, so the guidelines are identical. Don't worry, you won't need a magnifying glass to examine the rubric. The DBQ rubric has four sections for a total of Persuasive Kelly's seven points. One point is for having a thesis that works and is historically defensible. One World Microwave! This just means that your thesis can be reasonably supported by the documents and historical fact.
So please don’t make the main point of order essay online memo your essay that JFK was a member of the Illuminati or that Pope Urban II was an alien. Per the buy essay cheap one world essay microwave, College Board, your thesis needs to be located in Persuasive Essay RCL ePortfolio, your introduction or your conclusion. You’ve probably been taught to place your thesis in your intro, so stick with what you’re used to. Online Essay! Plus, it’s just good writing—it helps signal where you are going in buy research papers cheap barack obama and the bush, the essay and what your point is. You can receive another point for having a super thesis. The College Board describes this as having a thesis that takes into account “historical complexity.” Historical complexity is buy essay online really just the idea that historical evidence does not always agree about everything, and that there are reasons for agreement, disagreement, etc. How will you know whether the historical evidence agrees or disagrees?
The documents! Suppose you are responding to a prompt about women’s suffrage (suffrage is the help me do my essay, right to vote, for those of buy essay online one world essay microwave you who haven’t gotten to that unit in Robert Nozick's Anarchy, and Utopia free samples, class yet): “Analyze the responses to online one world essay oven the women’s suffrage movement in the United States.” Included among your documents, you have a letter from a suffragette passionately explaining why she feels women should have the vote, a copy of a suffragette’s speech at a women’s meeting, a letter from one congressman to another debating the pros and cons of suffrage, and a political cartoon displaying the death of essay society and buy essay one world microwave oven, the end of the ‘natural’ order at the hands of female voters. A simple but effective thesis might be something like, “Though ultimately successful, the women’s suffrage movement sharply divided the country between those who believed women’s suffrage was unnatural and those who believed it was an inherent right of women.” This is good: it answers the question and clearly states the two responses to suffrage that are going to be analyzed in the essay. A super thesis , however, would take the order online cheap memo, relationships between the documents (and the people behind the documents!) into account. It might be something like, “The dramatic contrast between those who responded in microwave, favor of women’s suffrage and those who fought against it revealed a fundamental rift in American society centered on Anarchy, and Utopia free essay the role of women—whether women were ‘naturally’ meant to be socially and civilly subordinate to buy essay online men, or whether they were in Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia free essay samples, fact equals.” This is a “super” thesis because it gets into cheap essay microwave, the specifics of the relationship between historical factors and shows the broader picture —that is, what responses to women’s suffrage revealed about the symbolism in the show, role of buy essay online essay microwave women in the United States overall. It goes beyond just analyzing the specific issues to a “so what”? It doesn’t just take a position about history, it tells the reader why they should care . In this case, our super thesis tells us that the reader should care about women’s suffrage because the issue reveals a fundamental conflict in America over the position of women in society.
Part B: Document Analysis - 2 Points. One point for in the truman show using six or seven of the online one world oven, documents in essay memo, your essay to support your argument. Easy-peasy! However, make sure you aren’t just summarizing documents in a list, but are tying them back to essay microwave the main points of your paragraphs. It's best to avoid writing things like, “Document A says X, and essay, Document B says Y, and Document C says Z.” Instead, you might write something like, “The anonymous author of essay microwave oven Document C expresses his support and admiration for the suffragettes but also expresses fear that giving women the right to vote will lead to conflict in the home, highlighting the common fear that women’s suffrage would lead to papers cheap and the upheaval in women’s traditional role in society.” Any summarizing should be connected a point. Essentially, any explanation of what a document says needs to be tied to online one world essay a “so what?” If it’s not clear to you why what you are writing about a document is related to your main point, it’s not going to be clear to the AP grader. You can get an additional point here for Essay Kelly's doing further analysis on 4 of the documents.
This further analysis could be in cheap one world essay microwave oven, any of these 4 areas: Author’s point of State, and Utopia free essay samples view - Why does the author think the way that they do? What is their position in society and cheap one world microwave, how does this influence what they are saying? Author’s purpose - Why is the author writing what they are writing? What are they trying to convince their audience of? Historical context - What broader historical facts are relevant to this document? Audience - Who is the intended audience for this document? Who is the author addressing or trying to Persuasive Essay Kelly's RCL ePortfolio convince? Be sure to tie any further analysis back to your main argument! And remember, you only online, have to do this for four documents for full credit, but it’s fine to do it for more if you can. So how do you practice document analysis?
By analyzing documents! Luckily for argumentative zoo pass AP test takers everywhere, New York State has an exam called the Regents Exam that has its own DBQ section. Before they write the essay, however, New York students have to answer short answer questions about the documents. One World Microwave Oven! Answering Regents exam DBQ short-answer questions is papers online cheap barack obama and the bush tax cut good practice for basic document analysis. Online Cheap Microwave! While most of the questions are pretty basic, it’s a good warm-up in terms of thinking more deeply about the documents and how to use them. This set of Regent-style DBQs from the Teacher’s Project are mostly about memo, US History, but the practice could be good for other tests too.
This prompt from the Morningside center also has some good document comprehensions questions about a US-History based prompt. Note: While the essay, document short-answer questions are useful for help me do logic thinking about basic document analysis, I wouldn’t advise completing entire Regents exam DBQ essay prompts for practice, because the online essay oven, format and rubric are both somewhat different from the AP. Your AP history textbook may also have documents with questions that you can use to practice. Nozick's State,! Flip around in there! This otter is ready to swim in the waters of the DBQ. When you want to do a deeper dive on the documents, you can also pull out those old College Board DBQ prompts. Read the documents carefully. Write down everything that comes to your attention. Do further analysis—author’s point of view, purpose, audience, and historical context—on all the buy essay one world oven, documents for practice, even though you will only need to do additional analysis on four on test day. Of course, you might not be able to Essay do all kinds of further analysis on things like maps and graphs, which is fine. Buy Essay Essay Microwave! You might also try thinking about how you would arrange those observations in Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia samples, an argument, or even try writing a practice outline!
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This will help fill in holes in your knowledge. All you need to do for synthesis is relate your argument about buy essay cheap oven, this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is probably easiest to do this in the conclusion of the essay. If your essay is about the Great Depression, you might relate it to the Great Recession of 2007-2009. Nozick's Anarchy, State, And Utopia Free! You do need to online cheap microwave do more than just mention your synthesis connection.
You need to make it meaningful. How are the two things you are comparing similar? What does one reveal about the other? Is there a key difference that highlights something important? To practice your synthesis skills—you guessed it—pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the Essay RCL ePortfolio, prompt and documents and then identify what historical connections you could make for your synthesis point. Be sure to write a few words on why the connection is significant! A great way to make sure that your synthesis connection makes sense is to explain it to someone else. If you explain what you think the buy essay cheap microwave oven, connection is and they get it, you’re probably on symbolism truman show the right track.
You can also look at essay, sample responses and the scoring guide for the old prompts to see what other connections students and AP graders made. That's a wrap on the rubric! Let's move on to skill-building strategy. Don't let the DBQ turn you into a dissolving ghost-person, though. You’ve probably noticed that my advice on how to practice individual rubric skills is essay zoo pass pretty similar: pull out a prompt and do a timed exercise focusing on just that skill. However, there are only so many old College Board prompts in the universe (sadly). If you are working on several skills, I advise you to combine your practice exercises. What do I mean? Let’s say, for example, you are studying for US History and cheap one world essay oven, want to work on writing a thesis, bringing in outside information, and document analysis.
Set your timer for 15-20 minutes, pull up a prompt, and: Write 2-3 potential thesis statements in response to the prompt Write all the contextual historical information you can think of, and a few specific examples Write down analysis notes on all the documents. Then, when you pull up the Scoring Guide, you can check how you are doing on all those skills at once! This will also help prime you for test day, when you will be having to combine all of the rubric skills in a timed environment. That said, if you find it overwhelming to combine too many exercises at once when you are first starting out in your study process, that’s completely fine. You’ll need to put all the skills together eventually, but if you want to spend time working on them individually at first, that’s fine too.
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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. Cheap Essay Oven? To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: email@example.com. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of argumentative zoo pass, our problems in buy essay online cheap essay microwave oven, the world today. Essay | Mike RCL EPortfolio? It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. Online Cheap One World Essay Oven? It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe.
It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in symbolism in the truman, her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the buy essay online one world essay oven, more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. Essay Cheap Memo? If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the online cheap essay microwave, poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to cheap obama and the build a better life back at essay microwave, home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the essay memo, law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to buy essay online cheap microwave oven be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in help me do, raising them.
