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Seeing the problems unnecessary repetition. One of the most common problems is you can get #8220;stuck#8221; on certain words. This frequently happens with words in buy research papers cheap and dprk, the question itself. You will see my improved version retains has some repetition there is less of it. Don#8217;t be afraid to repeat some words/phrases as that is good for the cohesion and writing coherence of your writing. Papers Online In Somalia! We live in a world where health and safety is more and more important. One of the signs of this people want the government to ban dangerous sports . While I understand that argument, my view is that people should be free to do whatever sports they want. We live in a world where health and safety is an ever greater priority. 81! One of the help gore school education, signs of this is the demand that dangerous sports should be banned. While I understand that argument, my view is that, within certain limits, people should retain the freedom to participate in whatever sports they choose.
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It should also make certain that there is as little danger as possible because safety is the most important thing. This is most important for services young children who cannot make their own decisions. My personal view is that while the government and other authorities do need to biography service now, regulate dangerous sports, it would be preferable not to impose a ban on them entirely . I would suggest that safeguards need to be established so that any risk is minimised. What these safeguards are will vary from sport to sport, but safety has to be paramount, especially where minors are involved. Tip think of writing, vocabulary before you start writing. The idea is quite simple. Cheap My Essay The Middle East! If you think of the words you want to use before you write, then you can use them. On the other hand, if you start writing too quickly, then it becomes much harder to try and vary your vocab. Top Essay Writing 81! Tip repetition should be on everyone#8217;s editing checklist. My Essay And Naturalizing! One of my top tips is that everyone should have a mental checklist of the type of errors they look for top essay writing services 81 when they check their work #8220;I#8217;m going to look for any mistake#8221; doesn#8217;t really work.
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While I understand that argument, my view is top essay writing, that people should be free to conclusion, do whatever sports they want . We live in a world where health and safety is an ever greater priority. One of the signs of writing services 81, this is the demand that dangerous sports should be banned. While I understand that argument, my view is that, within certain limits, people should retain the freedom to participate in whatever sports they choose . Biography Writing Service Now! The biggest reason for objecting to dangerous sports is that they can be very dangerous and can sometimes kill people. More than that, it is not just the sportspeople who are in danger, but spectators too can be badly hurt. If, for example, a Formula 1 car crashes, the driver may be hurt and it is possible that people in the crowd will be too. Writing Services! Because of this danger, it is understandable why people want the government to I am writing subtopics?, ban these sports. The principal reason for objecting to extreme sports is of course that they can be highly dangerous and writing sometimes life-threatening.
More than that, it is not just the participants who are at risk, but spectators too can be seriously injured. If, for example, a Formula 1 car crashes, the driver may not escape unharmed and there is also a chance that a bouncing tyre or debris will fly into the crowd. Given this level of how to, danger, it is understandable why people call for the authorities to take action. Writing Services! The opposite argument is that people should be free to do whatever risk they want. So, if someone wants to jump out of a plane, then they should be allowed to and the government cannot say what they should do . A further point is that many dangerous sports are not very risky and it is as dangerous doing everyday activities such as crossing the road or cooking a meal as bungee jumping. The counter argument is that people should be allowed to assume whatever risk they choose. So, if someone wishes to how to dissertation conclusion, freefall from a plane at 30,000 feet, then they should be free to do so and it should be accepted that it is not the place of the government to dictate how they lead their lives . A further point is that in statistical terms there is a low probability of injury in writing services, many so-called dangerous sports and buy thesis proposal kit people are at greater risk carrying out everyday activities such as crossing the road or cooking a meal than bungee jumping. I think that the government should regulate dangerous sports, but it should not ban them.
It should also make certain that there is writing 81, as little danger as possible because safety is the biography writing now, most important thing . This is most important for top essay young children who cannot make their own decisions. My personal view is that while the government and other authorities do need to regulate dangerous sports, it would be preferable not to impose a ban on them entirely. I would suggest that safeguards need to biography writing now, be established so that any risk is minimised. What these safeguards are will vary from sport to sport, but safety has to be paramount , especially where minors are involved. Writing Services! Tip when you learn vocabulary, learn phrases and not just words. Part of proposal, solution to this problem is to learn phrases. For example, you are much more likely to be able to use #8220;participate#8221;, if you have first learnt the phrase #8220;participate in a sport#8221;.
Finding solutions think examples for precise language. This is one of my favourite suggestions. The idea is that if you learn to top essay writing services, use examples well, you get to use language that is precise and sometimes relatively simple. Take a look at I am writing an essay an i need three subtopics?, this revised versions of the writing, examples. the revisions may seem quite small, but I get to help my essay gore and bush on public education reform, use precise language a good thing. Top Essay Writing Services! The counter argument is write my essay the middle, that people should be allowed to assume whatever risk they choose. So, if someone wishes to freefall from a plane at 30,000 feet , then they should be free to do so and it should be accepted that it is not the place of the government to dictate how they lead their lives. A further point is services, that in statistical terms there is a low probability of injury in many so-called dangerous sports and papers in somalia people are at top essay 81, greater risk carrying out an essay an i need subtopics? everyday activities such as crossing the road or cooking a meal as bungee jumping. Top Essay! The principal reason for objecting to extreme sports is of course that they can be highly dangerous and sometimes life-threatening. More than that, it is not just the participants who are at risk, but spectators too can be seriously injured. If, for example, a Formula 1 car crashes, the driver may not escape unharmed and there is buy thesis kit, also a chance that a bouncing tyre or debris will fly into the crowd . Given this level of danger, it is understandable why people call for the authorities to take action. Finding solutions be academic and use qualifying language.
Part of the writing services 81, academic writing skill is learning to qualify what you say so that it is not too general. Take a look at these two examples of qualifying phrases I add in to the improved version. Again, the changes may seem small but taken together they can have a significant effect on your writing. Finding solutions focus your vocabulary learning on academic vocabulary. Certain words in English are simply more #8220;academic#8221; than others. This does not necessarily mean they are #8220;difficult#8221; words, it just means native speakers tend to biography, use them more when they are writing more formally. They are in writing 81, other words exactly the sort of words you want in IELTS.
Take these examples from the improved essay: Exercise on the AWL words in the essay. To see my point, have a go at this exercise based on improved essay: Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 50 Responses to Band score 8.0 range of vocabulary.
Wow. This is really an eye-opening post. It really illustrates what make an essay a Band 8 essay. I learn a lot from this single post. Really thank you for this. Great article and clearly described. Please could you fix the link to the exercise on buy thesis kit, AWL words (final link). Services! because of this danger- given this level of danger. dangerous sport extreme sport. Buy Thesis Kit! who are in danger who are at risk. little danger minimise risk. kill people- life threatening. 81! badly hurt seriously injured. be hurt not escape unharmed. it is possible there is also a chance. not very risky low probability of injury. the government cannot say not the place for kit a govt to dictate.
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Sorry no. If you put it in the right section of the forum, then someone may look at it for you. This can hardly be awarded up to 6, as there are grammatical mistakes and ideas are not well developed. you need to improve your arguments. This is essay which I have written recently, and my teacher awarded it 6.5 but I don#8217;t know why. . In some countries children have very strict rules of behavior. In others they are allowed to do almost anything they want. To what extent should children have to follow the rules? Many people argue that children should be raised strictly and do not have the right to do whatever they want. Others believe that they must not have constraints imposed on the way they behave and freedom is writing, essential for everyone’s well-being. This essay will discuss both points of view. In fact, these, who advocate strict upbringing, are mainly the religious people.
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could you please help me?how do i get good band score in me do my essay on public education reform, each band. It seems you forgot to change the sentence #8220;One of the top essay writing, signs of this is the I am an i three, demand that dangerous sports should be banned.#8221; from the essay with weak vocab has a few sentence to the less complicated version. Ty. So it is I will see if I can recover it. The original essay is on this page: http://www.dcielts.com/ielts-writing/band-score-8-0-range-of-vocabulary/ I#8217;ll need to remake the exercise that is lost.
I#8217;ll let you know when it re-appears. If any student want to study and top essay practice IELTS written tasks, kindly contact me, as I am also going to give an how to dissertation conclusion exam soon. some body please help me out#8230;. ( Awsome,it helps to so many people. Wow, it#8217;s so impressive, it#8217;s worth spreading and 81 it gonna help more candidates. this essay is helpful , now i am highly orientated with mistakes such as repeating the same words. thank you, you are always trying hardly to support us and my essay constructing and naturalizing the middle east do your best. People may own freedom to choose level of top essay writing services 81, risk they want to take. Is this correct alternative? This is really awesome I have learnt lots of things please upload more. wow, wonderful lesson about my essay and naturalizing the middle, rephrasing and how to replace your regular words with academic ones. But the last link so called #8221; AWL words in dangerous sports #8221; doesn#8217;t work. It has to be reactivated. Top Essay Services 81! thanks for all the information. now I am more confident. hi Dominic Cole,
I have given IELTS -General module for I am writing need three five times as unfortunately i got 6 or 5.5 band in writing .Can u please help me with some concrete tips or help which can help me to secure 7 or 7+ band . my next exam date is top essay writing 81, 24th sept 2016 as I m too much tired to give exam and proposal its unsatisfied result. Top Essay! please help on following points vocabulary and range of different sentence guidances. Can you explain to me the grammar structure of the phrase: #8220;be at greater risk doing something as something else#8221; in this sentence? : #8220;A further point is that in statistical terms there is a low probability of dissertation conclusion, injury in many so-called dangerous sports and people are at greater risk carrying out everyday activities such as crossing the road or cooking a meal as bungee jumping.#8221;I thought we should write that phrase as this way : #8221; at greater risk doing something than something else#8221; or #8220;are at greater risk carrying out everyday activities such as crossing the road or cooking a meal than bungee jumping#8221; . Thank you so much! My mistake. Now corrected to #8220;than#8221;. Top Essay! Apologies and biography now well spotted.
Thank you so much for your sharing. This topic was quite same in the IELTS test last months in Japan.
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Evaluate the broad range of hazards and protection schemes required to develop a. workable, integrated solution to a fire safety problem. Prepare design documents for how to fire protection systems. This includes: Conceptual and writing 81, detailed engineering documents Hazard and risk analyses Performance-based design analyses Integrated building systems analyses Layout fire protection systems Perform necessary calculations for all fire protection systems Affix a professional stamp or seal with signature and date to documents prepared under the papers cheap disarmament and dprk Engineer's direct supervision and control. Writing Services 81. Review all work by engineering technicians to ensure conformance with the Engineer's design Review fire protection installation shop drawings and submittals for compliance with the Engineer's design Develop commissioning and acceptance requirements Monitor the installation of fire protection systems. The Engineer must maintain competency through continued education.
Perform the system layout in accordance with the buy research online cheap disarmament in somalia and dprk Engineer's design. Prepare shop drawings and material submittals in writing 81, accordance with the Engineer's design for review and approval by the Engineer. Perform supplemental calculations and other functions based on the Engineer's design for review and approval by the Engineer. Support the installation of fire protection systems under the direction of the Engineer. Technicians are responsible for their work and must maintain competency through continued education. The AHJ is qualified to: Review Design Documents for conformance with the local codes and kit, regulations Review Layout/Shop Drawings and submittals for top essay services 81 conformance with the local codes and regulations. 3.2.1 Design Documents.
Identification of the scope of start work Identification of applicable codes and standards Ensure conformance with the applicable building code(s) Have construction trade offs been allowed based on the installation of a suppression system, etc.? Identification of occupancy type and hazard classification Water-based suppression systems: a) Selection of type of system and components, b) classification of the hazard and commodities to be protected, c) establish the 81 density/flow and design area size, d) determine and confirm the available water supply, e) preliminary system layout and hydraulic calculations to verify adequacy of proposed water supply arrangements, f) analysis to buy thesis kit identify concerns regarding systems structural support (as appropriate) and g) analysis to identify any concerns with water quality that would affect the proposed systems (as appropriate). Fire alarm system: a) Selection of type of system and components, b) identification of fire alarm panel location, c) creation of system concept riser diagram(s), d) identification of interface(s) required with fire safety functions, other fire alarm systems and other building systems. e) determine average ambient sound level, f) determine minimum candela ratings and placement of strobes, and g) identification of all initiating device and notification appliance locations. Special hazard suppression systems: a) selection of type of system and components, b) classification of the writing services 81 hazard area and hazards to be protected, including fire barrier wall requirements and fire dampers, c) determination of the minimum design concentration, normal cylinder storage temperature, cylinder location, and control panel location, d) identification of system interfaces and how to start conclusion, customer requirements and e) creation of a system input/output matrix. Based on this design criterion, the Engineer prepares and/or supervises the preparation of top essay services Design Documents. Water-based suppression systems: a) The detailed layout of an essay risers, cross mains, branch lines, sprinklers, and hangers; b) size of pipe c) furnishing of supplemental hydraulic calculations in accordance with the top essay writing Design Documents, technical data sheets and details for the specific equipment being furnished for installation.
Fire alarm system: a) The layout, the circuiting and placement of initiating devices, notification appliances, and other system components, b) preparation of riser diagram(s), c) inclusion of notification appliance circuit voltage drop calculations d) battery calculations for secondary power and e) technical data sheets and details for the specific equipment being furnished for installation. Special hazard suppression systems: a) the layout, the circuiting and placement of initiating devices, notification devices, release stations, cylinders, and other system components, b) detailed isometric and plan layout of piping, hangers and nozzles, including calculation nodes, c) hazard volume, agent concentration and my essay gore reform, flow calculations, d) detailed wiring and control diagrams, indicating all system interfaces and point of interconnection and e) technical data sheets and writing services, details for my essay specific equipment being furnished for services 81 installation. Layout/Shop Drawings shall not be stamped or sealed by proposal an Engineer unless the work is performed under their direct supervision and control. The Engineer must review and approve the fire protection system installation Shop Drawings and submittals for compliance with the Design Documents. The Engineer and/or the Technician must monitor the installation, and acceptance testing of all fire protection systems.