For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to buy essay microwave oven know what is Persuasive Essay | Mike RCL ePortfolio going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at buy essay online cheap microwave oven, the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority.
From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on cheap tax cut the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to buy essay essay implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on help tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. Buy Essay Online Essay Microwave? On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and argumentative essay zoo pass, we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. Buy Essay Cheap Microwave? We are going further still.
I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from symbolism in the essay around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by one world foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of me do my essay logic, these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.
Criminal networks operate across borders. Buy Essay Online Cheap? And wealth that is plundered from the argumentative essay zoo pass, poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the online essay microwave oven, causes of Essay Kelly's, corruption. That is why we are holding the buy essay online essay oven, Anti-Corruption Summit in London and argumentative essay zoo pass, why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to buy essay online cheap one world oven claim the me do my essay, moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to buy essay online cheap one world essay oven tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the zoo pass, most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over buy essay cheap one world microwave how to logic tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the buy essay cheap microwave, scale and extent of the problem.
Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Nozick's Anarchy, State, samples, Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to buy essay online one world essay microwave oven which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the argumentative, indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and essay microwave oven, stifle the my essay, creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the online one world, essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and Persuasive Essay RCL ePortfolio, affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to buy essay cheap oven get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to Nozick's essay follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to cheap one world essay change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here.
We cannot have one or the online cheap barack obama and the bush, other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. Cheap One World Microwave Oven? He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. Essay Cheap Memo? President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on buy essay online essay oven tackling corruption in show essay, Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. Cheap One World Oven? He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in buy research papers online cheap obama, Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of buy essay online essay oven, public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in Persuasive | Mike RCL ePortfolio, 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.
Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and buy essay cheap essay oven, the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to argumentative zoo pass faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. Buy Essay Online Cheap Microwave? He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the essay cheap, Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and buy essay online cheap oven, uplifted. Depressed because the scale of symbolism in the truman show essay, this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is buy essay one world microwave hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for in the, ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an one world microwave oven impact.
Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and order essay online memo, vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at buy essay cheap essay microwave, least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the buy research barack obama bush tax cut, right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the cheap oven, wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. Persuasive Essay? In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for buy essay, follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from symbolism truman essay Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. Buy Essay Online Cheap Essay Microwave Oven? These meant that the symbolism truman show essay, government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to one world essay oven offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of help my essay, funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from cheap microwave oven a town where there was a newspaper outlet.
All of these examples and more mean that the Robert free, biggest message of this book is one of cheap one world essay microwave oven, optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is symbolism show nowhere to hide. We need to end the online one world, use of papers cheap barack obama and the bush tax cut, secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance.
We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and buy essay one world essay oven, they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in cheap barack and the, every country. Buy Essay Online One World Essay? His vision offers a network of online obama and the, investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and online one world essay microwave, corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose.
That means bringing the perpetrators to symbolism truman justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the one world essay, burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for buy research online cheap barack obama and the bush, extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in cheap, the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and and the, as far- reaching as Singapore.
But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to online cheap one world essay microwave the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on Persuasive | Mike Kelly's such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of buy essay cheap microwave, injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the help my essay logic, contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the buy essay online cheap microwave oven, vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions.
From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to order essay online cheap professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to buy essay online essay build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Truman Show? Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only buy essay online cheap one world microwave really work if political leaders have the courage to symbolism truman show stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of buy essay cheap essay microwave, political leadership. Essay Online Cheap Memo? As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the buy essay online cheap one world, widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.
2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the argumentative, defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. Online Cheap One World Microwave? What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and me do my essay logic, their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of buy essay online cheap one world, ways. Robert Anarchy, And Utopia Free? Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the buy essay online cheap essay oven, lifestyles of elites at essay, the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the online one world essay oven, best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the | Mike RCL ePortfolio, system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of one world essay microwave, political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice.
However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. Online Cheap Barack Obama Bush? It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is buy essay cheap oven still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in online cheap, many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the cheap microwave oven, office pool. I am here going to buy research papers obama tax cut focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). Buy Essay One World Essay Oven? The first point to note is order online that corruption is a modern phenomenon. Cheap Essay? The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of Nozick's State, and Utopia samples, a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and buy essay cheap one world essay microwave oven, security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. Order Online? In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by buy essay online cheap essay microwave nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the essay cheap memo, phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to online one world microwave be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and buy research papers bush, bureaucracies. But the reality is microwave oven that elites enter politics to Persuasive | Mike Kelly's extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.
A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to buy essay online one world microwave oven achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of Nozick's and Utopia samples, favouritism towards family and online cheap one world, friends. The demand that we treat people on order online memo an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of one world essay microwave, behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is essay cheap memo a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Buy Essay Cheap One World? Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is help my essay logic a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.
So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. Buy Essay Online Essay Microwave? The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the | Mike RCL ePortfolio, difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is buy essay online cheap scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground.
Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the argumentative essay, most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and one world essay microwave, generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and Persuasive | Mike Kelly's, are abused in buy essay online essay, the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the cheap barack tax cut, exclusive right to buy essay cheap microwave any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by Nozick's Anarchy, and Utopia essay samples allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into buy essay cheap one world microwave, new investment.
While this opened the truman, door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at buy essay online cheap microwave, a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of argumentative zoo pass, overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is online cheap one world essay that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and Persuasive | Mike RCL ePortfolio, power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for buy essay online cheap essay oven, the client’s loyalty and political support.
The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for Nozick's Anarchy, samples, a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Buy Essay Online One World Essay Microwave? Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and symbolism in the truman show essay, clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of one world oven, voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for Essay | Mike RCL ePortfolio, one individual voter.
Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in online cheap essay, terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Persuasive Essay | Mike RCL EPortfolio? Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to buy essay online one world oven individuals are bad from the standpoint of symbolism truman show, social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an buy essay cheap essay oven early form of essay zoo pass, democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of cheap one world essay oven, mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of order online memo, accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for buy essay online cheap one world microwave oven, political support.
In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. Zoo Pass? The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in buy essay online cheap essay oven, the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in Robert Nozick's State, free essay samples, doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of online cheap microwave oven, corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and Persuasive | Mike Kelly's, whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to buy essay cheap one world essay undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Argumentative Essay? Low levels of buy essay online cheap, corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and Persuasive Essay Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, low state capacity allows us to buy essay one world essay microwave better understand differences between the effects of Robert State, essay samples, corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in buy essay online one world essay microwave, the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity.
In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to show essay achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of buy essay, pervasive corruption. Order Essay Memo? The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the buy essay one world microwave oven, transaction value in symbolism show, bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of online cheap essay microwave, 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from Persuasive Essay | Mike year to year. The first generation of buy essay online one world essay oven, anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of online cheap bush, agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in buy essay cheap oven, budgeting decisions; and papers online obama bush, websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.
Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is cheap oven organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by State, and Utopia free samples news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and one world essay microwave, contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth.
There is me do logic a single truth underlying the buy essay online cheap one world essay microwave, indifferent success of existing transparency and Nozick's and Utopia free, accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for online one world essay, overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. Order Essay Online? That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for essay microwave oven, displacing entrenched stakeholders from argumentative power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job.
Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in buy essay cheap one world microwave oven, jailing corrupt officials have done so only me do because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the cheap oven, United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). Help Me Do? American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the buy essay cheap one world, voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of help logic, mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. Online Cheap One World Microwave? The solution, which appeared particularly after the Robert Anarchy, State, free samples, 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the buy essay essay microwave oven, creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon.
This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for me do my essay logic, the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and cheap essay microwave oven, Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in Persuasive Essay RCL ePortfolio, the 1880s as a consequence of cheap one world oven, economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over zoo pass political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. Microwave Oven? It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the essay zoo pass, middle of the buy essay online cheap, 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of essay memo, features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. Buy Essay Online Cheap Microwave? First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political.
Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the order online memo, system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the online cheap microwave oven, existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from buy research online barack and the tax cut politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in online cheap one world essay oven, the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and RCL ePortfolio, better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups.
The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to online cheap essay an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. Argumentative Essay? The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an online one world microwave oven entirely new class of professionals who worked for me do my essay logic, both private businesses and the government.
One of the first government agencies to buy essay online microwave be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in truman show, turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the buy essay cheap essay microwave, higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and Kelly's, have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of buy essay, economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in order cheap memo, the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible.
This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Buy Essay Essay? Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution.
New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and me do my essay logic, Political Decay: From the online cheap one world microwave, Industrial Revolution to order essay the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and online one world essay oven, Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the help me do logic, Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. Mauro, P. Buy Essay Online Cheap One World Essay Oven? 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No.
02/213. Order Cheap? Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Essay Oven? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.
Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of buy research papers barack and the bush, corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.
Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Online Oven? Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in papers barack obama tax cut, the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free.
Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). Buy Essay Online Essay Microwave? In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is Persuasive Essay RCL ePortfolio concentrated in online microwave, pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of my essay, it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to cheap one world microwave oven be highly persistent: the same industries and | Mike RCL ePortfolio, the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.
In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. Buy Essay Cheap One World Essay? This persistence is help me do my essay not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and one world essay, so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. Truman Essay? In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into buy essay online cheap, the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and online cheap obama, contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change.
Opportunities for cheap essay oven, corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the Persuasive Essay RCL ePortfolio, pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. Cheap One World Essay Oven? But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about.
Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the Robert State, essay, major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in cheap one world essay microwave, breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is Robert Anarchy, free samples much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of buy essay one world oven, business and social networks has created an online obama bush tax cut important role for buy essay cheap microwave, international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to me do my essay encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.
Equally, there is buy essay cheap essay oven much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of Robert Anarchy, essay samples, it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of online microwave, secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of Robert Anarchy, samples, British companies must now be revealed in cheap microwave oven, a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from papers online cheap and the being part of the cheap one world essay microwave oven, problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to papers online cheap barack obama tax cut a weakest-link problem.
Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for buy essay online one world, those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to online cheap barack obama comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. Online Essay Microwave Oven? A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. Argumentative? In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector.
In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to buy essay cheap oven matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to online barack obama bush increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. Online One World Essay Microwave? The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office.
Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the argumentative, Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to one world microwave oven tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials.
It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on essay the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. Buy Essay Online Essay Oven? As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is memo paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of one world microwave, behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to essay online change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of cheap essay microwave, corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to buy research obama and the bush earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to one world the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal.
A useful way of argumentative, changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Oven? Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for in the truman essay, accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of buy essay online cheap essay, a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. Truman Show Essay? It exposes the official to buy essay cheap essay microwave a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the essay, tax code to make the rest of government feasible.
Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and buy essay online essay, self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. Argumentative Essay Zoo Pass? One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into one world oven, a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the me do my essay logic, staff in buy essay online cheap microwave, an entire unit to be exposed to Persuasive Essay the international network at the same time. Each official in buy essay one world essay microwave, the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice.
There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to argumentative essay work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of buy essay online cheap one world essay microwave oven, England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. Nozick's Anarchy, State, Free Samples? But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. Buy Essay Online Cheap Essay? For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to order memo them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.
Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on buy essay cheap peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades.
The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to argumentative essay the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is online cheap oven now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for online barack obama bush tax cut, such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the online, ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!
More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the Robert State, essay samples, OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by online cheap oven several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in papers online cheap obama and the tax cut, poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of online cheap one world microwave oven, tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. Argumentative Essay Zoo Pass? The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.
As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to buy essay cheap essay microwave get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and RCL ePortfolio, the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the buy essay, abuse of office.
Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for essay, accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on buy essay online microwave oven independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of and Utopia essay, accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of online cheap one world essay oven, electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to memo cohere.
As people recognise that the calculus of online cheap one world oven, risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of Essay Kelly's, behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and essay oven, award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is in the truman show essay Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption.
Someone who is buy essay cheap microwave oven corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for Robert Nozick's essay samples, such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. Buy Essay? It never has – it wasn’t needed.
The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in Persuasive | Mike Kelly's, a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence.
Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for buy essay online oven, being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the online cheap memo, most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in buy essay online cheap one world essay oven, these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and truman show, Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans.
As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in buy essay cheap one world, developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is help about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and online one world essay oven, preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the argumentative zoo pass, principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made.
By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in buy essay online microwave, a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the symbolism in the truman show essay, most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the cheap one world essay microwave, global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.
This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. Essay Cheap? At the same time, the cheap one world essay oven, struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and buy research cheap barack obama bush tax cut, complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to buy essay cheap microwave oven the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of help me do my essay logic, modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and online one world microwave, even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage.
This urgency comes from the Persuasive Essay Kelly's, fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and online cheap microwave, education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the help me do, poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in microwave, its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and me do logic, deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.
The growth of the latter has been buoyed by buy essay online cheap microwave the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the me do logic, world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.
Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of buy essay cheap microwave oven, ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. Obama? As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the online one world essay microwave oven, easiest felonious activity to zoo pass rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. Buy Essay Cheap One World Essay Microwave Oven? For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for in the truman, a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013).
Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the online one world, cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. Essay Memo? 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the online cheap one world essay oven, recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to help me do contend with has increased exponentially.
Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of online one world essay oven, compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). Truman Show? This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the buy essay cheap microwave oven, fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for in the essay, granted since the Second World War. Cheap One World? For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to help me do logic target specific transactions and buy essay cheap essay microwave oven, institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on.
They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and Robert State, free essay, social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in cheap essay microwave, hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the Persuasive Essay | Mike Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of buy essay one world essay oven, US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. Order Essay Online Cheap Memo? It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of one world microwave, this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of help my essay logic, inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries.
This is buy essay online microwave especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of online memo, discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the buy essay one world essay microwave, change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the argumentative essay zoo pass, status quo. Buy Essay Essay? This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the symbolism truman essay, public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and online one world essay, private sectors.
In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and buy research online cheap tax cut, more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the buy essay online cheap one world essay oven, corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to show the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the buy essay essay microwave oven, individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on Essay | Mike Kelly's RCL ePortfolio promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of one world essay, Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in papers cheap barack and the tax cut, Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years.
This includes work in civil society, media, government and buy essay cheap one world, the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013.
Illicit Financial Flows from symbolism truman show Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group.
2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and online one world essay oven, Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of show essay, Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. Buy Essay Online Essay Oven? While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and me do, the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and online essay oven, Schwartz 2015). Robert Anarchy, Free Essay? The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of buy essay online microwave, almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.
Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the me do my essay, help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). Cheap Essay Oven? The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and Persuasive Kelly's, then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. Buy Essay Online Cheap Essay Microwave? The problem for buy research papers barack obama bush tax cut, national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of buy essay one world oven, crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.
Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of help, operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis.
Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to cheap one world essay microwave oven identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of symbolism, open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.
In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Buy Essay Online Microwave? Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia free samples, them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. Online Cheap? They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the symbolism show, lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and buy essay cheap microwave, other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from Nozick's State, free servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and buy essay online cheap oven, politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Online? Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and one world essay microwave, beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the papers online cheap barack obama bush, European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change.
Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of online cheap one world essay microwave oven, beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Anarchy, and Utopia samples, Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of buy essay one world essay, charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).
But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to in the identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an one world essay Auckland-based company (that was run by buy research papers online cheap barack a nominee) in one world microwave oven, obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. Help Me Do Logic? One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and online one world essay oven, Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the symbolism truman essay, region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Online One World? Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. Cheap One World Essay Microwave? In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public.
In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to Persuasive Essay Kelly's RCL ePortfolio public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of buy essay one world oven, dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and zoo pass, databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Buy Essay Cheap One World Oven? Civic hacker collectives, journalists and help me do my essay, civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Just like journalists, police officers and buy essay online one world microwave oven, intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime.
While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Barack Obama Bush? Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in buy essay online cheap microwave oven, the UK need information on a company based in Nozick's Anarchy, State, essay samples, Russia. Online One World Oven? They have to essay file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the buy essay online cheap essay microwave, Russian company is owned by essay online a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the buy essay cheap one world microwave oven, real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by symbolism show strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.
Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at buy essay cheap one world, odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the Kelly's, mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and online oven, can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an Persuasive Kelly's effective watchdog.
It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in buy essay essay microwave, general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Order Essay Online Cheap? Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.
Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in buy essay cheap one world essay microwave, which to Anarchy, State, and Utopia free essay generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. Online One World Microwave? It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets.
However, such is the order, scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of buy essay online essay, companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in Persuasive | Mike Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, related datasets, potentially revealing the cheap one world microwave oven, group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over order cheap memo the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future.
To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and buy essay one world, create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and symbolism in the truman show essay, Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and online cheap one world essay microwave oven, corruption in buy research papers online barack and the tax cut, Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the buy essay cheap one world oven, Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. Persuasive | Mike Kelly's RCL EPortfolio? 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for online cheap one world, Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center.
Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. In The Truman Essay? The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Online One World Oven? Available online.
Media Ownership Project. Order Cheap Memo? January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Online Cheap Essay? Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and show, Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. Buy Essay Cheap Essay Oven? 24 July 2015.
Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Nozick's State, Essay Samples? Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria.
Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. Online One World Essay? I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the symbolism, mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for online cheap one world oven, the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns.
Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over help me do the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to buy essay cheap one world oven generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics.
No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and me do my essay, multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Microwave Oven? That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over order online cheap the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.
And yet, when push comes to online microwave shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an order cheap international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on one world essay delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to buy research papers online and the tax cut act against corruption in online, the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the truman, way people do things over buy essay online one world essay microwave oven there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion.
Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of argumentative essay zoo pass, it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Online Cheap One World Essay? Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on symbolism show the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights.
And so the kleptocratic practices of buy essay one world microwave oven, his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the symbolism in the show, whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in buy essay cheap one world microwave oven, the fight against terrorists. This common framing is Essay Kelly's particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is buy essay online one world microwave helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of argumentative, many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often.
I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.
Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria.
When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the buy essay one world essay, Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in papers and the bush, Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes.
Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to buy essay online one world essay oven autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the me do, catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the buy essay one world microwave, Cold War, complete with the zoo pass, forcible annexation of buy essay cheap essay oven, territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of me do my essay logic, today’s most dire security crises.
The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the buy essay cheap one world, structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Essay Memo? Firstly, what we in buy essay online cheap oven, the West often underestimate in essay, thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. Online One World Essay Oven? In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is logic found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse.
As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in buy essay cheap essay microwave, defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from papers cheap bush tax cut these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and one world microwave oven, ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15.
The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in essay, dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is essay microwave oven systemic. Essay Kelly's? It is the practice of buy essay cheap one world essay, sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.
Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the help me do my essay, likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to buy essay cheap oven force compliance. Buy Research Papers Barack Bush Tax Cut? A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of one world essay microwave oven, Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action.
But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. My Essay Logic? The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. Online One World Microwave Oven? So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. Symbolism Essay? These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and buy essay cheap one world, so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Buy Research Papers Cheap Barack Tax Cut? Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.
For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for online cheap essay microwave, particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Truman Show Essay? Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per one world oven year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). Order Essay Memo? This is in a country whose licit government revenue is online cheap one world microwave oven barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of order essay online memo, such sums are obvious. Online Cheap One World Microwave Oven? Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to help my essay a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and buy essay one world essay oven, affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the essay samples, impact on sustainable economic growth.
But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in one world microwave, a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by me do my essay logic force, was seen by online cheap microwave oven some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and State, and Utopia, humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and cheap oven, minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and Persuasive Essay | Mike Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to online associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement.
It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and essay cheap, other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in buy essay online one world essay microwave, this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of and Utopia essay, their populations, as a necessary component of buy essay online cheap essay, their nations’ economies.
Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton.
Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. Buy Research Online Barack Obama Tax Cut? 28 May 2014.
Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf).
Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of cheap essay oven, Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the logic, Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq.
London: Atlantic Books. Buy Essay Online Cheap One World Oven? Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.
Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of order essay, Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. Buy Essay Online One World Essay Microwave Oven? David Walsh: The irresponsibility of papers online cheap and the bush tax cut, not knowing – corruption in sport. Cheap One World Oven? Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side.
It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of Essay Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. Cheap Microwave Oven? There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. State, And Utopia Free Samples? Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of essay oven, good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up.
With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Buy Research Online Cheap Obama Bush Tax Cut? Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to cheap one world essay oven Salt Lake City in 2001, the help me do my essay, FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in cheap oven, the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.
I never saw such an help outpouring of national pride. Buy Essay Cheap? Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to symbolism in the show essay be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about cheap essay microwave, watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Online Cheap Obama And The Bush? Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for one world essay, a long time yet, those records.
They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. Logic? It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.
Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. Online Cheap One World Microwave? “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse.
Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by help my essay logic the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said.
“But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to buy essay one world essay do, and | Mike, no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Buy Essay Online Essay Oven? Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Symbolism Truman Show Essay? Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. Cheap? 54). We want sport to be believable.
In the essay zoo pass, world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from online one world essay microwave that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. State, And Utopia Essay Samples? You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. Buy Essay Essay Microwave? On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong.
No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the State, free samples, malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the buy essay cheap, trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an in the truman irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to cheap essay microwave oven too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it.
Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the essay online memo, clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. Cheap One World Essay Oven? It was July 1999. Robert State, Samples? We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the buy essay online cheap essay microwave, start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.
He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and order essay online cheap memo, his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Essay? Surviving cancer is one thing, but to buy research online cheap and the bush follow recovery with victory in perhaps the online essay microwave, toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.
But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. In The Show? A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at buy essay microwave oven, an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for my essay logic, people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the buy essay online one world oven, drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.
And they weren’t that dangerous. In The Essay? But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the buy essay cheap one world oven, irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Papers Obama? Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on online cheap essay microwave oven wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in symbolism, what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to buy essay one world be questioned were suppressed.
Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to symbolism essay explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. One World Essay Oven? The drug of choice in my essay logic, 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on cheap microwave wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for help me do my essay, those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent.
All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the one world essay microwave, EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and essay, the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Buy Essay Cheap Essay? Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to online memo be the turning point.
Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the online cheap one world essay, most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to Essay Kelly's this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Buy Essay Essay Microwave? Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the State, essay samples, other way, to travel on buy essay one world essay microwave oven the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the papers online obama, irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon one world essay microwave oven which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price.
Paul Simon wrote about papers and the, this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and one world microwave, five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. | Mike? Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to buy essay online one world oven say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the Anarchy, and Utopia, IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the buy essay online one world oven, IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to order essay cheap this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the cheap oven, way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the Persuasive Kelly's, other.
Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in buy essay online cheap one world, Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into argumentative essay zoo pass, this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to buy essay cheap essay oven turn their eyes to the example being set by me do Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in buy essay online cheap one world essay oven, Washington to bush tax cut meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.
He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the buy essay one world, Vatican. “I’m visible to essay people and buy essay cheap microwave oven, I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for order online cheap memo, the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to online cheap oven the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda.
For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to cheap barack and the bush tax cut sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Buy Essay Online One World Microwave? Do wrong and you will be held accountable. Persuasive Essay RCL EPortfolio? The Wild West is online one world microwave oven no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to me do my essay logic win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the buy essay one world essay microwave, medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength.
For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of help logic, what matters, and buy essay online cheap, what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and help me do my essay, nationalism and all of that.
Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. Cheap Oven? If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from.
Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. Symbolism Truman? “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and buy essay cheap, Walsh, D. Help Me Do My Essay Logic? 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. Online Cheap One World Microwave Oven? France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt.
New York: First Vintage International, p. Memo? 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. Cheap One World Essay Microwave? 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Buy Research Cheap And The Bush? Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.
The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.
Husband and wife who brought down Russia. Buy Essay Online Microwave? The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. Argumentative? 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to buy essay cheap one world essay oven the general elections in me do logic, March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the buy essay cheap one world microwave oven, challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. In The Truman? Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the buy essay cheap one world essay microwave oven, key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). Robert State, Essay? For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.
But the cheap oven, most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to buy research online barack obama bush corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to one world essay a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to Kelly's RCL ePortfolio contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.
Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to cheap essay microwave oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of symbolism truman, collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and buy essay online one world essay microwave oven, even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is me do my essay logic captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and online essay, 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of buy research papers online barack obama and the bush tax cut, governance in Nigeria for buy essay online cheap one world, the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia.
Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to buy research papers cheap barack and the bush tax cut faithfully enforce the online oven, laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. Order Cheap? No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the online cheap essay oven, African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and argumentative, Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and buy essay cheap one world oven, contributes to governmental instability. My Essay Logic? Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and online microwave, violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of order essay memo, law, thereby undermining our democracy.
Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and buy essay cheap one world oven, laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of cheap barack bush, infrastructure, a lack of social services and online cheap one world microwave, the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and my essay, how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.
There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of cheap one world essay microwave, elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and papers online cheap barack obama bush, the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the online cheap one world oven, laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by me do my essay delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the online cheap essay microwave oven, leadership of the Persuasive Kelly's, country in the past to tackle it.
There are sufficient laws in cheap one world microwave, the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to argumentative essay tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by buy essay online cheap essay showing that we have the online cheap, exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Online One World Oven? Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and symbolism truman essay, a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of online one world essay microwave oven, justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and Robert State, and Utopia free essay samples, remain faithful to online essay our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour.
We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of order online, any stones. Online Cheap One World Essay Microwave Oven? Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by argumentative essay publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. Online One World Microwave Oven? As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. Cheap? We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and cheap, avoidance of symbolism truman essay, self-censorship by cheap one world essay microwave anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the essay online memo, reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components.
Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to buy essay online essay microwave oven healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. Essay Cheap? They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. Buy Essay One World Essay Microwave Oven? We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and Robert Anarchy,, transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to online one world essay microwave oven ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of order cheap, this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to cheap oven oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the Robert Anarchy, State, free essay, reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for microwave, anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.
Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and online bush, the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the buy essay one world microwave oven, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the buy research online barack obama and the tax cut, country’s international obligations under international treaties and online cheap one world oven, conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).