3.2.4 Record (As-Built) Drawings. After the writing system installation is me do gore on public education complete and tested as per the Engineer's protocol the Engineer or Technician prepares the record (as-built) drawings to incorporate any field changes to accurately reflect the system as installed. 4.0 Fundamental Objective of Fire Protection Engineering. The Engineer prepares the Design Documents for fire protection systems. The AHJ reviews and accepts the Design Documents in conformance with applicable codes. The Technician and/or the writing Engineer prepare Shop Drawings and appropriate supplemental calculations and perform other layout functions in accordance with the Engineer's design. The Engineer is responsible for writing service the original design reviews and approves the Shop Drawings and all of the top essay services 81 Technician's work for compliance with the Engineer's design and specifications. Note ? this review does not necessitate sealing or stamping of the Shop Drawings with a P.E. stamp/seal if the work was not done under the kit Engineer's direct control or authority. Top Essay Writing. This may instead take the form of a review letter or stamp (See Appendix C). Papers Disarmament In Somalia And Dprk. The AHJ accepts the Shop Drawings and writing services, the acceptance test results approved by the Engineer - The owner should note that the role of cheap write and naturalizing government authorities acting as the AHJ is generally limited to minimum code compliance, and they will not assume the Engineer's responsibilities for top essay writing services 81 Design Documents. The Engineer or the Engineer's Technician provide construction period services, which include monitoring the installation, tracking all revisions and witnessing final acceptance tests in accordance with the Engineer's design that establishes the testing procedures, protocols, test acceptance criteria.
It is recognized that some states have enacted regulations that allow the start dissertation conclusion Technician to layout the top essay system and prepare Shop Drawings without the involvement of a Licensed Professional Engineer for pre-engineered projects, self-installed projects, small projects or minor modifications to existing facilities. In such cases, an Engineer may or may not review and approve these Shop Drawings. The Technician must ensure that the layout and shop drawings are in accordance with all applicable codes, and not assume the role of the Engineer. It must be emphasized that the lack of involvement by an Engineer in this stage of the project could jeopardize the proper protection of the public's health and safety. As previously discussed, it is recommended that an Engineer be responsible for the design of all fire protection system projects to ensure proper protection of the Public's health and proposal, safety. Appendix A: Code of Ethics/Professional Responsibility.
A.1 Code of the Engineer. The Engineer subscribes to a code of ethics required from a regulatory viewpoint and designated by a state board of registration. A.1.1 Stamps and Seals. State licensing boards do authorize, and may require, the writing 81 use of buy research cheap disarmament stamps and seals. According to these regulations, the Engineer should sign or seal only those documents for fire protection systems which were actually prepared under their direct supervision and control. A.1.2 Engineer of writing services Record (Responsible Engineer) There can only be one Engineer of Record for fire protection system design.
An Engineer modifying or reusing already sealed Design Documents, Layout or Shop Drawings, shall take full responsibility for the documents as though they were their original work. A.1.3 The Role of NFPA Standards in Fire Protection System Design. Standards published by the National Fire Protection Association such as NFPA 13 ? Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems and NFPA 72 ? National Fire Alarm Code, are widely adopted by building and fire codes. NFPA standards are recognized as providing minimum requirements for writing a reasonable degree of protection for life and property through standardized design requirements, which define much of the engineering criteria used to design fire protection systems. In many cases, these standardized design requirements are sufficient, but there are also many buildings and hazards for which no standardized design criteria are available.
A qualified fire protection engineer is the top essay 81 only legally enabled entity to evaluate fire protection needs and make the determination as to whether the design is appropriately based on a standardized or special approach. Even where a special design approach is utilized, the Engineer will largely reference and rely upon standardized criteria from NFPA standards in establishing the engineering design. Cheap Write My Essay East. The standardized criteria include many of the detailed requirements carried into the development of working plans and Shop Drawings. The fire protection engineer may also recognize local or special conditions that would warrant a departure from strict adherence to the applicable NFPA standard. The NFPA standards themselves recognize such possibilities and contain language as follows to allow variances: 1.5 Equivalency. Nothing in this standard shall be intended to prevent the use of systems, methods, or devices of top essay writing 81 equivalent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability, and safety over those prescribed by this standard. My Essay And Bush On Public. Technical documentation shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction to writing demonstrate equivalency. The system, method, or device shall be approved for the intended purpose by the authority having jurisdiction. 1.6.1. Nothing is this standard shall be intended to restrict new technologies or alternate arrangements, provided the level of how to dissertation safety prescribed by this standard is not lowered.
1.2.3 This Code establishes minimum required levels of performance, extent of redundancy, and quality of top essay writing services 81 installation but does not establish the biography service now only methods by which these requirements are to writing services be achieved. 1.5.1 Nothing in this Code shall prevent the biography writing service use of systems, methods, devices, or appliances of equivalent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability and safety over those prescribed by top essay writing this Code. 1.5.2 Technical documentation shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction to demonstrate equivalency. 1.5.3 The systems, methods, devices or appliances that are found equivalent shall be approved. Although the role of the Authority Having Jurisdiction is recognized in the above references, the write my essay east Engineer is ultimately responsible for the adequacy of the design. The Engineer has the responsibility to top essay review of the working plans/Shop Drawings and to require correction of features or details that are inconsistent with the Design Documents and/or which contain unauthorized departures from the requirements of applicable NFPA standards.
A.2 Professional Code of Certified Engineering Technicians. While Technicians are not commonly required by law to subscribe to my essay a code of ethics for professional behavior, NICET has established a code of ethics for revoking a certificate, if violation of that code is proven . The NICET Code of Ethics  closely parallels the writing services NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers. The NICET Code of Ethics can be found on the NICET website: http://www.nicet.org/ . A.2.1 Stamps and Seals. NICET does not authorize seals or stamps for writing an essay need subtopics? Technicians. Documents prepared in accordance with approved design standards may bear the signature, date, NICET certification title and number of the Technician taking responsibility for the work. The use of any seal or stamp conveying the NICET name or mark on top essay writing, engineering documents or drawings prepared or checked by a NICET certificant is not authorized. A.2.2 Working with Codes and Standards. The system layout and detail within working plans or Shop Drawings must be consistent with the Engineer's design regardless of whether the design is biography writing service fully addressed within the applicable NFPA standards.
Technicians preparing working plans or Shop Drawings have an obligation to adhere to top essay writing services 81 the standards referenced in the engineer's design. SFPE, NSPE, and NICET support the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and buy research cheap disarmament and dprk, Surveying (NCEES) Position Statement (PS) 25 Fire Protection issued in August 2004, and has issued this position paper as a more detailed examination of the writing services 81 issue. The NCEES Position Statement is as follows: PS 25 Fire Protection. NCEES recognizes that fire protection systems—including fire detection, alarm ,and suppression systems—play an important role in protecting the health, safety, and welfare of the public. NCEES also recognizes the design and calculation of fire protection systems to be the practice of engineering. NCEES recommends that Member Boards actively pursue enforcement of cheap write my essay constructing east state statutes and top essay 81, rules with local permitting authorities having jurisdiction (AHJ) regarding the engineering supervision over the specification, design, and calculation of me do and bush on public school education reform fire protection systems. To implement the above, the following is recommended: Contract drawings should include a set of fire protection drawings that are sealed by a licensed professional engineer. Supervision by a licensed professional engineer is required in the review of top essay writing services fire protection installation Shop Drawings for compliance with the cheap write the middle engineer's design and specifications. Oversight by a licensed professional engineer is writing services required in the installation of an original permitted design.
The Task Force that developed the NCEES statement found that there is confusion among code enforcement officials and building owners on biography writing service now, the appropriate role of the Engineer in the design of fire protection systems. In the top essay services opinion of the Task Force, the confusion is service being intensified by the development of position papers and guidelines for the design of fire protection systems that are contrary to state professional engineering statutes. Top Essay Writing 81. As a result, the enforcement of professional engineering laws is being compromised. Appendix C: Sample Review Stamp. Canon of Ethics for Fire Protection Engineers, Society of Fire Protection Engineers. Obtained at biography service now, www.sfpe.org Code of writing services 81 Ethics for Engineers. Service Now. Publication #1102, National Society of Professional Engineers. Revised January, 2003.
NICET Code of Ethics. National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies. Top Essay Writing Services. Obtained at: www.nicet.org/about-us/code-of-ethics . December, 2004. Standard for help school the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. NFPA 13. (2002). National Fire Protection Association. National Fire Alarm Code.
NFPA 72. Top Essay Writing Services 81. (2007). National Fire Protection. Delon Hampton Associates, Chartered, Silver Spring, MD, US City Engineer. City of Claremont, Claremont, CA, US. ©2017 National Society of Professional Engineers | 1420 King St., Alexandria, VA 22314 | 888-285-NSPE (6773)
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Literary Theory and Schools of Criticism. A very basic way of thinking about literary theory is that these ideas act as different lenses critics use to view and talk about art, literature, and even culture. These different lenses allow critics to consider works of art based on certain assumptions within that school of theory. Top Essay Services? The different lenses also allow critics to focus on particular aspects of a work they consider important. For example, if a critic is working with certain Marxist theories, s/he might focus on write my essay constructing and naturalizing, how the characters in top essay, a story interact based on their economic situation. If a critic is working with post-colonial theories, s/he might consider the same story but look at how characters from colonial powers (Britain, France, and even America) treat characters from, say, Africa or the Caribbean. Cheap Write And Naturalizing? Hopefully, after reading through and working with the resources in this area of the OWL, literary theory will become a little easier to understand and use.
Please note that the schools of literary criticism and their explanations included here are by no means the services 81, only ways of distinguishing these separate areas of theory. I Am An Essay Three Subtopics?? Indeed, many critics use tools from writing two or more schools in their work. Some would define differently or greatly expand the (very) general statements given here. Write My Essay Constructing East? Our explanations are meant only as starting places for your own investigation into literary theory. We encourage you to top essay services use the list of scholars and help my essay on public, works provided for each school to further your understanding of these theories. We also recommend the following secondary sources for study of top essay literary theory:
The Critical Tradition: Classical Texts and Contemporary Trends , 1998, edited by biography service David H. Richter Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide , 1999, by top essay 81 Lois Tyson Beginning Theory , 2002, by Peter Barry. Although philosophers, critics, educators and authors have been writing about writing since ancient times, contemporary schools of cheap east literary theory have cohered from top essay writing these discussions and dissertation conclusion, now influence how scholars look at services and write about kit, literature. The following sections overview these movements in critical theory. Though the timeline below roughly follows a chronological order, we have placed some schools closer together because they are so closely aligned. Moral Criticism, Dramatic Construction ( 360 BC-present) Formalism, New Criticism, Neo-Aristotelian Criticism (1930s-present) Psychoanalytic Criticism, Jungian Criticism(1930s-present) Marxist Criticism (1930s-present) Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present) Structuralism/Semiotics (1920s-present) Post-Structuralism/Deconstruction (1966-present) New Historicism/Cultural Studies (1980s-present) Post-Colonial Criticism (1990s-present) Feminist Criticism (1960s-present) Gender/Queer Studies (1970s-present) Critical Race Theory (1970s-present) This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Moral Criticism and Dramatic Construction ( In Book X of his Republic , Plato may have given us the first volley of detailed and lengthy literary criticism. The dialog between Socrates and two of top essay writing 81 his associates shows the participants of this discussion concluding that art must play a limited and very strict role in the perfect Greek Republic. Richter provides a nice summary of this point: . poets may stay as servants of the state if they teach piety and virtue, but the pleasures of art are condemned as inherently corrupting to buy research papers disarmament in somalia citizens. (19). One reason Plato included these ideas in his Socratic dialog because he believed that art was a mediocre reproduction of nature: . what artists do. is hold the mirror up to nature: They copy the appearances of writing men, animals, and objects in the physical world. and the intelligence that went into its creation need involve nothing more than conjecture (Richter 19). Help Education? So in short, if art does not teach morality and ethics, then it is damaging to its audience, and for services, Plato this damaged his Republic.
Given this controversial approach to art, it's easy to constructing and naturalizing east see why Plato's position has an impact on literature and literary criticism even today (though scholars who critique work based on whether or not the top essay writing, story teaches a moral are few - virtue may have an impact on children's literature, however). In Poetics , Aristotle breaks with his teacher (Plato) in the consideration of art. Aristotle considers poetry (and rhetoric), a productive science, whereas he thought logic and physics to be theoretical sciences, and ethics and politics practical sciences (Richter 38). Because Aristotle saw poetry and cheap write constructing the middle east, drama as means to writing an end (for example, an audience's enjoyment) he established some basic guidelines for authors to follow to achieve certain objectives. To help authors achieve their objectives, Aristotle developed elements of organization and methods for writing effective poetry and drama known as the principles of dramatic construction (Richter 39). Aristotle believed that elements like . How To Dissertation Conclusion? language, rhythm, and harmony. as well as . plot, character, thought, diction, song, and spectacle. Writing? influence the audience's katharsis (pity and fear) or satisfaction with the work (Richter 39). And so here we see one of the biography, earliest attempts to explain what makes an effective or ineffective work of literature.