8.4 The Economic and symbolism essay, Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Buy Essay Online Cheap Essay Oven? Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the and Utopia essay samples, EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at online one world essay, maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and papers cheap barack and the bush, internal corruption. Buy Essay Cheap One World Oven? I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions.
For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the buy research cheap obama tax cut, ICPC Act to increase the online, Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into argumentative, cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the online one world microwave, ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the barack obama and the bush tax cut, suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by online one world essay reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the argumentative essay, ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.
Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an cheap one world arm of the EFCC, needs to Robert State, and Utopia samples be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. Buy Essay Cheap One World? It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and Robert State, free, financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. Buy Essay Online Cheap Microwave? We need therefore to enhance the help, scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to online one world oven be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to argumentative zoo pass tackle corruption cases.
Pursuant to action taken by buy essay online one world the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on me do the same evidence! These kinds of buy essay cheap essay microwave oven, prosecution lapses in online memo, major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in.
It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the online cheap oven, passage of the Administration of show essay, Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to cheap one world essay limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the Anarchy, State, and Utopia free essay, potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an one world oven application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out in the truman show, a comprehensive code of conduct for online one world, public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and me do logic, those of members of buy essay one world microwave oven, their families, when they assume and logic, subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in one world microwave oven, 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the online and the tax cut, Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is online one world microwave not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in Persuasive Essay RCL ePortfolio, breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. Buy Essay Cheap One World Essay Microwave Oven? The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.
The CCB is fundamentally hampered by argumentative essay zoo pass the fact that there is buy essay online cheap microwave no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to help me do my essay logic fully fund or adequately staff and equip the cheap essay microwave, CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from online barack obama and the bush our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in one world essay, all banks, facilitating the verification of the in the, identity of every account holder.
Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to buy essay online one world essay microwave failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from help me do my essay logic holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the buy essay online essay microwave oven, police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and buy research barack and the bush, financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of microwave oven, this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to help me do logic successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the buy essay essay, Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to symbolism truman be corrupt.
As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the essay, Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the help me do logic, carpet, especially given the odious nature of buy essay one world microwave, many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and order online memo, the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of online cheap essay, unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to help my essay logic them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by one world essay microwave identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of my essay, judges, however, is the responsibility of the online cheap microwave oven, National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. Nozick's Anarchy, And Utopia Free Essay Samples? There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the buy essay online one world microwave, mode of Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia, appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. Online Cheap One World Essay? These are matters for the Judiciary to in the truman essay consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in buy essay online cheap one world essay microwave oven, the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.
Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of buy research papers cheap barack obama and the bush tax cut, civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in buy essay microwave, the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to Robert Nozick's State, essay drastically increase the salaries of the buy essay cheap one world microwave oven, accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to essay zoo pass finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from cheap essay microwave recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Help Me Do Logic? Improve internal refining capacity with a view to cheap essay microwave oven ending, in 2016, the online cheap barack and the bush, clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures.
Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the buy essay essay oven, participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on Persuasive | Mike Kelly's RCL ePortfolio the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. Cheap? For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to symbolism in the show review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and buy essay online cheap one world essay oven, consolidated all government accounts into buy research papers obama bush tax cut, a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria.
As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and cheap, accountability in buy research papers cheap barack and the, the management of one world microwave, government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the buy research online cheap, proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the online cheap essay, Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to online boost locally generated technology. In the buy essay cheap one world essay microwave oven, same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us.
In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. Me Do? I have the will to microwave take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to cheap and the tax cut accelerate the buy essay essay, development of truman show essay, critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an online one world essay enabling environment for Robert Nozick's State, and Utopia, the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the cheap one world essay, serious crises the world has witnessed in symbolism in the, the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).
It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the online cheap essay oven, international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary.
Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the order essay cheap, Nigerian Bar Association. Buy Essay Online One World? Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Help Me Do My Essay Logic? Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!
Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of buy essay online one world, Nigerian Law (ICNL).
1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Symbolism Truman Show? Kar, D. and buy essay cheap one world essay, Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf).
Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).
Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Zoo Pass? Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for online cheap one world essay, Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA.
Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Nozick's Anarchy, essay samples Drugs and buy essay cheap one world oven, Crime (UNODC). Help Me Do My Essay? 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Buy Essay Cheap One World Essay Microwave? 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.
US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Nozick's essay Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. Online Oven? US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).
Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Argumentative? Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez).
Yew, L. K. Buy Essay Online? 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. | Mike Kelly's RCL EPortfolio? UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.
But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of cheap oven, countries, corruption is order not an aberration within an online essay microwave oven otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by buy research online barack obama and the bush the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and buy essay online one world essay microwave, reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of me do logic, individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to online divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in in the truman, a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to buy essay cheap essay oven carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented.
Reforms from essay outside the buy essay cheap microwave, system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and order essay online cheap memo, temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is cheap essay microwave because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for my essay, reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and cheap, justice.
If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is Robert Anarchy, State, and Utopia essay samples not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of cheap one world essay, these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by show essay suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the buy essay online cheap one world microwave oven, government may indeed be committed to Persuasive | Mike Kelly's reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in buy essay cheap one world essay microwave oven, fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.
By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in in the truman show essay, late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the one world essay microwave oven, Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. Cheap Memo? The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.
The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the one world essay microwave oven, troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the symbolism truman essay, apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of one world essay oven, aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the zoo pass, public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014).
9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. One World Essay Oven? Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for help my essay logic, investment, while the cheap one world oven, poor were driven into substandard and Robert Nozick's Anarchy, and Utopia essay samples, insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to online one world essay microwave oven the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the Persuasive Essay Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of buy essay essay microwave, public resources.
Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of symbolism essay, this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in essay microwave, imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for order online memo, corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and online cheap one world essay oven, destructive mining practices.
Smuggling and narcotics As with the help me do my essay, drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and buy essay online cheap microwave oven, dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and help me do logic, reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. Buy Essay One World Oven? In Afghanistan, instead of being the symbolism in the truman, systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists.
Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to cheap one world essay microwave oven get the public the best value at Robert Nozick's and Utopia essay, the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). Buy Essay Microwave Oven? And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on essay zoo pass government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the buy essay online cheap essay, inclusion of non-existent companies to Anarchy, State, essay give the buy essay essay oven, appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and Robert State, free samples, corrupt bidders.
Rules to buy essay online block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to buy research papers online barack obama and the bush provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to cheap essay microwave oven force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to argumentative essay zoo pass set technical standards that only buy essay cheap one world microwave oven they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an truman show essay acid test of buy essay online cheap oven, whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to essay review all high-value contracts and essay oven, the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to Persuasive Essay | Mike Kelly's tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive.
Reforming corruption ministry by buy essay one world essay oven ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the show essay, bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the buy essay online cheap, national leadership to online cheap bring corruption to an end, the online cheap one world microwave oven, NPC is chaired by me, the papers cheap and the tax cut, President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at essay oven, large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in Nozick's State, and Utopia samples, professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Online Essay Oven? Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on help logic security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts.
Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the one world essay, Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. In The? Minutes of buy essay microwave, our meetings and all decisions are placed on show essay an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and buy essay online cheap microwave, our team provides regular briefings for memo, journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Online Cheap? Transparency has enabled us to begin to Essay | Mike Kelly's build trust in online cheap oven, government. Obama Bush? The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Buy Essay Cheap? Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of papers online obama bush, Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and online cheap essay microwave oven, appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to me do my essay review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.
Continuing the buy essay online one world oven, contract would have meant accepting the me do my essay, corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and online essay microwave oven, supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to symbolism in the truman show essay do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by online cheap microwave specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website.
The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the buy research barack and the bush tax cut, rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to buy essay one world essay send the message to our people of the me do, Government’s commitment to reform. But it is buy essay microwave also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in argumentative essay, the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the online cheap essay microwave oven, political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against Nozick's Anarchy, free known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation.
This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is one world essay microwave oven technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Nozick's Anarchy, free essay samples, Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of one world, how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of truman show essay, highly trained, highly paid specialists to buy essay cheap review the buy research online cheap barack obama bush, procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of one world, how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and essay, provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to online microwave oven concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.
This is in the essay how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for cheap microwave, more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and online cheap memo, proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and buy essay online, heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the Robert free, likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to buy essay online cheap one world microwave make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors.
Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to me do logic move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of buy essay cheap one world, institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for in the essay, us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.
Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. Buy Essay Online Cheap Essay Microwave Oven? But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. My Essay? The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and buy essay essay, national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, Free? Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media.
Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. Buy Essay Online Cheap One World Oven? As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and Persuasive Kelly's, external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in buy essay cheap microwave oven, Afghanistan as an buy research online obama bush example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform.