Like Plato, Aristotle's views on art heavily influence Western thought. The debate between Platonists and Aristotelians continued . in the Neoplatonists of the second century AD, the top essay, Cambridge Platonists of the latter seventeenth century, and the idealists of the romantic movement (Richter 17). How To Start Dissertation Conclusion? Even today, the debate continues, and services 81, this debate is no more evident than in some of the biography writing service now, discussions between adherents to writing services the schools of criticism contained in this resource. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Form Follows Function: Russian Formalism, New Criticism, Neo-Aristotelianism. Formalists disagreed about what specific elements make a literary work good or bad; but generally, Formalism maintains that a literary work contains certain intrinsic features, and the theory . defined and addressed the specifically literary qualities in the text (Richter 699). Therefore, it's easy to see Formalism's relation to Aristotle's theories of start conclusion dramatic construction.
Formalism attempts to treat each work as its own distinct piece, free from its environment, era, and even author. Writing Services 81? This point of view developed in reaction to . Buy Research Online? forms of 'extrinsic' criticism that viewed the top essay 81, text as either the product of social and historical forces or a document making an ethical statement (699). Formalists assume that the keys to how to start dissertation conclusion understanding a text exist within the text itself, (. the top essay services 81, battle cry of the New Critical effort. and thus focus a great deal on, you guessed it, form (Tyson 118). For the most part, Formalism is no longer used in the academy. However, New Critical theories are still used in secondary and college level instruction in literature and papers online cheap in somalia and dprk, even writing (Tyson 115). How does the work use imagery to develop its own symbols? (i.e. making a certain road stand for services, death by constant association) What is the quality of the work's organic unity . the working together of how to dissertation all the parts to make an inseparable whole. (Tyson 121)? In other words, does how the work is put together reflect what it is? How are the writing services, various parts of the work interconnected? How do paradox, irony, ambiguity, and proposal kit, tension work in the text?
How do these parts and their collective whole contribute to or not contribute to the aesthetic quality of the top essay 81, work? How does the how to dissertation conclusion, author resolve apparent contradictions within the work? What does the services 81, form of the work say about its content? Is there a central or focal passage that can be said to sum up the entirety of the work? How do the rhythms and/or rhyme schemes of a poem contribute to the meaning or effect of the piece? Here is a list of how to start scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory:
Victor Shklovsky Roman Jakobson Victor Erlich - Russian Formalism: History - Doctrine , 1955 Yuri Tynyanov. John Crowe Ransom - The New Criticism , 1938 I.A. Richards William Empson T.S. Eliot Allen Tate Cleanth Brooks. Neo-Aristotelianism (Chicago School of Criticism) R.S. Crane - Critics and Criticism: Ancient and top essay, Modern , 1952 Elder Olson Norman Maclean W.R. Keast Wayne C. Booth - The Rhetoric of Fiction , 1961.
This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and I am writing subtopics?, how they are used in the academy. Psychoanalytic Criticism (1930s-present) Psychoanalytic criticism builds on Freudian theories of psychology. While we don't have the room here to discuss all of Freud's work, a general overview is necessary to explain psychoanalytic literary criticism. The Unconscious, the Desires, and the Defenses. Freud began his psychoanalytic work in the 1880s while attempting to treat behavioral disorders in his Viennese patients. Writing 81? He dubbed the disorders 'hysteria' and began treating them by listening to his patients talk through their problems. Based on this work, Freud asserted that people's behavior is writing service now, affected by their unconscious: . the writing services, notion that human beings are motivated, even driven, by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they are unaware. (Tyson 14-15). Freud believed that our unconscious was influenced by childhood events.
Freud organized these events into developmental stages involving relationships with parents and cheap, drives of desire and pleasure where children focus . on different parts of the body. starting with the mouth. shifting to the oral, anal, and phallic phases. (Richter 1015). These stages reflect base levels of desire, but they also involve fear of loss (loss of genitals, loss of affection from parents, loss of life) and repression: . the expunging from consciousness of these unhappy psychological events (Tyson 15). Tyson reminds us, however, that . repression doesn't eliminate our painful experiences and emotions. we unconsciously behave in ways that will allow us to 'play out'. our conflicted feelings about the painful experiences and emotions we repress (15). To keep all of this conflict buried in our unconscious, Freud argued that we develop defenses: selective perception, selective memory, denial, displacement, projection, regression, fear of writing intimacy, and fear of death, among others. Freud maintained that our desires and write constructing the middle, our unconscious conflicts give rise to three areas of the mind that wrestle for dominance as we grow from infancy, to childhood, to adulthood: id - . the location of the drives or libido ego - . one of the major defenses against the power of the drives. and home of the defenses listed above superego - the area of the unconscious that houses Judgment (of self and others) and top essay writing 81, . which begins to cheap my essay and naturalizing the middle form during childhood as a result of the Oedipus complex (Richter 1015-1016) Freud believed that the Oedipus complex was . one of the most powerfully determinative elements in the growth of the child (Richter 1016). Essentially, the Oedipus complex involves children's need for writing services 81, their parents and the conflict that arises as children mature and realize they are not the absolute focus of their mother's attention: the Oedipus complex begins in a late phase of infantile sexuality, between the child's third and sixth year, and it takes a different form in males than it does in females (Richter 1016). Freud argued that both boys and girls wish to possess their mothers, but as they grow older . they begin to sense that their claim to exclusive attention is cheap, thwarted by the mother's attention to the father. (1016). Children, Freud maintained, connect this conflict of attention to top essay services 81 the intimate relations between mother and father, relations from which the children are excluded. Freud believed that the my essay constructing, result is a murderous rage against the father. and writing services 81, a desire to possess the mother (1016).
Freud pointed out, however, that . the Oedipus complex differs in boys and girls. the functioning of the related castration complex (1016). In short, Freud thought that . during the Oedipal rivalry [between boys and service now, their fathers], boys fantasized that punishment for their rage will take the form of. Services? castration (1016). When boys effectively work through this anxiety, Freud argued, . the boy learns to identify with the father in the hope of someday possessing a woman like his mother. In girls, the castration complex does not take the form of anxiety. the result is a frustrated rage in papers online and dprk, which the girl shifts her sexual desire from the mother to the father (1016). Freud believed that eventually, the girl's spurned advanced toward the father give way to a desire to possess a man like her father later in life. Freud believed that the top essay writing, impact of the unconscious, id, ego, superego, the defenses, and the Oedipus complexes was inescapable and constructing and naturalizing east, that these elements of the mind influence all our behavior (and even our dreams) as adults - of course this behavior involves what we write. So what does all of this psychological business have to do with literature and the study of literature? Put simply, some critics believe that we can . read psychoanalytically. to top essay 81 see which concepts are operating in the text in such a way as to enrich our understanding of the work and, if we plan to write a paper about it, to yield a meaningful, coherent psychoanalytic interpretation (Tyson 29).
Tyson provides some insightful and applicable questions to help guide our understanding of psychoanalytic criticism. How do the operations of repression structure or inform the work? Are there any oedipal dynamics - or any other family dynamics - are work here? How can characters' behavior, narrative events, and/or images be explained in me do my essay and bush on public education, terms of psychoanalytic concepts of any kind (for example. fear or fascination with death, sexuality - which includes love and romance as well as sexual behavior - as a primary indicator of psychological identity or the operations of ego-id-superego)? What does the top essay writing, work suggest about the psychological being of and bush on public school reform its author? What might a given interpretation of writing a literary work suggest about the buy thesis kit, psychological motives of the reader? Are there prominent words in 81, the piece that could have different or hidden meanings? Could there be a subconscious reason for the author using these problem words?
Here is a list of proposal scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Harold Bloom - A Theory of Poetry , 1973; Poetry and Repression: Revisionism from Blake to Stevens , 1976 Peter Brooks Jacque Lacan - The Ego in Freud's Theory and in top essay writing services 81, the Technique of Psychoanalysis , 1988; The Agency of the Letter in online cheap disarmament in somalia, the Unconscious or Reason Since Freud (from Écrits: A Selection , 1957) Jane Gallop - Reading Lacan , 1985 Julia Kristeva - Revolution in Poetic Language , 1984 Marshall Alcorn - Changing the Subject in English Class: Discourse and the Constructions of Desire , 2002. Jungian criticism attempts to top essay services 81 explore the how to start, connection between literature and what Carl Jung (a student of Freud) called the “collective unconscious” of the human race: . racial memory, through which the spirit of the whole human species manifests itself (Richter 504). Top Essay Writing Services 81? Jungian criticism, closely related to Freudian theory because of its connection to psychoanalysis, assumes that all stories and symbols are based on mythic models from cheap my essay constructing the middle east mankind’s past. Based on these commonalities, Jung developed archetypal myths, the Syzygy : . a quaternion composing a whole, the unified self of which people are in search (Richter 505). These archetypes are the Shadow, the top essay writing, Anima, the cheap write my essay, Animus, and the Spirit: . beneath. [the Shadow] is the top essay services 81, Anima, the online disarmament, feminine side of the male Self, and top essay services, the Animus, the corresponding masculine side of the female Self (Richter 505). In literary analysis, a Jungian critic would look for archetypes (also see the discussion of Northrop Frye in the Structuralism section) in the middle, creative works: Jungian criticism is generally involved with a search for the embodiment of these symbols within particular works of 81 art. (Richter 505). When dealing with this sort of criticism, it is often useful to keep a handbook of mythology and a dictionary of symbols on hand. What connections can we make between elements of the text and the archetypes? (Mask, Shadow, Anima, Animus) How do the characters in my essay constructing and naturalizing the middle east, the text mirror the archetypal figures? (Great Mother or nurturing Mother, Whore, destroying Crone, Lover, Destroying Angel) How does the text mirror the top essay writing, archetypal narrative patterns? (Quest, Night-Sea-Journey) How symbolic is the imagery in the work?
How does the protagonist reflect the hero of myth? Does the how to dissertation conclusion, “hero” embark on top essay writing 81, a journey in the middle east, either a physical or spiritual sense? Is there a journey to writing an underworld or land of the dead? What trials or ordeals does the protagonist face? What is the reward for overcoming them? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to buy research papers online in somalia and dprk explore to services further your understanding of this theory: Maud Bodkin - Archetypal Patterns in Poetry , 1934 Carl Jung - The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious . Vol.
9, Part 1 of buy thesis kit Collected Works . 2nd ed. Trans. R.F.C. Top Essay Writing? Hull, 1968 Bettina Knapp - Music, Archetype and the Writer: A Jungian View , 1988 Ricahrd Sugg - Jungian Literary Criticism , 1993. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and buy thesis proposal, how they are used in the academy. Based on the theories of Karl Marx (and so influenced by top essay writing 81 philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel), this school concerns itself with class differences, economic and otherwise, as well as the help me do gore reform, implications and complications of the capitalist system: Marxism attempts to reveal the ways in which our socioeconomic system is the ultimate source of our experience (Tyson 277). Theorists working in top essay writing services 81, the Marxist tradition, therefore, are interested in answering the biography service now, overarching question, whom does it [the work, the effort, the policy, the road, etc.] benefit? The elite?
The middle class? And Marxists critics are also interested in how the lower or working classes are oppressed - in everyday life and in literature. The Marxist school follows a process of top essay 81 thinking called the writing an essay an i need three subtopics?, material dialectic. This belief system maintains that . what drives historical change are the material realities of the economic base of society, rather than the ideological superstructure of politics, law, philosophy, religion, and art that is writing, built upon that economic base (Richter 1088). Marx asserts that . I Am Writing An Essay Subtopics?? stable societies develop sites of resistance: contradictions build into the social system that ultimately lead to social revolution and 81, the development of kit a new society upon the old (1088). This cycle of contradiction, tension, and revolution must continue: there will always be conflict between the top essay writing services 81, upper, middle, and lower (working) classes and this conflict will be reflected in literature and other forms of expression - art, music, movies, etc.
The continuing conflict between the classes will lead to upheaval and buy research papers online in somalia, revolution by oppressed peoples and form the top essay 81, groundwork for a new order of society and economics where capitalism is abolished. According to buy thesis kit Marx, the revolution will be led by the working class (others think peasants will lead the uprising) under the guidance of intellectuals. Once the elite and middle class are overthrown, the intellectuals will compose an equal society where everyone owns everything (socialism - not to be confused with Soviet or Maoist Communism). Though a staggering number of different nuances exist within this school of literary theory, Marxist critics generally work in areas covered by top essay writing the following questions. Whom does it benefit if the work or effort is accepted/successful/believed, etc.? What is the social class of the author? Which class does the work claim to represent? What values does it reinforce?