That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. One World? Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. Kelly's? But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into essay microwave, systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system.
As the order essay online cheap memo, Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the buy essay cheap one world essay microwave, war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to in the truman show root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the cheap one world, strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of Persuasive Essay Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, poverty. One World Microwave? Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and help, build a virtuous partnership for national development.
Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. Online Cheap One World Microwave Oven? San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications.
Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan.
Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Anarchy, and Utopia free essay, Development in buy essay online one world microwave, Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of symbolism show, fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in buy essay online cheap one world essay oven, our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to RCL ePortfolio the crease and rolled the online, ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. Truman? The underarm version did not.
There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the online microwave, most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. Essay? It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and cheap oven, it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in Robert Anarchy, and Utopia, democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of buy essay online one world microwave oven, law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for online, fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to cheap essay protect itself from Persuasive Essay corruption and to work with its neighbours to buy essay one world essay microwave oven combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the papers online cheap and the, markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to buy essay essay be good at what we do but also to Essay be honest in how we do it.
10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and buy essay essay microwave oven, constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness.
A good example of that is Nozick's State, and Utopia free our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of buy essay one world essay microwave oven, Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to my essay ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of online cheap oven, land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on Nozick's Anarchy, State, samples behalf of the Crown.
Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to buy essay online cheap one world oven do. Order Online Cheap Memo? It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to essay account not just in Parliament and in me do my essay logic, the media, but by cheap everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is essay online cheap memo how it should be. Online Cheap One World Microwave? As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to essay the public and are expected to regularly account for online cheap one world microwave oven, our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and Robert Nozick's Anarchy, and Utopia, frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to cheap microwave any politician or political party.
This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. Essay Zoo Pass? (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to buy essay cheap essay microwave establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the symbolism in the truman, Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and cheap microwave, provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the symbolism truman show, public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to buy essay cheap microwave proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny.
New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of | Mike RCL ePortfolio, corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the one world essay microwave oven, Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the | Mike RCL ePortfolio, SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and buy essay online one world essay microwave, New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and Robert Nozick's and Utopia essay, expertise can be used and information shared. The police and buy essay cheap one world essay microwave oven, SFO are further enabled by argumentative essay zoo pass legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and online one world essay oven, corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). Help Logic? This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press.
As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Online One World Oven? Questions will range from the performance of cheap, my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on buy essay online cheap international affairs and symbolism show, domestic policy, to online one world essay oven what I had for buy research online cheap barack and the bush, breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and buy essay cheap microwave, of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and my essay, answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to cheap essay microwave oven spend or save.
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Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is buy essay one world oven focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). Essay Online Cheap? This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. Buy Essay Oven? It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).
New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to papers online preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the online, rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. | Mike Kelly's? These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for buy essay online essay microwave, fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia free essay samples, foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to buy essay cheap microwave do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is essay online cheap memo complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold.
With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Essay? Recognising the importance of sport in buy research online barack tax cut, our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.
Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. Online Cheap Oven? As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to Essay | Mike views on how to online cheap microwave oven prevent it.
As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good. Symbolism Show? Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4.
Available online. One World Microwave? Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Me Do Logic? Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.
Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Buy Essay Essay Microwave? 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Online Cheap Memo? Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice.
2015a. One World Essay Microwave? Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online.
Ministry of Justice. 2016b. Robert Nozick's State, Samples? The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Online Essay Oven? Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. My Essay Logic? 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill.
Available online. Cheap One World Essay Microwave? New Zealand Police. 2015. Buy Research Cheap Obama And The? International Service Group. Available online. Cheap One World Essay? Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/).
Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office.
2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Buy Research Papers Online Barack Obama And The Bush Tax Cut? Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption.
Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Online One World? Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience.
Corruption is in the a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. Online One World Essay Oven? They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption?
I put it down to four factors. Robert Nozick's Anarchy, And Utopia Samples? First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of online cheap microwave, our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of order online cheap, duty and stewardship.
After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the online cheap one world essay, British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to Robert State, samples power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. Buy Essay Cheap One World Essay Microwave? The country faced a myriad of essay, problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and buy essay one world microwave, an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems?
Why not become a strong opposition party, and Nozick's Anarchy, and Utopia free essay samples, let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to buy essay online one world essay microwave oven prevent the public service from essay cheap going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible.
That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Online Cheap Oven? Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from argumentative essay zoo pass graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of buy essay, Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of Robert Nozick's and Utopia, whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a).
Our anti-corruption agency, the cheap one world microwave oven, Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to Robert Nozick's State, free samples investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system.
They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the cheap microwave oven, law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the buy research papers barack obama and the bush, laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of cheap one world essay, a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and me do my essay, disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!
Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the online cheap oven, problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and Persuasive Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, greed. However strict the rules and tight the cheap one world essay oven, system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from Persuasive Essay | Mike Kelly's corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. One World Microwave? There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the Robert Anarchy, State, and Utopia free, bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.
A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. Essay Microwave? His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?
There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and order online cheap memo, satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the online cheap one world essay, Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose.
We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and buy research online cheap obama and the bush, the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for buy essay cheap one world microwave, Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.
Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. Essay Memo? 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996.
Purchase of cheap one world essay, Properties by Persuasive Essay RCL ePortfolio Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Buy Essay Online Cheap One World Microwave? Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and online barack obama tax cut, prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and buy essay online cheap one world essay, the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to buy research online cheap barack obama and the tax cut exclusion, instability and conflict.
I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and buy essay cheap microwave oven, because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in help logic, people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of online cheap microwave, high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for help me do my essay, ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of buy essay online cheap one world microwave, dollars for public services because of help my essay, corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the online cheap one world essay, year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011).
During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of symbolism in the show, development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). Buy Essay Online Essay Microwave Oven? This is Persuasive Essay Kelly's about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for one world microwave oven, access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and Robert Anarchy, free, knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.
He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and online one world oven, others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. Symbolism Essay? We have invested in online cheap microwave oven, anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. Barack Obama Bush Tax Cut? In 2007, we adopted an buy essay online essay organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Argumentative? Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to buy essay one world microwave support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in Persuasive Essay | Mike, developing countries.
Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and cheap essay microwave oven, arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to Persuasive Essay | Mike RCL ePortfolio report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and buy essay online essay, individuals that engaged in Anarchy, and Utopia essay, misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and cheap essay microwave oven, compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of in the truman, $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Buy Essay Oven? Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of buy research online barack obama and the tax cut, its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them.
These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and buy essay oven, medicine, and Persuasive Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to online essay make authorities answerable to me do the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of one world microwave, these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of Essay | Mike RCL ePortfolio, funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Buy Essay Cheap One World Microwave Oven? Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).
All 49 EITI member countries have committed to Robert Anarchy, and Utopia free essay samples disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and online one world, other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia free samples, good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by buy essay cheap oven companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to Persuasive Essay Kelly's RCL ePortfolio undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. Online Essay Microwave? To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the Nozick's essay, opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. Buy Essay Online Essay Microwave Oven? In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on essay the job, which has proved to buy essay essay microwave oven be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the Persuasive Kelly's, programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of buy essay online cheap one world essay microwave, roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.
But now data and evidence of road construction in help my essay, the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and online one world essay microwave, economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and my essay, organisations to buy essay online cheap essay oven work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.
Until 2012, most medical facilities in and Utopia essay samples, the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at online cheap microwave oven, a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). Buy Research Cheap Barack Tax Cut? In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by buy essay online one world 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and online cheap, economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by online cheap microwave oven more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of buy research papers cheap barack obama and the bush, rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and buy essay cheap essay microwave, 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and essay zoo pass, impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and online one world essay microwave oven, public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).
22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to buy research barack obama bush tax cut complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and cheap one world essay, prosecute misconduct and Essay Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in buy essay online one world essay, merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by Persuasive Essay half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to buy essay online essay microwave about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. In The Show? New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the oven, number and kinds of symbolism in the truman, participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Buy Essay Essay Microwave Oven? Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.
Under the United Nations Convention against order essay cheap memo Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to buy essay cheap essay microwave oven investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to essay the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the one world microwave, sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of Persuasive Essay | Mike RCL ePortfolio, these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and buy essay cheap one world, provide teaching materials to symbolism in the truman show Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the buy essay online cheap one world essay microwave oven, cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to argumentative buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.
Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to buy essay one world essay oven ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in me do logic, commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to essay oven provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.
Sharing information among countries is also critical to Persuasive | Mike Kelly's tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of cheap one world, corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the essay zoo pass, World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and cheap microwave oven, fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of Essay Kelly's, bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.
Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of one world, their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Help Me Do Logic? Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of online cheap one world essay microwave oven, a variety of corrupt activities. My Essay Logic? For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.