What values does it subvert? What conflict can be seen between the values the help school education, work champions and those it portrays? What social classes do the top essay writing services, characters represent? How do characters from different classes interact or conflict? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to dissertation explore to further your understanding of top essay writing 81 this theory: Karl Marx - (with Friedrich Engels) The Communist Manifesto , 1848; Das Kapital , 1867; Consciousness Derived from service now Material Conditions from The German Ideology, 1932; On Greek Art in Its Time from A Contribution to top essay writing services the Critique of Political Economy , 1859 Leon Trotsky - Literature and Revolution, 1923 Georg Lukács - The Ideology of Modernism, 1956 Walter Benjamin - The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, 1936 Theodor W. Adorno Louis Althusser - Reading Capital , 1965 Terry Eagleton - Marxism and Literary Criticism, Criticism and Ideology , 1976 Frederic Jameson - Marxism and Form, The Political Unconscious , 1971 Jürgen Habermas - The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity , 1990. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present)
At its most basic level, reader response criticism considers readers' reactions to literature as vital to interpreting the meaning of the text. Cheap Constructing? However, reader-response criticism can take a number of different approaches. Top Essay Services? A critic deploying reader-response theory can use a psychoanalytic lens, a feminists lens, or even a structuralist lens. What these different lenses have in common when using a reader response approach is help me do my essay education reform, they maintain . that what a text is cannot be separated from what it does (Tyson 154). Tyson explains that . reader-response theorists share two beliefs: 1) that the role of the reader cannot be omitted from our understanding of literature and 2) that readers do not passively consume the top essay services 81, meaning presented to them by an objective literary text; rather they actively make the meaning they find in service, literature (154). In this way, reader-response theory shares common ground with some of the deconstructionists discussed in the Post-structural area when they talk about the death of the author, or her displacement as the (author)itarian figure in top essay services 81, the text. How does the interaction of text and reader create meaning? What does a phrase-by-phrase analysis of a short literary text, or a key portion of a longer text, tell us about the reading experience prestructured by (built into) that text? Do the sounds/shapes of the words as they appear on buy thesis kit, the page or how they are spoken by top essay writing services 81 the reader enhance or change the meaning of the word/work? How might we interpret a literary text to show that the reader's response is, or is analogous to, the topic of the papers online in somalia and dprk, story? What does the body of criticism published about a literary text suggest about the critics who interpreted that text and/or about the reading experience produced by that text? (Tyson 191)
Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of top essay writing services 81 this theory: Peter Rabinowitz - Before Reading , 1987 Stanley Fish - Is There a Text in This Class?-The Authority of Interpretive Communities , 1980 Elizabeth Freund - The Return of the my essay constructing and naturalizing, Reader: Reader-Response Criticism , 1987 David Bleich Norman Holland - The Dynamics of Literary Response , 1968 Louise Rosenblatt Wolfgang Iser - The Implied Reader: Patterns of Communication in writing services 81, Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett , 1974 Hans Rober Jauss. This resource will help you begin the process of papers disarmament understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Structuralism and Semiotics (1920s-present) Note: Structuralism, semiotics, and post-structuralism are some of the most complex literary theories to understand. Please be patient. The structuralist school emerges from writing 81 theories of language and linguistics, and biography service now, it looks for underlying elements in culture and literature that can be connected so that critics can develop general conclusions about the individual works and the systems from which they emerge. In fact, structuralism maintains that . practically everything we do that is specifically human is expressed in language (Richter 809). Structuralists believe that these language symbols extend far beyond written or oral communication.
For example, codes that represent all sorts of things permeate everything we do: the performance of music requires complex notation. our economic life rests upon the exchange of labor and goods for symbols, such as cash, checks, stock, and certificates. Top Essay Writing? social life depends on the meaningful gestures and signals of 'body language' and service, revolves around the exchange of small, symbolic favors: drinks, parties, dinners (Richter 809). Structuralists assert that, since language exists in patterns, certain underlying elements are common to all human experiences. Structuralists believe we can observe these experiences through patterns: . if you examine the physical structures of all buildings built in urban America in 1850 to discover the underlying principles that govern their composition, for example, principles of mechanical construction or of artistic form. you are using a structuralist lens (Tyson 197). Moreover, you are also engaged in structuralist activity if you examine the structure of writing services a single building to discover how its composition demonstrates underlying principles of a structural system. In the first example. you're generating a structural system of start dissertation conclusion classification; in top essay services, the second, you're demonstrating that an individual item belongs to cheap constructing the middle east a particular structural class (Tyson 197). Structuralism is used in literary theory, for example, . Top Essay Services 81? if you examine the structure of a large number of short stories to proposal discover the underlying principles that govern their composition. Top Essay Writing 81? principles of narrative progression. or of characterization. you are also engaged in structuralist activity if you describe the structure of a single literary work to discover how its composition demonstrates the underlying principles of a given structural system (Tyson 197-198). Northrop Frye, however, takes a different approach to structuralism by exploring ways in which genres of Western literature fall into his four mythoi (also see Jungian criticism in the Freudian Literary Criticism resource): theory of modes, or historical criticism (tragic, comic, and thematic); theory of symbols, or ethical criticism (literal/descriptive, formal, mythical, and anagogic); theory of myths, or archetypal criticism (comedy, romance, tragedy, irony/satire); theory of genres, or rhetorical criticism (epos, prose, drama, lyric) (Tyson 240).
Two important theorists form the framework (hah) of structuralism: Charles Sanders Peirce and Ferdinand de Saussure. Peirce gave structuralism three important ideas for I am writing need three subtopics?, analyzing the top essay writing, sign systems that permeate and help my essay gore education reform, define our experiences: iconic signs, in top essay writing services 81, which the signifier resembles the thing signified (such as the stick figures on washroom doors that signify 'Men' or 'Women'; indexes, in which the signifier is a reliable indicator of the presence of the signified (like fire and smoke); true symbols, in which the signifier's relation to the thing signified is completely arbitrary and conventional [just as the sound /kat/ or the written word cat are conventional signs for the familiar feline] (Richter 810). These elements become very important when we move into deconstruction in the Postmodernism resource. Peirce also influenced the semiotic school of structuralist theory that uses sign systems. The discipline of buy thesis proposal kit semiotics plays an important role in structuralist literary theory and cultural studies. Semioticians . appl[y] structuralist insights to the study of. sign systems. a non-linguistic object or behavior. that can be analyzed as if it were a language (Tyson 205). Specifically, . semiotics examines the top essay 81, ways non-linguistic objects and behaviors 'tell' us something. For example, the picture of the reclining blond beauty in service, the skin-tight, black velvet dress on the billboard. 'tells' us that those who drink this whiskey (presumably male) will be attractive to. beautiful women like the one displayed here (Tyson 205).
Lastly, Richter states, semiotics takes off from Peirce - for whom language is one of writing 81 numerous sign systems - and structuralism takes off from biography service Saussure, for whom language was the sign system par excellence (810). Using a specific structuralist framework (like Frye's mythoi). how should the text be classified in terms of its genre? In other words, what patterns exist within the text that make it a part of other works like it? Using a specific structuralist framework. analyze the text's narrative operations. can you speculate about the relationship between the. [text]. and the culture from which the text emerged? In other words, what patterns exist within the text that make it a product of writing services 81 a larger culture? What patterns exist within the service, text that connect it to the larger human experience? In other words, can we connect patterns and elements within the writing services, text to how to start dissertation conclusion other texts from other cultures to map similarities that tell us more about the top essay 81, common human experience? This is a liberal humanist move that assumes that since we are all human, we all share basic human commonalities What rules or codes of interpretation must be internalized in order to 'make sense' of the text? What are the semiotics of a given category of cultural phenomena, or 'text,' such as high-school football games, television and/or magazine ads for help my essay gore and bush on public education, a particular brand of perfume. or even media coverage of an historical event? (Tyson 225) Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Charles Sanders Peirce Ferdinand de Saussure - Course in General Linguistics , 1923 Claude Lévi-Strauss - The Elementary Structure of top essay services Kinship , 1949; The Structural Study of Myth, 1955 Northrop Frye - Anatomy of subtopics? Criticism: Four Essays , 1957 Noam Chomsky - Syntactic Structures , 1957; Aspects of the Theory of Syntax , 1965 Roland Barthes - Critical Essays , 1964; Mythologies , 1957; S/Z , 1970; Image, Music, Text , 1977 Umberto Eco - The Role of the Reader , 1979.
This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in writing services 81, the academy. Post-Structuralism, Deconstruction, Postmodernism (1966-present) Note: Structuralism, semiotics, and post-structuralism are some of the most complex literary theories to understand. Please be patient. This approach concerns itself with the ways and papers cheap in somalia and dprk, places where systems, frameworks, definitions, and certainties break down. Post-structuralism maintains that frameworks and systems, for example the structuralist systems explained in the Structuralist area, are merely fictitious constructs and that they cannot be trusted to develop meaning or to give order. In fact, the very act of seeking order or a singular Truth (with a capital T) is top essay services, absurd because there exists no unified truth. Post-structuralism holds that there are many truths, that frameworks must bleed, and that structures must become unstable or decentered. Moreover, post-structuralism is also concerned with the power structures or hegemonies and kit, power and how these elements contribute to and/or maintain structures to top essay writing services 81 enforce hierarchy. My Essay And Naturalizing East? Therefore, post-structural theory carries implications far beyond literary criticism. By questioning the process of developing meaning, post-structural theory strikes at the very heart of philosophy and reality and throws knowledge making into writing services what Jacques Derrida called freeplay: The concept of centered structure. is I am writing an essay subtopics?, contradictorily coherent. the services, concept of centered structure is in fact the concept of a freeplay which is constituted upon a fundamental immobility and a reassuring certitude, which is itself beyond the buy thesis, reach of the freeplay (qtd. in Richter, 878-879).
Derrida first posited these ideas in 1966 at Johns Hopkins University, when he delivered “Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences”: Perhaps something has occurred in the history of the concept of structure that could be called an 'event,' if this loaded word did not entail a meaning which it is precisely the writing services 81, function of now structural-or structuralist-thought to reduce or to suspect. But let me use the term “event” anyway, employing it with caution and as if in quotation marks. In this sense, this event will have the exterior form of a rupture and a redoubling” (qtd. in Richter, 878). In his presentation, Derrida challenged structuralism's most basic ideas. Post-structural theory can be tied to top essay services a move against buy research cheap Modernist/Enlightenment ideas (philosophers: Immanuel Kant, Réne Descartes, John Locke, etc.) and Western religious beliefs (neo-Platonism, Catholicism, etc.). Top Essay? An early pioneer of this resistance was philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. In his essay, “On Truth and Lies in an Extra-moral Sense” (1873), Nietzsche rejects even the very basis of our knowledge making, language, as a reliable system of communication: “The various languages, juxtaposed, show that words are never concerned with truth, never with adequate expression. ” (248). Below is an example, adapted from the Tyson text, of some language freeplay and a simple form of buy research cheap in somalia deconstruction: Time (noun) flies (verb) like an arrow (adverb clause) = Time passes quickly.
Time (verb) flies (object) like an arrow (adverb clause) = Get out your stopwatch and time the top essay writing 81, speed of flies as you would time an arrow's flight. Time flies (noun) like (verb) an buy research papers online disarmament arrow (object) = Time flies are fond of arrows (or at least of one particular arrow). So, post-structuralists assert that if we cannot trust language systems to convey truth, the writing services, very bases of truth are unreliable and the universe - or at cheap constructing and naturalizing least the universe we have constructed - becomes unraveled or de-centered. Nietzsche uses language slip as a base to move into the slip and shift of truth as a whole: “What is truth? truths are an top essay writing 81 illusion about which it has been forgotten that they are illusions. ” (On Truth and Lies 250). This returns us to service now the discussion in top essay writing services 81, the Structuralist area regarding signs, signifiers, and signified. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap In Somalia And Dprk? Essentially, post-structuralism holds that we cannot trust the writing services, sign = signifier + signified formula, that there is a breakdown of certainty between sign/signifier, which leaves language systems hopelessly inadequate for relaying meaning so that we are (returning to cheap write Derrida) in top essay writing 81, eternal freeplay or instability. Important to note, however, is that deconstruction is not just about I am writing an i need, tearing down - this is a common misconception. Derrida, in top essay 81, Signature Event Context, addressed this limited view of buy thesis post-structural theory: Deconstruction cannot limit or proceed immediately to a neutralization: it mustpractice an overturning of the classical opposition and a general displacement of the top essay, system. It is only on buy thesis proposal kit, this condition that deconstruction will provide itself the top essay, means with which to intervene in the field of dissertation oppositions that it criticizes, which is also a field of nondiscursive forces (328).
Derrida reminds us that through deconstruction we can identify the in-betweens and the marginalized to begin interstitial knowledge building. With the top essay, resistance to traditional forms of knowledge making (science, religion, language), inquiry, communication, and how to start, building meaning take on different forms to the post-structuralist. We can look at this difference as a split between Modernism and Postmodernism. The table below, excerpted from theorist Ihab Hassan's The Dismemberment of top essay services 81 Orpheus (1998), offers us a way to make sense of biography writing service some differences between modernism, dominated by Enlightenment ideas, and postmodernism, a space of freeplay and discourse. Keep in mind that even the author, Hassan, . is quick to point out how the dichotomies are themselves insecure, equivocal (Harvey 42). Top Essay Writing? Though post-structuralism is uncomfortable with binaries, Hassan provides us with some interesting contrasts to cheap disarmament consider: If we are questioning/resisting the methods we use to top essay build knowledge (science, religion, language), then traditional literary notions are also thrown into freeplay. These include the cheap constructing and naturalizing the middle east, narrative and the author: The narrative is top essay services 81, a fiction that locks readers into interpreting text in a single, chronological manner that does not reflect our experiences. Postmodern texts may not adhere to kit traditional notions of narrative. For example, in his seminal work, Naked Lunch , William S. Burroughs explodes the writing, traditional narrative structure and dissertation, critiques almost everything Modern: modern government, modern medicine, modern law-enforcement.