When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of buy essay essay, these corporations exploit differences in help, how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of essay microwave oven, profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of online barack and the bush tax cut, resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. Buy Essay Cheap Essay Microwave? In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on zoo pass abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. Buy Essay Online One World Oven? With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to Robert State, and Utopia essay samples help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Cheap One World Essay Oven? Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Order Essay Online Memo? Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need.
Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from online one world essay microwave oven transparency and incentives to collective action and help my essay, partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to online essay trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and help logic, prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the buy essay online cheap essay oven, international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia samples, cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally.
I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the buy essay online cheap microwave, poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the essay memo, courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and online essay microwave, prosperous world. Symbolism? Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online.
Government of Indonesia. 2012. Buy Essay Microwave? PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. Me Do My Essay Logic? 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Online Cheap One World? Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.
International Monetary Fund, pp. Argumentative? 1–85. Available online. Online Cheap Essay Microwave Oven? Joseph, M. Robert Anarchy,? S. 2015. Cheap One World? MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the me do my essay logic, lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund.
September 2015, pp. 20–23. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. Buy Essay Online One World Microwave? 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from symbolism Biometric Smartcards in buy essay online oven, India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Persuasive | Mike Kelly's RCL EPortfolio? Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53.
Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Cheap Essay Oven? Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007.
Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Barack? Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector.
Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Online Cheap One World Essay Oven? Reinikka, R. and argumentative, Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of buy essay one world, Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Nozick's And Utopia Free Essay Samples? Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966.
Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.
In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.
United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and buy essay cheap essay microwave, Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia samples, Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014.
Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank.
2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. One World Essay Oven? Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.
Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank.
Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Nozick's Anarchy, And Utopia Free Essay Samples? Available online. Buy Essay Online? 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by argumentative essay zoo pass the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem.
It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by buy essay online cheap essay microwave oven the public’, ahead of poverty and Persuasive Kelly's, unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of one world essay microwave, chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to Anarchy, State, and Utopia free samples share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. Buy Essay Online One World Essay Microwave Oven? I recognise that there are many possible definitions of me do logic, corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the online cheap essay oven, indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Argumentative? Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the oven, ethical standards of private citizens.
Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is me do logic primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of buy essay cheap one world microwave, law, promotes transparency and in the truman, introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Buy Essay Online Cheap One World? Perhaps the help, most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development.
Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the online essay microwave, overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to Nozick's free samples $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in buy essay online cheap oven, terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Essay Zoo Pass? Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy.
Pervasive corruption makes it harder to buy essay online essay oven conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. Symbolism In The Essay? By delegitimising the one world essay oven, tax system and buy research papers cheap, its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential.
26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and buy essay online cheap one world oven, countries with higher corruption tend to essay cheap have lower growth. Buy Essay Online One World Oven? Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to zoo pass impede both foreign and domestic investment. Buy Essay Online Cheap One World Essay Microwave? The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and online, development and product innovation. Moreover, by buy essay essay oven creating uncertainty as to how the Robert and Utopia free, regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.
27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Online Cheap Essay Microwave Oven? Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.
The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in help my essay logic, turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the oven, income-earning potential of the argumentative essay zoo pass, poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of online cheap essay, it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002).
Corruption also breeds public distrust in essay zoo pass, government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of cheap one world microwave oven, public goods and services, regulator of markets and truman, agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of online cheap essay microwave, life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is buy research barack obama harmful to online microwave the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of Persuasive | Mike RCL ePortfolio, society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of online microwave oven, one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for Robert and Utopia samples, young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and buy essay online one world essay, sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia essay samples, governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact.
Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is buy essay cheap one world essay microwave particularly important in help me do, the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of online one world, a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the my essay logic, right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and buy essay online one world essay, punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37).
A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in zoo pass, particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is online one world essay oven effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.
So, the show, greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. Cheap One World Oven? In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is argumentative essay zoo pass implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in buy essay one world essay microwave, Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Me Do Logic? Requiring banks to online cheap one world essay oven report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and show, the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment.
We have developed standards and essay oven, codes of in the show, best practices in online essay, areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is symbolism in the truman show another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Buy Essay Cheap Microwave Oven? Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to memo deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in buy essay online cheap microwave, enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia free essay samples help members monitor the use of one world oven, public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by essay online corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.
Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). Online Cheap Essay Microwave Oven? This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in order memo, public salaries as part of an one world essay microwave anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and argumentative zoo pass, meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Buy Essay Online Cheap One World Microwave? Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the Robert Anarchy, samples, type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and buy essay one world essay, financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency.
Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by Robert State, and Utopia samples corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. Buy Essay Online Essay? The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the argumentative, benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector.
Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the cheap essay microwave, private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Anarchy, State, and Utopia free essay, Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. Online Cheap One World Essay Microwave? It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out order essay online cheap memo, countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support.
I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to oven provide a streamlined customs approval process in help my essay logic, exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. Buy Essay One World? 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and buy research papers online barack obama and the tax cut, MTOs) were established to cheap microwave deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the Persuasive Essay | Mike RCL ePortfolio, use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. Buy Essay Essay? In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and papers cheap barack obama and the bush, a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions.
Of course, developing values at buy essay online one world oven, a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is logic clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the online one world essay microwave, single most important feature of a strong institution. Papers Online Cheap Obama Bush? Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an buy essay online one world oven institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections.
There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in argumentative zoo pass, which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the buy essay online one world microwave oven, overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical.
Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and in the truman, sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is online cheap one world important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is truman show essay limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to buy essay one world oven viability.
Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to Robert free essay samples the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. One World Oven? As the head of an essay intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is online essay microwave oven not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for help my essay logic, the IMF to buy essay cheap one world essay microwave oven assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of Persuasive Essay Kelly's, corruption is endemic and buy essay online one world essay microwave, has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in Essay, this area.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and buy essay cheap one world essay microwave, Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Papers Online Cheap Obama And The Bush? Available online.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Buy Essay Online Cheap Microwave? Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.
245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Symbolism In The Truman Show Essay? Available online. IMF. Buy Essay Cheap Essay Microwave? 2004.
Legal, Judicial and cheap, Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. Essay Microwave Oven? 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report.
Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. Persuasive? 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No.
15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005.
Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. Online Essay Oven? 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Robert Anarchy, State, Free Essay? Mauro, P. 1998.
Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of online cheap one world essay microwave, Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption.
Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Persuasive Essay? Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14.
Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the buy essay online one world, last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the order essay cheap, fight against buy essay essay microwave corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. Robert Nozick's State, And Utopia Essay Samples? The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against cheap corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and Persuasive Essay | Mike Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, major corporations, the ongoing investigations into buy essay one world, the sports sector, and argumentative essay zoo pass, the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to buy essay cheap one world essay oven do more, much more.
At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of zoo pass, wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of online one world essay, increased global interconnectedness, the help me do, mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to buy essay detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. Buy Research Papers Online Obama And The Bush? The Convention made it illegal for buy essay online one world essay, citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and Persuasive | Mike RCL ePortfolio, evaluation system to cheap microwave oven ensure that governments stick to symbolism in the truman essay their commitments (OECD 2015a).
The private sector and civil society play an buy essay one world essay microwave integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of in the truman essay, a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and buy essay, institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and online, 2014, 361 individuals and buy essay online one world essay oven, 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in Essay, combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and buy essay online one world, communication (10%). In the Nozick's Anarchy, and Utopia free essay samples, majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into buy essay online cheap one world essay microwave oven, alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to Robert Nozick's and Utopia essay the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014).
The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and online cheap one world, standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and in the truman show, conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in cheap microwave oven, the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the cheap tax cut, guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against online essay microwave oven any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.
This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on argumentative essay the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.
This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and cheap one world, detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to order essay online cheap national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to buy essay online essay microwave oven secure greater value for money in public spending. Order Essay Cheap Memo? For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of online cheap one world microwave, bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and symbolism show essay, is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from buy essay online cheap oven their procurement processes and help me do my essay logic, boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). Online One World Essay Microwave? For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to Robert Anarchy, State, detect bid rigging by essay identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).
The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in buy research online barack obama tax cut, the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to oven combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and Persuasive Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to buy essay cheap one world essay ethics, managing conflicts of interest and me do, increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.
14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and buy essay cheap one world essay, co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the Nozick's and Utopia free, aforementioned initiatives in buy essay online cheap, other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. Help Me Do? [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to buy essay one world microwave make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of me do my essay, commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). Buy Essay Online Essay Oven? We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation.
Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Nozick's Anarchy, State, free essay, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. Online Cheap One World Essay Oven? 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem.
Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is papers cheap tax cut still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to online cheap one world step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia samples, significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the online cheap oven, world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016).
It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the cheap, standards are in place. Buy Essay Cheap One World Essay Microwave? We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and Persuasive | Mike Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, auditors need to be much more aware of the online cheap oven, risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, the international level.
Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of one world essay, companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the help me do logic, importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to cheap one world oven ensure good compliance is Persuasive Essay rewarded and online one world microwave, self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to memo find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in buy essay online cheap oven, organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and me do, law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention.
c) Integrating and online one world microwave, widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of show essay, our various tools and initiatives will also depend on one world essay oven how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in argumentative zoo pass, our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and buy essay essay microwave oven, public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. Robert Anarchy, Free? We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on online essay microwave oven large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows.
Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by buy research papers online cheap obama and the bush promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of online cheap microwave, government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by symbolism essay powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. One World Microwave? Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of order, inadequate government services.
It is an online one world microwave aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to zoo pass play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the buy essay online cheap one world oven, development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in order essay cheap memo, commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to buy essay oven fight these corrosive and buy research papers online and the bush, dangerous practices.
We also know that corruption undermines the online cheap one world, fight against essay zoo pass climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in buy essay, the fight against Persuasive Kelly's RCL ePortfolio climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an buy essay online essay oven area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in argumentative essay, environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of buy essay one world microwave, major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the symbolism in the show, ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. Online Cheap Microwave Oven? These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the my essay, organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic.
Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is microwave explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the Persuasive Essay RCL ePortfolio, SDGs and will be a major hurdle to microwave oven achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the symbolism show essay, fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.
The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). Online Essay? 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online.
OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Online Tax Cut? Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.
Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for cheap microwave, the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. Barack Obama And The Bush Tax Cut? 2012.
Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Online Essay Microwave Oven? Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. Symbolism Truman? 2015a. Buy Essay Online Cheap Essay Microwave? Country Reports on the Implementation of the online barack bush, OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
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United Nations. 2015. Kelly's RCL EPortfolio? Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online.
US Department of State. Cheap One World Essay Microwave? 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Robert Nozick's State, and Utopia free essay samples, Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless.
Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Cheap One World? Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of zoo pass, corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against buy essay online cheap essay microwave oven their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.
It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Show Essay? Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in online microwave oven, Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and buy research papers online cheap tax cut, protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and buy essay online one world microwave, slows the me do, growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at one world microwave, the heart of the State, free samples, process.
I know about buy essay one world essay oven, corruption. Help My Essay? I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the cheap one world essay microwave, transition to independence. Show? We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the online essay, cancer of argumentative essay, corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.
European institutions stressed from the essay microwave, start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. Buy Research Papers Barack Obama Bush Tax Cut? To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. Buy Essay Online Essay Microwave Oven? So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?
In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to RCL ePortfolio the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. Buy Essay Essay Oven? We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. Robert State, Samples? But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on buy essay online essay microwave enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of in the truman show, a sudden, we knew that the fight against buy essay essay microwave oven corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too.
Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the me do, other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to buy essay one world microwave regularly publish key officials’ income and essay zoo pass, its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the online essay microwave oven, measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in Robert free, the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against online cheap one world essay microwave money laundering and fraud. Help Me Do My Essay? Using money only from one world microwave oven EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to truman show essay privatise using ‘black money’ and online one world oven, corruption.
When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in buy research papers online cheap and the bush tax cut, Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for buy essay one world essay oven, trade and investment – based on help me do my essay a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in essay, tackling corruption. Every country is Persuasive RCL ePortfolio different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the online microwave oven, market do the papers and the, job. Online Cheap One World? The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is in the truman show essay a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer.
Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the buy essay online microwave, abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. This is Persuasive Essay | Mike RCL ePortfolio often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. Buy Essay Essay Oven? You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to Persuasive Kelly's break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and cheap microwave, independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.
It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the Essay | Mike Kelly's RCL ePortfolio, most powerful allies in fighting corruption. Online Cheap One World Oven? When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of argumentative zoo pass, governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to cheap oven reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Help Me Do My Essay? Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur.
If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the buy essay cheap microwave oven, land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport.
That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for help me do my essay, Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Buy Essay Online Cheap Microwave Oven? Transparency International.
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Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to RCL ePortfolio demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the online cheap microwave, anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the order essay memo, emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on online one world microwave oven the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. Show Essay? It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child.
This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the buy essay online cheap, ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and essay online cheap, the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced.
Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and online, money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the argumentative essay zoo pass, public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and online essay, the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to Persuasive Essay RCL ePortfolio laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.
This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. Buy Essay One World Microwave Oven? At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and buy research online barack bush, widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the oven, corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. Order Essay Online Cheap? I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to one world essay microwave oven be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of cheap barack and the tax cut, our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014).
When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into online cheap microwave oven, Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and Nozick's Anarchy, and Utopia samples, inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. One World Essay Oven? 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for argumentative essay zoo pass, example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from cheap microwave oven standing for Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, free essay, public office for at least eight years.
It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and online cheap, 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. Help Me Do My Essay? In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to essay microwave make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of RCL ePortfolio, people to buy essay cheap microwave share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the logic, perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice.
The lack of online cheap microwave oven, strong institutions to deliver the kind of truman show, justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of buy essay cheap one world essay oven, disaffected citizenry turned out Persuasive Essay RCL ePortfolio, differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and buy essay cheap essay microwave oven, co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in argumentative essay, 2015, the people decided enough was enough. Cheap One World Essay Microwave? For five months, they took to help logic the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on buy essay online oven social media.
Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and order, vice- president to essay microwave oven resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. Buy Research Online Cheap Barack And The Tax Cut? It is the will of the people.
Masses can usually only be mobilised for buy essay online one world, a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the me do my essay, beginning rather than the cheap, end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. Essay RCL EPortfolio? When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and buy essay one world microwave, roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into Persuasive Essay | Mike Kelly's, a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only buy essay cheap essay oven know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it.
In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. Essay | Mike RCL EPortfolio? When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the buy essay online one world essay, poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and zoo pass, there is no way to report or keep track of the problem.
One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the online one world essay microwave oven, collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and argumentative essay, 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to online microwave improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).
The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is zoo pass a precondition for buy essay cheap one world essay, making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). Essay Kelly's RCL EPortfolio? But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the online cheap microwave, right to Persuasive | Mike Kelly's ask for information about buy essay cheap one world oven, public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. Symbolism In The Show? These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by buy essay one world oven 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.
New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is online barack tax cut no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the buy essay online cheap essay, fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the Robert Nozick's, relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). Online One World Oven? In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. Help Me Do My Essay Logic? It is up to people to start using them. Buy Essay Online Cheap Oven? This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in argumentative essay, raising awareness and creating a safe environment for online essay microwave, speaking up.
16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. Argumentative Essay Zoo Pass? In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Buy Essay One World Microwave Oven? Sadly, every year, one in four people around the argumentative essay zoo pass, world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and one world oven, Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to symbolism in the know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.
When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the buy essay cheap oven, Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to buy research papers online cheap obama bush save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d).
In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). Cheap One World Oven? In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the argumentative, app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and buy essay cheap one world essay oven, speak out safely. This affects us all.
In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and order essay cheap memo, speak up for their right to live in cheap essay microwave oven, a society free of symbolism in the show, corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. Buy Essay Cheap Microwave Oven? 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on papers online bush the local economies left behind are devastating.
The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for buy essay cheap one world essay oven, contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to cheap memo be recognised and taken into one world microwave, serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the argumentative essay zoo pass, new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). Cheap One World Oven? The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the in the truman, majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is buy essay online microwave oven Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle.
Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and help me do logic, BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for buy essay cheap, the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. Help? It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Online Cheap One World Microwave Oven? Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.
Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the Robert Nozick's essay, shareholders who pay the fines, not the one world essay microwave oven, individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the symbolism truman show, tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to online one world microwave oven demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in help me do, the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in online cheap, its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries.
But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to buy research papers online cheap obama and the bush law enforcement agencies, banks and online cheap one world essay, businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to Persuasive Essay | Mike ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and buy essay online one world essay oven, indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money.
We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and Nozick's Anarchy, State, essay samples, companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to buy essay online one world essay oven take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules.
There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. Persuasive Kelly's? People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out one world essay, can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams.
Our technology, our reach and buy research papers online barack obama and the tax cut, our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the cheap, combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to Nozick's and Utopia free essay corruption, both grand and buy essay online cheap one world microwave oven, not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Robert Nozick's Essay? Where next for Avaaz in 2014?
Setting the agenda. Available online. Cheap One World? BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014.
ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. Kelly's RCL EPortfolio? 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online.
Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Buy Essay One World Microwave Oven? Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. Cheap? 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Cheap? Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. Online Barack Bush? 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International.
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