Other examples of authors playing with narrative include John Fowles; in the final sections of The French Lieutenant's Woman , Fowles steps outside his narrative to speak with the reader directly. Moreover, grand narratives are resisted. For example, the belief that through science the human race will improve is questioned. In addition, metaphysics is questioned. Instead, postmodern knowledge building is local, situated, slippery, and self-critical (i.e. it questions itself and its role). Because post-structural work is self-critical, post-structural critics even look for ways texts contradict themselves (see typical questions below). The author is displaced as absolute author(ity), and top essay writing, the reader plays a role in interpreting the text and developing meaning (as best as possible) from the text. In “The Death of the Author,” Roland Barthes argues that the idea of singular authorship is how to start, a recent phenomenon.
Barthes explains that the death of the author shatters Modernist notions of authority and top essay writing, knowledge building (145). Lastly, he states that once the author is dead and papers, the Modernist idea of top essay 81 singular narrative (and thus authority) is overturned, texts become plural, and the interpretation of texts becomes a collaborative process between author and audience: “. a text is made of multiple writings, drawn from many cultures and in somalia, entering into mutual relations of dialogue. but there is one place where this multiplicity is focused and that place is the reader” (148). Barthes ends his essay by empowering the reader: “Classical criticism has never paid any attention to the reader. the writer is the only person in literatureit is necessary to overthrow the myth: the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the Author” (148). How is language thrown into freeplay or questioned in the work? For example, note how Anthony Burgess plays with language (Russian vs English) in A Clockwork Orange, or how Burroughs plays with names and language in Naked Lunch. How does the work undermine or contradict generally accepted truths? How does the author (or a character) omit, change, or reconstruct memory and 81, identity? How does a work fulfill or move outside the established conventions of its genre?
How does the work deal with the separation (or lack thereof) between writer, work, and how to start dissertation conclusion, reader? What ideology does the text seem to promote? What is left out of the text that if included might undermine the top essay writing 81, goal of the work? If we changed the buy thesis kit, point of view of the text - say from one character to another, or multiple characters - how would the story change? Whose story is not told in the text? Who is top essay writing, left out and conclusion, why might the top essay writing, author have omitted this character's tale? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to I am writing an essay need further your understanding of this theory:
Immanuel Kant - An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?, 1784 (as a baseline to understand what Nietzsche was resisting) Friedrich Nietzsche - “On Truth and Lies in an Extra-moral Sense, 1873; The Gay Science , 1882; Thus Spoke Zarathustra, A Book for All and None , 1885 Jacques Derrida - Structure Sign and Play in the Discourse of Human Sciences, 1966; Of Grammatology , 1967; Signature Event Context, 1972 Roland Barthes - The Death of the Author, 1967 Deleuze and Guattari - Rhizome, 1976 Jean-François Lyotard - The Postmodern Condition , 1979 Michele Foucault - The Foucault Reader , 1984 Stephen Toulmin - Cosmopolis , 1990 Martin Heidegger - Basic Writings, 1993 Paul Cilliers - Complexity and top essay 81, Postmodernity , 1998 Ihab Hassan - The Dismemberment of Orpheus , 1998; From Postmodernism to Postmodernity: The Local/Global Context , 2001. William S. Burroughs - Naked Lunch , 1959 Angela Carter - Burning Your Boats , stories from 1962-1993 (first published as a collection in buy thesis kit, 1995) Kathy Acker - Blood and Guts in top essay writing 81, High School , 1978 Paul Auster - City of Glass (volume one of the New York City Trilogy), 1985 (as a graphic novel published by buy thesis kit Neon Lit, a division of Avon Books, 1994) Lynne Tillman - Haunted Houses , 1987 David Wojnarowicz - The Waterfront Journals , 1996. This resource will help you begin the top essay writing 81, process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. New Historicism, Cultural Studies (1980s-present) This school, influenced by structuralist and post-structuralist theories, seeks to reconnect a work with the time period in which it was produced and identify it with the cultural and political movements of the now, time (Michel Foucault's concept of épistème). New Historicism assumes that every work is a product of the historic moment that created it.
Specifically, New Historicism is writing services, . a practice that has developed out of how to dissertation conclusion contemporary theory, particularly the structuralist realization that all human systems are symbolic and subject to the rules of top essay writing services 81 language, and the deconstructive realization that there is buy research papers online cheap in somalia, no way of positioning oneself as an writing services observer outside the closed circle of textuality (Richter 1205). A helpful way of biography writing considering New Historical theory, Tyson explains, is to writing services 81 think about the retelling of history itself: . questions asked by traditional historians and by new historicists are quite different. Service? traditional historians ask, 'What happened?' and 'What does the event tell us about history?' In contrast, new historicists ask, 'How has the event been interpreted?' and top essay, 'What do the interpretations tell us about the interpreters?' (278). So New Historicism resists the notion that . history is start dissertation, a series of events that have a linear, causal relationship: event A caused event B; event B caused event C; and so on (Tyson 278). New historicists do not believe that we can look at history objectively, but rather that we interpret events as products of our time and culture and that . we don't have clear access to any but the most basic facts of history. Services? our understanding of an essay subtopics? what such facts mean. is. strictly a matter of writing services interpretation, not fact (279). Buy Thesis? Moreover, New Historicism holds that we are hopelessly subjective interpreters of what we observe. What language/characters/events present in the work reflect the current events of the author’s day? Are there words in the text that have changed their meaning from the time of the writing? How are such events interpreted and presented? How are events' interpretation and top essay writing services, presentation a product of the culture of the author?
Does the work's presentation support or condemn the event? Can it be seen to do both? How does this portrayal criticize the leading political figures or movements of the day? How does the literary text function as part of a continuum with other historical/cultural texts from the same period. How can we use a literary work to map the writing need, interplay of both traditional and subversive discourses circulating in the culture in which that work emerged and/or the cultures in top essay services, which the work has been interpreted? How does the start, work consider traditionally marginalized populations? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of top essay writing this theory:
Michel Foucault - The Order of Things: An Archeology of the Human Sciences , 1970; Language, Counter-memory, Practice , 1977 Clifford Geertz - The Interpretation of I am writing an i three Cultures , 1973; Deep Play: Notes on writing services, the Balinese Cockfight, 1992 Hayden White - Metahistory , 1974; The Politics of Historical Interpretation: Discipline and De-Sublimation, 1982 Stephen Greenblatt - Renaissance Self-Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare , 1980 Pierre Bourdieu - Outline of help my essay gore school education a Theory of Practice , 1977; Homo Academicus , 1984; The Field of Cultural Production , 1993. This resource will help you begin the process of writing understanding literary theory and biography service, schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Post-Colonial Criticism (1990s-present) History is top essay writing services 81, Written by the Victors. Post-colonial criticism is similar to cultural studies, but it assumes a unique perspective on literature and politics that warrants a separate discussion. Specifically, post-colonial critics are concerned with literature produced by colonial powers and works produced by those who were/are colonized.
Post-colonial theory looks at issues of power, economics, politics, religion, and help my essay gore and bush reform, culture and top essay writing services, how these elements work in relation to colonial hegemony (western colonizers controlling the colonized). Therefore, a post-colonial critic might be interested in works such as Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe where colonial . ideology [is] manifest in Crusoe's colonialist attitude toward the land upon which he's shipwrecked and toward the writing now, black man he 'colonizes' and names Friday (Tyson 377). In addition, post-colonial theory might point out top essay writing services, that . despite Heart of Darkness's (Joseph Conrad) obvious anti-colonist agenda, the novel points to the colonized population as the standard of savagery to me do my essay and bush which Europeans are contrasted (Tyson 375). Post-colonial criticism also takes the form of services 81 literature composed by I am an essay an i subtopics? authors that critique Euro-centric hegemony. Seminal post-colonial writers such as Nigerian author Chinua Achebe and Kenyan author Ngugi wa Thiong'o have written a number of stories recounting the suffering of services 81 colonized people. For example, in Things Fall Apart , Achebe details the strife and biography service now, devastation that occurred when British colonists began moving inland from the Nigerian coast. Rather than glorifying the exploratory nature of top essay European colonists as they expanded their sphere of influence, Achebe narrates the destructive events that led to the death and constructing and naturalizing the middle east, enslavement of thousands of Nigerians when the British imposed their Imperial government.
In turn, Achebe points out the negative effects (and shifting ideas of identity and culture) caused by the imposition of western religion and economics on Nigerians during colonial rule. Post-colonial criticism also questions the role of the western literary canon and western history as dominant forms of knowledge making. The terms first-world, second world, third world and fourth world nations are critiqued by post-colonial critics because they reinforce the dominant positions of western cultures populating first world status. Writing 81? This critique includes the literary canon and histories written from the perspective of first-world cultures. So, for example, a post-colonial critic might question the works included in me do my essay gore reform, the canon because the canon does not contain works by authors outside western culture. Moreover, the authors included in the canon often reinforce colonial hegemonic ideology, such as Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness . Services 81? Western critics might consider Heart of Darkness an effective critique of colonial behavior. But post-colonial theorists and authors might disagree with this perspective: . as Chinua Achebe observes, the novel's condemnation of how to start conclusion European is top essay services 81, based on a definition of Africans as savages: beneath their veneer of buy thesis kit civilization, the Europeans are, the novel tells us, as barbaric as the Africans.
And indeed, Achebe notes, the novel portrays Africans as a pre-historic mass of frenzied, howling, incomprehensible barbarians. (Tyson 374-375). How does the literary text, explicitly or allegorically, represent various aspects of colonial oppression? What does the text reveal about the writing services, problematics of post-colonial identity, including the relationship between personal and cultural identity and such issues as double consciousness and hybridity? What person(s) or groups does the work identify as other or stranger? How are such persons/groups described and treated?
What does the text reveal about the politics and/or psychology of anti-colonialist resistance? What does the text reveal about the operations of cultural difference - the ways in which race, religion, class, gender, sexual orientation, cultural beliefs, and customs combine to form individual identity - in shaping our perceptions of ourselves, others, and the world in which we live? How does the text respond to or comment upon the characters, themes, or assumptions of a canonized (colonialist) work? Are there meaningful similarities among the literatures of different post-colonial populations? How does a literary text in the Western canon reinforce or undermine colonialist ideology through its representation of colonialization and/or its inappropriate silence about colonized peoples? (Tyson 378-379)
Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Edward Said - Orientalism , 1978; Culture and Imperialism , 1994 Kamau Brathwaite - The History of the Voice , 1979 Gayatri Spivak - In Other Worlds: Essays in I am writing, Cultural Politics , 1987 Dominick LaCapra - The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance , 1991 Homi Bhabha - The Location of top essay writing services Culture , 1994. Literature and help gore and bush on public, non-fiction. Chinua Achebe - Things Fall Apart , 1958 Ngugi wa Thiong'o - The River Between , 1965 Sembene Ousman - God's Bits of Wood , 1962 Ruth Prawer Jhabvala - Heat and Dust , 1975 Buchi Emecheta - The Joys of Motherhood , 1979 Keri Hulme - The Bone People , 1983 Robertson Davies - What's Bred in the Bone , 1985 Kazuo Ishiguro - The Remains of the top essay writing, Day , 1988 Bharati Mukherjee - Jasmine , 1989 Jill Ker Conway - The Road from Coorain , 1989 Helena Norberg-Hodge - Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh , 1991 Michael Ondaatje - The English Patient , 1992 Gita Mehta - A River Sutra , 1993 Arundhati Roy - The God of Small Things , 1997 Patrick Chamoiseau - Texaco , 1997. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in buy thesis proposal kit, the academy.
Feminist criticism is concerned with . the ways in top essay services, which literature (and other cultural productions) reinforce or undermine the economic, political, social, and psychological oppression of women (Tyson). This school of theory looks at how aspects of our culture are inherently patriarchal (male dominated) and . this critique strives to expose the explicit and implicit misogyny in I am writing an essay need three, male writing about top essay services, women (Richter 1346). This misogyny, Tyson reminds us, can extend into diverse areas of our culture: Perhaps the buy research papers in somalia and dprk, most chilling example. is 81, found in the world of biography service modern medicine, where drugs prescribed for both sexes often have been tested on male subjects only (83). Feminist criticism is also concerned with less obvious forms of marginalization such as the exclusion of women writers from the top essay writing services, traditional literary canon: . unless the critical or historical point of dissertation conclusion view is feminist, there is a tendency to under-represent the contribution of women writers (Tyson 82-83). Common Space in Feminist Theories.
Though a number of different approaches exist in feminist criticism, there exist some areas of commonality. This list is top essay 81, excerpted from Tyson: Women are oppressed by patriarchy economically, politically, socially, and psychologically; patriarchal ideology is the primary means by which they are kept so In every domain where patriarchy reigns, woman is papers disarmament, other: she is top essay 81, marginalized, defined only by her difference from male norms and values All of western (Anglo-European) civilization is deeply rooted in proposal, patriarchal ideology, for example, in the biblical portrayal of Eve as the origin of sin and death in the world While biology determines our sex (male or female), culture determines our gender (masculine or feminine) All feminist activity, including feminist theory and literary criticism, has as its ultimate goal to change the world by prompting gender equality Gender issues play a part in every aspect of human production and experience, including the production and top essay services 81, experience of literature, whether we are consciously aware of these issues or not (91). Feminist criticism has, in many ways, followed what some theorists call the three waves of writing an essay an i three subtopics? feminism: First Wave Feminism - late 1700s-early 1900's: writers like Mary Wollstonecraft ( A Vindication of the Rights of top essay services 81 Women , 1792) highlight the inequalities between the sexes.
Activists like Susan B. Anthony and I am an essay three, Victoria Woodhull contribute to the women's suffrage movement, which leads to National Universal Suffrage in 1920 with the passing of the Nineteenth Amendment Second Wave Feminism - early 1960s-late 1970s: building on more equal working conditions necessary in top essay services 81, America during World War II, movements such as the start conclusion, National Organization for Women (NOW), formed in writing 81, 1966, cohere feminist political activism. Writers like Simone de Beauvoir ( Le deuxième sexe , 1972) and Elaine Showalter established the groundwork for the dissemination of feminist theories dove-tailed with the American Civil Rights movement Third Wave Feminism - early 1990s-present: resisting the perceived essentialist (over generalized, over simplified) ideologies and a white, heterosexual, middle class focus of second wave feminism, third wave feminism borrows from post-structural and contemporary gender and writing an i need three, race theories (see below) to expand on marginalized populations' experiences. Writers like Alice Walker work to . Services 81? reconcile it [feminism] with the an essay need, concerns of the black community. Writing? [and] the survival and wholeness of her people, men and women both, and for the promotion of dialog and community as well as for the valorization of women and of all the varieties of buy thesis proposal work women perform (Tyson 97). How is the relationship between men and women portrayed? What are the power relationships between men and women (or characters assuming male/female roles)? How are male and female roles defined?
What constitutes masculinity and top essay services 81, femininity? How do characters embody these traits? Do characters take on traits from opposite genders? How so? How does this change others’ reactions to them? What does the work reveal about the operations (economically, politically, socially, or psychologically) of patriarchy? What does the work imply about the possibilities of sisterhood as a mode of resisting patriarchy?
What does the me do and bush reform, work say about women's creativity? What does the history of the top essay, work's reception by the public and by the critics tell us about the operation of patriarchy? What role the work play in terms of women's literary history and literary tradition? (Tyson) Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Mary Wollstonecraft - A Vindication of the Rights of Women , 1792 Simone de Beauvoir - Le deuxième sexe , 1972 Julia Kristeva - About Chinese Women , 1977 Elaine Showalter - A Literature of Their Own , 1977; Toward a Feminist Poetics, 1979 Deborah E. McDowell - New Directions for my essay and bush on public education, Black Feminist Criticism, 1980 Alice Walker - In Search of Our Mother's Gardens , 1983 Lillian S. Top Essay Services? Robinson - Treason out Text: Feminist Challenges to the Literary Canon, 1983 Camile Paglia - Sexual Personae: The Androgyne in Literature and Art , 1990. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and dissertation, schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Gender Studies and Queer Theory (1970s-present) Gender(s), Power, and Marginalization. Gender studies and queer theory explore issues of sexuality, power, and marginalized populations (woman as other) in writing services 81, literature and culture.
Much of the work in gender studies and queer theory, while influenced by feminist criticism, emerges from post-structural interest in fragmented, de-centered knowledge building (Nietzsche, Derrida, Foucault), language (the breakdown of sign-signifier), and psychoanalysis (Lacan). A primary concern in gender studies and queer theory is the manner in dissertation conclusion, which gender and sexuality is discussed: Effective as this work [feminism] was in writing 81, changing what teachers taught and what the students read, there was a sense on the part of some feminist critics that. it was still the old game that was being played, when what it needed was a new game entirely. The argument posed was that in order to counter patriarchy, it was necessary not merely to think about new texts, but to think about them in writing an essay, radically new ways (Richter 1432). Therefore, a critic working in gender studies and queer theory might even be uncomfortable with the binary established by many feminist scholars between masculine and writing services 81, feminine: Cixous (following Derrida in Of Grammatology ) sets up a series of binary oppositions (active/passive, sun/moon. father/mother, logos/pathos). Papers Disarmament In Somalia? Each pair can be analyzed as a hierarchy in which the former term represents the positive and masculine and the latter the negative and services, feminine principle (Richter 1433-1434). Many critics working with gender and queer theory are interested in the breakdown of binaries such as male and female, the in-betweens (also following Derrida's interstitial knowledge building).
For example, gender studies and buy thesis kit, queer theory maintains that cultural definitions of sexuality and what it means to be male and female are in flux: . the distinction between masculine and feminine activities and behavior is constantly changing, so that women who wear baseball caps and fatigues. can be perceived as more piquantly sexy by some heterosexual men than those women who wear white frocks and gloves and look down demurely (Richter 1437). Moreover, Richter reminds us that as we learn more about top essay services, our genetic structure, the biology of male/female becomes increasingly complex and murky: even the physical dualism of cheap write my essay and naturalizing the middle east sexual genetic structures and bodily parts breaks down when one considers those instances - XXY syndromes, natural sexual bimorphisms, as well as surgical transsexuals - that defy attempts at writing services binary classification (1437). What elements of the text can be perceived as being masculine (active, powerful) and start dissertation, feminine (passive, marginalized) and how do the characters support these traditional roles? What sort of 81 support (if any) is cheap write constructing east, given to elements or characters who question the masculine/feminine binary? What happens to those elements/characters? What elements in the text exist in writing services 81, the middle, between the perceived masculine/feminine binary?
In other words, what elements exhibit traits of me do gore and bush on public school both (bisexual)? How does the author present the text? Is it a traditional narrative? Is it secure and forceful? Or is it more hesitant or even collaborative? What are the politics (ideological agendas) of specific gay, lesbian, or queer works, and writing, how are those politics revealed in. the work's thematic content or portrayals of how to start dissertation its characters?
What are the poetics (literary devices and strategies) of a specific lesbian, gay, or queer works? What does the work contribute to our knowledge of queer, gay, or lesbian experience and history, including literary history? How is queer, gay, or lesbian experience coded in texts that are by writers who are apparently homosexual? What does the work reveal about the operations (socially, politically, psychologically) homophobic? How does the top essay writing, literary text illustrate the problematics of sexuality and how to dissertation conclusion, sexual identity, that is the ways in top essay 81, which human sexuality does not fall neatly into the separate categories defined by the words homosexual and heterosexual? Here is a list of write the middle scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory:
Luce Irigaray - Speculum of the writing, Other Woman , 1974 Hélène Cixous - The Laugh of the Medusa, 1976 Laura Mulvey - Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, 1975; Afterthoughts on Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, 1981 Michele Foucault - The History of Sexuality , Volume I, 1980 Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick - Epistemology of the Closet , 1994 Lee Edelman - Homographesis, 1989 Michael Warner Judith Butler - Imitation and Gender Insubordination, 1991. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and write my essay constructing and naturalizing east, schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Ecocriticism is an top essay services 81 umbrella term under which a variety of how to approaches fall; this can make it a difficult term to define. As ecocritic Lawrence Buell says, ecocriticism is an services 81 “increasingly heterogeneous movement” (1). But, “simply put, ecocriticism is the biography writing, study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment” (Glotfelty xviii). Emerging in the 1980s on the shoulders of the environmental movement begun in the 1960s with the top essay writing, publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring , ecocriticism has been and continues to be an “earth-centered approach” (Glotfelty xviii) the complex intersections between environment and dissertation, culture, believing that “human culture is connected to the physical world, affecting it and affected by it” (Glotfelty xix). Ecocriticism is 81, interdisciplinary, calling for collaboration between natural scientists, writers, literary critics, anthropologists, historians, and more. Ecocriticism asks us to examine ourselves and the world around us, critiquing the way that we represent, interact with, and construct the environment, both “natural” and manmade. At the heart of ecocriticism, many maintain, is “a commitment to writing an i need three subtopics? environmentality from whatever critical vantage point” (Buell 11).
The “challenge” for ecocritics is “keep[ing] one eye on the ways in which ‘nature’ is always  culturally constructed, and the other on the fact that nature really exists” (Gerrard 10). Similar to critical traditions examining gender and race, ecocriticism deals not only with the socially-constructed, often dichotomous categories we create for reality, but with reality itself. Several scholars have divided Ecocriticism into two waves (Buell)(Glotfelty), recognizing the first as taking place throughout the eighties and nineties. Writing? The first wave is characterized by write and naturalizing its emphasis on top essay writing services 81, nature writing as an an i three object of study and as a meaningful practice (Buell). Central to top essay services this wave and to the majority of ecocritics still today is the environmental crisis of our age, seeing it as the duty of both the humanities and the natural sciences to raise awareness and invent solutions for a problem that is both cultural and physical.
As such, a primary concern in first-wave ecocriticism was to “speak for” nature (Buell 11). This is, perhaps, where ecocriticism gained its reputation as an “avowedly political mode of writing service analysis” (Gerrard 3). Services? This wave, unlike its successor, kept the cultural distinction between human and nature, promoting the value of nature. The second wave is particularly modern in its breaking down of some of the long-standing distinctions between the human and the non-human, questioning these very concepts (Gerrard 5). The boundaries between the how to, human and the non-human, nature and non-nature are discussed as constructions, and ecocritics challenge these constructions, asking (among other things) how they frame the environmental crisis and its solution.
This wave brought with it a redefinition of the term “environment,” expanding its meaning to include both “nature” and top essay writing services, the urban (Buell 11). Out of this expansion has grown the ecojustice movement, one of the constructing east, more political of ecocriticism branches that is top essay writing services 81, “raising an how to dissertation conclusion awareness of class, race, and gender through ecocritical reading of text” (Bressler 236), often examining the plight of the top essay writing services 81, poorest of a population who are the victims of pollution are seen as having less access to “nature” in the traditional sense. These waves are not exactly distinct, and my essay constructing and naturalizing the middle, there is debate over what exactly constitutes the two. For instance, some ecocritics will claim activism has been a defining feature of ecocriticism from the beginning, while others see activism as a defining feature of primarily the first wave. While the exact features attributed to each wave may be disputed, it is clear that Ecocriticism continues to evolve and has undergone several shifts in attitude and top essay writing 81, direction since its conception.
This trope, found in much British and American literature, focuses on the dichotomy between urban and rural life, is I am need subtopics?, “deeply entrenched in Western culture”(Gerrard 33). Services 81? At the forefront of works which display pastoralism is a general idealization of the nature and the rural and the demonization of the urban. Often, such works show a “retreat” from gore on public reform city life to the country while romanticizing rural life, depicting an idealized rural existence that “obscures” the reality of the hard work living in such areas requires (Gerrard 33). Greg Gerrard identifies three branches of the pastoral: Classic Pastoral, “characterized by top essay services nostalgia” (37) and an appreciation of nature as a place for human relaxation and reflection; Romantic Pastoral, a period after the Industrial Revolution that saw “rural independence” as desirable against my essay and naturalizing the middle east the expansion of the urban; and American Pastoralism, which “emphasize[d] agrarianism” (49) and represents land as a resource to be cultivated, with farmland often creating a boundary between the top essay writing 81, urban and the wilderness. An interesting focus for many ecocritics is the way that wilderness is represented in literature and popular culture. This approach examines the help education, ways in which wilderness is constructed, valued, and engaged. Representations of wilderness in British and American culture can be separated into top essay writing 81 a few main tropes. Biography? First, Old World wilderness displays wilderness as a place beyond the borders of services civilization, wherein wilderness is treated as a “threat,” a place of “exile” (Gerrard 62). This trope can be seen in how to conclusion, Biblical tales of creation and top essay services 81, early British culture. Old World wilderness is often conflated with demonic practices in early American literature (Gerrard 62). New World wilderness, seen in portrayals of biography service now wilderness in top essay services 81, later American literature, applies the pastoral trope of the “retreat” to write my essay constructing east wilderness itself, seeing wilderness not as a place to fear, but as a place to top essay services 81 find sanctuary.
The New World wilderness trope has informed much of the “American identity,” and often constructs encounters with the wilderness that lead to a more “authentic existence” (Gerrard 71). As a branch of ecocriticism, ecofeminism primarily “analyzes the interconnection of the oppression of buy research cheap in somalia and dprk women and nature” (Bressler 236). Top Essay Writing Services? Drawing parallels between domination of land and the domination of men over women, ecofeminists examine these hierarchical, gendered relationships, in which the land is me do and bush on public school reform, often equated with the feminine, seen as a fertile resources and the property of man. The ecofeminism approach can be divided into two camps. Top Essay Writing 81? The first, sometimes referred to as radical ecofeminism, reverses the patriarchal domination of start dissertation man over woman and writing services, nature, “exalting nature,” the non-human, and the emotional” (Gerrard 24). This approach embraces the idea that women are inherently closer to nature biologically, spiritually, and proposal kit, emotionally.
The second camp, which followed the 81, first historically, maintains that there is no such thing as a “feminine essence” that would make women more likely to connect with nature (Gerrard 25). I Am An I Three Subtopics?? Of course, ecofeminism is top essay services 81, a highly diverse and complex branch, and buy thesis kit, many writers have undertaken the job of examining the hierarchical relationships structured in top essay writing 81, our cultural representations of nature and of women and other oppressed groups. In particular, studies regarding race have followed in this trend, identifying groups that have been historically seen as somehow closer to writing nature. Top Essay Writing Services 81? The way Native Americans, for instance, have been described as “primitive” and biography writing service now, portrayed as “dwelling in harmony with nature,” despite facts to the contrary. Gerrard offers an writing services 81 examination of I am writing an essay an i need three this trope, calling it the Ecological Indian (Gerrard 120). Similar studies regarding representations and oppression of 81 aboriginals have surfaced, highlighting the start, misconceptions of these peoples as somehow “behind” Europeans, needing to progress from top essay writing services “a natural to a civilized state” (Gerrard 125). Taking an ecocritical approach to a topic means asking questions not only of a primary source such as literature, but asking larger questions about cultural attitudes towards and writing now, definitions of nature.
Generally, ecocriticism can be applied to a primary source by either interpreting a text through an ecocritical lens, with an eye towards nature, or examining an top essay writing ecocritical trope within the text. Now? The questions below are examples of questions you might ask both when working with a primary source and when developing a research question that might have a broader perspective. How is nature represented in this text? How has the concept of nature changed over time? How is the setting of the play/film/text related to the environment? What is the influence on top essay writing services, metaphors and representations of the land and the environment on gore and bush, how we treat it? How do we see issues of environmental disaster and crises reflected in popular culture and literary works? How are animals represented in this text and what is top essay writing services 81, their relationship to humans? How do the roles or representations of men and women towards the environment differ in this play/film/text/etc.
Where is the environment placed in how to start conclusion, the power hierarchy? How is nature empowered or oppressed in this work? What parallels can be drawn between the top essay writing, sufferings and oppression of constructing and naturalizing the middle east groups of people (women, minorities, immigrants, etc.) and treatment of the land? What rhetorical moves are used by environmentalists, and what can we learn from them about our cultural attitudes towards nature? There are many more questions than these to writing 81 be asked, and a large variety of approaches already exist that are asking different questions. Do some research to check on the state of ecocritical discussion in buy thesis, your own area of interest. There are many more approaches to analyzing interactions between culture and nature, many of which are interdisciplinary. The following texts are recommended to help you start exploring other avenues of Ecocriticsm.
Lawrence Buell - “ The Environmental Imagination : Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture ” (1995) and “Toxic Discourse,” 1998 Charles Bressler - Literary criticism: an introduction to theory and practice , 1999 Cheryll Glotfelty and Harold Fromm The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology , (1996) Greg Garrard Ecocriticism , 2004 Donna Haraway - A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century, (1991) ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in 81, Literature and my essay constructing, Environment (Journal) Joseph Makus - The Comedy of Survival: literary ecology and a play ethic, (1972) Leo Marx The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America , (1964) Raymond Williams - The Country and The City , (1975) Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness (1968) Appalachian Wilderness (1970) The Monkey Wrench Gang (1975) Mary Hunter Austin. A Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and writing services 81, There (1949) Henry David Thoreau. Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems (1798) Lyrical Ballads, with Other Poems (1800) This resource will help you begin the process of buy research in somalia understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Critical Race Theory (1970s-present) Critical Race Theory, or CRT, is a theoretical and interpretive mode that examines the appearance of race and racism across dominant cultural modes of expression. In adopting this approach, CRT scholars attempt to understand how victims of systemic racism are affected by cultural perceptions of race and 81, how they are able to represent themselves to counter prejudice. Closely connected to such fields as philosophy, history, sociology, and law, CRT scholarship traces racism in kit, America through the writing, nation’s legacy of slavery, the Civil Rights Movement, and recent events.
In doing so, it draws from work by writers like Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. Du Bois, Martin Luther King, Jr., and others studying law, feminism, and post-structuralism. CRT developed into its current form during the mid-1970s with scholars like Derrick Bell, Alan Freeman, and Richard Delgado, who responded to help gore on public education what they identified as dangerously slow progress following Civil Rights in top essay, the 1960s. Prominent CRT scholars like Kimberlé Crenshaw, Mari Matsuda, and Patricia Williams share an interest in recognizing racism as a quotidian component of American life (manifested in kit, textual sources like literature, film, law, etc). In doing so, they attempt to confront the beliefs and practices that enable racism to persist while also challenging these practices in order to seek liberation from systemic racism. As such, CRT scholarship also emphasizes the importance of finding a way for diverse individuals to services 81 share their experiences. However, CRT scholars do not only I am writing an essay need three subtopics?, locate an individual’s identity and experience of the world in his or her racial identifications, but also their membership to a specific class, gender, nation, sexual orientation, etc. They read these diverse cultural texts as proof of the services, institutionalized inequalities racialized groups and individuals experience every day. As Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic explain in their introduction to the third edition of Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge , “Our social world, with its rules, practices, and assignments of prestige and power, is not fixed; rather, we construct with it words, stories and silence. But we need not acquiesce in online disarmament in somalia, arrangements that are unfair and one-sided. By writing and speaking against them, we may hope to contribute to a better, fairer world” (3).
In this sense, CRT scholars seek tangible, real-world ends through the intellectual work they perform. This contributes to many CRT scholars’ emphasis on 81, social activism and transforming everyday notions of buy research papers and dprk race, racism, and power. More recently, CRT has contributed to splinter groups focused on Asian American, Latino, and Indian racial experiences. What is the significance of race in top essay writing services 81, contemporary American society? Where, in what ways, and to buy research disarmament what ends does race appear in dominant American culture and shape the ways we interact with one another? What types of texts and writing services 81, other cultural artifacts reflect dominant culture’s perceptions of buy thesis proposal kit race? How can scholars convey that racism is a concern that affects all members of society?
How does racism continue to function as a persistent force in American society? How can we combat racism to ensure that all members of American society experience equal representation and access to services fundamental rights? How can we accurately reflect the experiences of victims of racism? As we can see, adopting a CRT approach to literature or other modes of cultural expression includes much more than simply identifying race, racism, and start, racialized characters in fictional works. Rather, it (broadly) emphasizes the 81, importance of examining and attempting to me do my essay education understand the socio-cultural forces that shape how we and others perceive, experience, and respond to racism. These scholars treat literature, legal documents, and other cultural works as evidence of American culture’s collective values and beliefs.
In doing so, they trace racism as a dually theoretical and historical experience that affects all members of a community regardless of their racial affiliations or identifications. Most CRT scholarship attempts to demonstrate not only how racism continues to be a pervasive component throughout dominant society, but also why this persistent racism problematically denies individuals many of the constitutional freedoms they are otherwise promised in the United States’ governing documents. This enables scholars to locate how texts develop in and through the cultural contexts that produced them, further demonstrating how pervasive systemic racism truly is. CRT scholars typically focus on writing 81, both the write my essay and naturalizing east, evidence and the origins of racism in American culture, seeking to 81 eradicate it at an essay an i three subtopics? its roots. Additionally, because CRT advocates attending to the various components that shape individual identity, it offers a way for writing services, scholars to understand how race interacts with other identities like gender and class. As scholars like Crenshaw and Willams have shown, CRT scholarship can and should be amenable to adopting and adapting theories from online and dprk related fields like women’s studies, feminism, and history. Writing Services 81? In doing so, CRT has evolved over the last decades to address the various concerns facing individuals affected by proposal kit racism. Interestingly, CRT scholarship does not only draw attention to and address the concerns of individual affected by racism, but also those who perpetrate and are seemingly unaffected by racial prejudice. Scholars like W.E.B.
Du Bois, Peggy McIntosh, Cheryl Harris, and George Lipsitz discuss white privilege and notions of whiteness throughout history to better understand how American culture conceptualizes race (or the seeming absence of race). White privilege: Discussed by Lipsitz, Lee, Harris, McIntosh, and other CRT scholars, white privilege refers to the various social, political, and economic advantages white individuals experience in contrast to non-white citizens based on their racial membership. These advantages can include both obvious and subtle differences in access to power, social status, experiences of prejudice, educational opportunities, and much more. For CRT scholars, the notion of white privilege offers a way to discuss dominant culture’s tendency to normalize white individuals’ experiences and ignore the experiences of non-whites. Writing Services 81? Fields such as CRT and whiteness studies have focused explicitly on the concept of white privilege to understand how racism influences white people. Microaggressions : Microaggressions refer to the seemingly minute, often unconscious, quotidian instances of prejudice that collectively contribute to online cheap in somalia racism and the subordination of writing services racialized individuals by dominant culture. Peggy Davis discusses how legal discourse participates in and can counteract the how to start conclusion, effects of microaggressions. Institutionalized Racism : This concept, discussed extensively by Camara Phyllis Jones, refers to the systemic ways dominant society restricts a racialized individual or group’s access to opportunities.
These inequalities, which include an individual’s access to material conditions and power, are not only deeply imbedded in legal institutions, but have been absorbed into American culture to such a degree that they are often invisible or easily overlooked. Social construction : In the context of CRT, “social construction” refers to the notion that race is a product of social thought and relations. It suggests that race is a product of neither biology nor genetics, but is rather a social invention. Intersectionality and anti-essentialism : These terms refer to top essay writing services 81 the notion that one aspect of an individual’s identity does not necessarily determine other categories of membership. As Delgado and I am three subtopics?, Stefancic explain, “Everyone has potentially conflicting, overlapping identities, loyalties, and top essay 81, allegiances” ( CRT: An Introduction 10). And Naturalizing The Middle? In other words, we cannot predict an individual’s identity, beliefs, or values based on categories like race, gender, sexuality, religion, nationality, etc; instead, we must recognize that individuals are capable of top essay 81 claiming membership to a variety of I am writing an i different (and oftentimes seemingly contradictory) categories and belief systems regardless of the top essay 81, identities outsiders attempt to impose upon them. Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction . 2 nd ed. New York: New York University Press, 2012. Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic, eds.
Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. 3 rd ed. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2013. Print. Recommended Sources for Additional Research. Bell, Derrick A. “Who’s Afraid of and dprk Critical Race Theory?” University of Illinois Law Review 4 (1995): 893-910. Crenshaw, Kimberlé, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas, eds. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. New York: The New Press, 1995. Davis, Peggy. Top Essay Writing Services 81? “Law as Microaggression.” Yale Law Journal 98 (1989): 1559-1577. Gates, Henry Louis.
The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African American Literary Criticism . New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Harris, Cheryl. “Whiteness as Property.” Harvard Law Review 106.8 (1993): 1707-1791. hooks, bell. Feminist Theory: From the Margins to the Center. Boston: South End Press, 1984. Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from write my essay and naturalizing the middle Identity Politics . Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. Spillers, Hortense. Services 81? “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book.” Diacritics 17.2 (1987): 64-81. Williams, Patricia. Seeing a Color-Blind Future: The Paradox of Race. New York: Noonday Press, 1998.
This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and and bush school education reform, schools of criticism and how they are used in top essay writing, the academy. (1990s to Present) Disability studies considers disability in buy research cheap, political, aesthetic, ethical, and cultural contexts, among others. In literature, many critics examine works to understand how representations of disability and “normal” bodies change throughout history, including the ways both are defined within the top essay, limits of my essay school education historical or cultural situations. Disability studies also investigates images and descriptions of 81 disability, prejudice against people with disabilities (ableism), and me do my essay gore school, the ways narrative relates to disability (see “Narrative Prosthesis” below). It’s important to understand disability as part of one’s identity, much like race, class, gender, sexuality, and nationality. Services 81? Because of its concern with the how to start conclusion, body and top essay writing services, embodiment, disability studies also intersects other critical schools like gender studies, queer studies, feminism, critical race studies, and papers in somalia, more. In fact, many races, classes, ethnicities, and other parts of identity have been classified as or associated with disabilities in the past, emphasizing what feminist and disability theorist Rosemarie Garland-Thomson describes as the top essay, tendency of disability to me do my essay and bush on public education reform be a “synecdoche for all forms that culture deems non-normative” (259). Top Essay Writing 81? Put differently, disability frequently signifies things outside of the “normal” world, making it an buy research papers online cheap disarmament in somalia and dprk important area to investigate critically. The Social Model: Physical vs.
Social. One approach to disability studies is the social model, a theory that distinguishes between impairment and services, disability. “Impairment” refers to biography writing service a physical limitation, while “disability” refers to social exclusion. For instance, damage to the optic nerve resulting in limited vision may be an impairment. However, the inaccessibility of our society to those who are partially or fully blind is top essay, really based on buy thesis proposal, assumptions about what a “normal” body is, not on some universal Truth or ideal. The social model stresses that we live in services 81, a disabling societythat the issue isn’t people with disabilities; rather, society has failed to account for the diversity of bodies that live in the world. Sociologist Tom Shakespeare writes that the social model is useful for creating a group identity, spreading knowledge about disability, and promoting activism. However, the social model has been criticized in recent decades for too-easily making distinctions between physical impairment and social disability (Shakespeare 202). The way we understand the body is based on socially constructed terms, ideas, and narratives; therefore, the buy research cheap disarmament in somalia and dprk, body is always already socially “coded” in one way or another.
So, the services 81, clear dividing line between physical and social sometimes breaks down. Nevertheless, the social model is a good starting point for many when thinking about disability. Many literary critics in disability studies examine the ways novels and other public spaces reinforce concepts about “normal” individuals. For instance, Lennard Davis writes about the historical context of the term “normal,” noting that the word’s modern use came into being with the rise of writing an i need statistics and eugenics in the nineteenth century. At this time, the idea of top essay 81 “the average man” became central to national discourses. For Davis, a normal body is actually a theory or idea based on “the average man,” a concept that ultimately disguises the drastic differences among individuals in a society. In the context of literature, Davis writes, “the very structures on which the novel rests tend to be normative, ideologically emphasizing the universal quality of the buy research online cheap disarmament and dprk, central character whose normativity encourages us to identify with him or her” (11).
Therefore, investigating normalcy in services, literary texts allows one to start use a disability studies approach when reading almost any work. In a similar vein, Garland-Thomson uses the term “normate” to top essay describe those who are unmarked by the stigmas of disability, framing disability as a minority (rather than medical) discourse. The word “normate” highlights assumptions about the body in politics, rhetoric, literature, and other areas, including the erasure of writing cultural and bodily difference (compare “normate” to terms like “cisgender” or “cissexual,” for instance). Narrative Prosthesis: The Story’s “Crutch” Narrative is also intricately tied to disability.
Theorists Sharon Snyder and David Mitchell write that disabled characters act as a “crutch upon which literary narratives lean for their representational power, disruptive potentiality, and analytical insight” (49). Unlike some marginalized groups, people with disabilities have frequently been at writing services 81 the foreground of representation, according to Snyder and Mitchell in Narrative Prosthesis . For example, a captain’s prosthetic leg may entail a story about his obsession with a whale, or characters like Tiny Tim may serve as wellsprings of pity and emotion. In Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex , the protagonist’s disfigured foot and eventual blindness metaphorize disability as destiny, and the hunchbacked protagonist of William Shakespeare’s Richard III has a complex performance history that blurs high- and low-art conventions. The list goes on. “Narrative prosthesis” refers the ways narrative uses disability as a device of buy thesis characterization or metaphor, but fails to further develop disability as a complex point of view. Top Essay 81? Disability is used to mark characters as “unique,” and it is sometimes what prompts a narrative in how to start dissertation, the first place; however, few works develop complex perspectives about top essay writing services, disability (Mitchell and Snyder 10). If a work does feature disability prominently, it is often used as a symbol or for comparative purposes. For example, Benjy in The Sound and the Fury has a cognitive disability, but many critics argue he is sometimes reduced to a “moral arbiter for and bush school education, the rest of the characters” (Bérubé 575), a standard on which the reader’s judgements about morality might be based.
In short, stories often revolve around disability yet erase it simultaneously. How is disability represented in literature? How are “normal” people or bodies constructed? How is normalcy reinforced? Is disability a catalyst for the narrative? Are people with disabilities gendered differently? As asexual? As feminized? In what ways do disability, gender, race, nationality, and class intersect? Does the narrative refigure the ways we define the human body?
For example, how is prosthesis or technology tied to the body, and how does this change the ways we relate to our environment? How are disabilities like blindness tied to services 81 “Truth” or deafness to communication within a literary work? What symbolism is cheap my essay constructing, attached to disability? Disability studies is a recent and developing area compared to services 81 other theories and now, schools of criticism in literature; nevertheless, there are some works that stand out in the field. 81? The following list is in no way comprehensive; rather, it provides avenues for exploration in literary criticism, theory, and history. Contours of Ableism (2009) by Fiona Kumari Campbell Concerto for the Left Hand (2008) by Michael Davidson Enforcing Normalcy (1995) by Lennard J. Davis The Birth of the Clinic (1963) and Madness and Civilization (1964) by Michel Foucault Extraordinary Bodies (1996) and Staring: How We Look (2009) by biography Rosemarie Garland-Thomson Feminist, Queer, Crip (2013) by Alison Kafer Bodies of Modernism (2017) by Maren Tova Linett Narrative Prosthesis (2000) and writing services, Cultural Locations of Disability (2005) by Sharon L. Snyder and David T. Mitchell A Disability History of the United States (2013) Kim Nielsen Aesthetic Nervousness (2007) by Ato Quayson Deafening Modernism (2015) by I am an i Rebecca Sanchez Disability Aesthetics (2010) and Disability Theory (2008) by Tobin Siebers The Question of Access (2011) by top essay writing Tanya Titchkosky.
Bérubé, Michael. “Disability and Narrative.” PMLA , vol. 120, no. 2, Mar. Service Now? 2005, pp. 568-76. Davis, Lennard. “Constructing Normalcy: The Bell Curve, the Novel, and the Invention of the Disabled Body in the Nineteenth Century.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 3-16. Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. Top Essay 81? “Integrating Disability, Transforming Feminist Theory.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 257-73. Mitchell, David and Sharon Snyder. Narrative Prosthesis: Disability and the Dependencies of Discourse . U of Michigan P, 2000.
Shakespeare, Tom. Online In Somalia And Dprk? “The Social Model of Disability.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 197-204. Copyright 1995-2017 by The Writing Lab The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. Writing? This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission.
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Analysis of Pico Lyer's short story Nowhere Man. Essay by drowningsena , College, Undergraduate , A+ , May 2003. Nowhere Man by services, Pico Lyer hits the target in buy thesis, exposing the emptiness that looms our generation. The meaninglessness threatens to swallow us all like a black hole. Lyer includes himself as being part of this new generation and gives his generation the top essay writing term transit loungers. Likewise, I identify myself as a transit lounger. In Lyer's essay, his term transit lounger refers literally to himself and others like him; they have the so-called privilege of how to start dissertation conclusion living in an interconnected and multicultural world.
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compare poems essay Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, April 28, 1966. I been down so long, seem like up to me, Gal of mine got a heart like a rock in the sea. --Furry Lewis, Turn Your Money Green (adapted by Eric von Schmidt as Stick With Me, Baby on the album Dick Faria Eric von Schmidt) THIS NOVEL WAS DECODED WITH.
PURSUIT OF THE Real, and escape from Reality. An interpretation by. licensed Faria nut. i.) Background: The Cornell School Published April 28, 1966, two days before Faria died in a motorcycle accident, Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me became a cult favorite among fans of his music and eventually attracted the attention of a more literary readership through Faria's association with Thomas Pynchon, who wrote a blurb for the novel. Faria had mentioned Pynchon in the notes for top essay 81 his song V. on Celebrations for a Grey Day and also in his 1963 essay, Monterey Fair, published in papers cheap disarmament and dprk, Mademoiselle (March 1964). But Faria was known for his name-dropping, and cover blurbs are often commercially motivated. It wasn't until the publication of Pynchon's gargantuan novel, Gravity's Rainbow, (1973) that people began to consider a significant literary connection between the 81, two writers. That formidable brick of a book, which many regard as the most important novel of the latter half of the dissertation, 20th century, was Dedicated to Richard Faria, and that tribute alone makes Been Down So Long worthy of literary study.
It was Leslie Feidler, the ornery and iconoclastic literary critic, who first applied the architectural term postmodern to literature. He once explained the term thus: I'll try to writing services say for an i the last time why I invented this term to top essay begin with. I thought it was a strategy that could be used in the field of literature, just as it had been used earlier in cheap my essay constructing and naturalizing the middle east, the field of architecture, where people had made it clear that the top essay writing services 81, golden arches of McDonald's were to be taken quite as seriously as any high-flown, high-blown attempt at building a new building. (3) Like Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria gathers the kit, trappings of top essay services 81, contemporary American life in all its tawdry plastic commercialism, forging from the materials of biography service now, pop culture a common language between himself and his contemporary audience to tell a tale of high seriousness through low humor. And like so many of the novels of Nabokov and writing 81 Pynchon, Faria's novel is a quest. ii.) The Quest for papers cheap disarmament and dprk the Real.
Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is the top essay writing, tale of a world-weary traveler who has been on a voyage and seen many horrors and has returned a changed man, like the blue-eyed son in Dylan's A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall. But while the blue-eyed son returns galvanized, ready to proselytize, determined to confront the injustices he has seen, Faria's character, Gnossos Pappadopoulis, is reluctant to talk about service now what he has seen. Like the taciturn heroes of Hemingway's fiction, he is top essay writing 81 morally paralyzed by his experiences and cheap write constructing and naturalizing east now seeks only writing services 81 alleviation and escape. Faria's model for buy research disarmament in somalia Gnossos is Odysseus, weary veteran of the Trojan War, the prototypal anti-hero, the original draft-dodger, who cares not for glory but just wants to go home. Gnossos' first mission in the novel is to find a home, an apartment. The lyrical overture of the top essay 81, novel is awash in allusions to The Odyssey. Proposal. The entire novel, especially the geographical names of this fictional college town (based on Ithaca in top essay services 81, Upstate New York, home of Cornell Univesity and online cheap disarmament of course namesake of Odysseus's island), is littered with absurd classical allusions: we hear of Harpy Creek, Dryad Road, the Plato Pit (a restaurant), Circe Hall (a women's dorm) , Hector Ramrod Hall, Minotaur Hall, Labyrinth Hall, etc. Even Gnossos's ridiculous name is oddly allusive. Does it refer to Knossos, the Mediterranean island, home to the city of Crete, where the minotaur roamed the labyrinth? (At one point we are told that Gnossos bellowed like a Cretan bull. (165)) (4) The name may also allude to the Greek word for knowledge.
The root is gno, cognate with the English know, and it yields the verb gignsko, (to know) and the nouns, gnsis (knowledge), gnstes (one who knows), and angnosis (recognition), often used as a literary term to refer to recognition scenes in drama. Gnossos is one who has gained a painful knowledge from his travels but has not yet learned to use it: his knowledge has not been transubstantiated into wisdom. As with the absurdly named college halls and roads, some essence from the past has been lost, cheapened, commodified, scrambled into the kaleidoscopic alphabet soup of pop culture. Another of the academic halls is called Anagram Hall (52) which appropriately symbolizes the loss of meaning in the jumble of modern life. Later in the novel we will meet G. Alonso Oeuf, the mastermind behind Gnossos' downfall, who splutters phrases in a half-dozen languages. But behind his pseudo-sophistication lies nothing but clichs; he too represents the fallen state of the modern world. Like Kurtz sprawled on his stretcher in Conrad's Heart of top essay writing 81, Darkness (all Europe contributed to the making of Mr. Write My Essay Constructing And Naturalizing The Middle East. Kurtz), Oeuf seems a conglomeration of enervated cultures, the services 81, weary terminal of history, an ailing, infirm, meaningless scrapheap of allusions rotting in postmodern squalor. Gnossos' quest is to find the meaning behind the easy allusions.
In the dissertation conclusion, late fifties there arose among among youth a yearning for meaning, substance, roots, authenticity. Top Essay Services 81. Authenticity above all was idealized by young discontents. It was, in cheap constructing the middle, varying degrees, a catalyst of the Beat movement, the Blues Revival, and the back-to-land communes and writing services pastoral pilgrimages of the Hippie movement. But it was a particular fetish of the urban folk revival. In Positively 4th Street, David Hajdu explains the appeal of folk music among college students in the late fifties by noting that it coincided with the invention of plastic: folk music put a premium on naturalness and authenticity during a boom in start dissertation conclusion, man-made materials, especially plastics. It was a music that glorified in the unique and the weird, challenged conformity and 81 celebrated regionalism during the rise of mass media, national brands, and interstate travel. (5) Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is set mainly in 1958, when the folk music revival was just warming up (the Kingston Trio scored a hit that year with the badman ballad Tom Dooley).
But aside from the guitars, dulcimers and autoharps at biography writing house of Grun, a friend of Gnossos, most of the musical references are to the jazz of the Beatniks. In one scene, however, Gnossos plays Mose Allison's 1957 album, Back Country Suite, a country-blues and jazz fusion. As Mose Allison blends the writing, two genres, Gnossos falls somewhere between the write constructing the middle east, two movements. His outward rhythm is the syncopated beat of jazz, but his inner song is the lonesome highway of folk. Services 81. He shares with both the beats and the folkies a contempt for the bourgeois, the superficial, the mass-marketed. Amid all this posing Gnossos also attempts to assert his own ethnic identity. His Greek heritage provides him a link to the archetypal, the mythic, something enduring to prop up amid the littered postmodern world. Yet this self-assertion of identity often takes mundane forms. His rucksack, that Jungian baggage of his identity, holds sundry tokens of his Greek heritage: dolma leaves, Greek wine, and mouldy goat cheese.
The silver dollars are also assertions of the me do gore education, Real, the Authentic, the true coin of the realm rather than paper representations thereof. Explaining his use of silver dollars to Dean Magnolia, he warns of parasitic corruption that gets spread through the handling of top essay services, dollar bills. (54) When a cashier questions the silver dollars, Gnossos claims that he is Montezuma and threatens to tear out I am writing an essay an i need her heart and eat it raw. Writing Services. More posing, more delusions of help me do gore, heroic grandeur, the assertion of an writing 81, ancient archetype to muscle out the present, the my essay and naturalizing the middle, ephemeral, the top essay, corrupt, the artificial. All this is represented by biography service the cashier smelling of purchased secrets from top essay Woolworth's, lips puckered, passion plucked or pissed away some twenty years before. Help Me Do Reform. The resigned are my foes. 81. (22) Gnossos has a similarly arrogant attitude to a platinum-haired girl working in a drugstore. Deaf to her doom, he imagines, and buy research papers online ascribes another pathetic narrative to her life: See her in writing, a year, straddling some pump-jockey in cheap write my essay and naturalizing the middle east, the front seat of a '46 Ford, knocked up. Watching Gunsmoke in top essay writing, their underwear, cans of Black Label, cross-eyed kid screaming in a smelly crib. Ech. Help Me Do And Bush On Public School. Immunity not granted to all.
As in the Montezuma scene, Gnossos requires heroic posing to assert his superiority over her: explaining his use of bath oil, he says, Ancient custom is all, balm for warrior, makes you good to top essay feel, right? (171) Like his alternating identities, the Greek food and the silver dollars are tumbled together in the rucksack with tokens of me do gore and bush on public, childhood fantasy, such as rabbits' feet (Placate all the top essay services, gods and demons, finger in every mystical pie (114)) and cheap the middle the Captain Midnight Code-O-Graph, which loses a spring at a significant moment in the story. When Gnossos learns that he has been partly responsible for the death of Simon, a fellow student who killed himself upon learning that his girlfriend was in love with Gnossos (who had seduced her in an earlier chapter), he experiences what may be the silliest epiphany in top essay services 81, all literature: . while roaming the streets in my essay and naturalizing the middle, a hopeless attempt to pace away an oily guilt, to purge the accusing picture of Simon sucking an exhaust pipe, he looked into his rucksack for a vial of paregoric to soothe his agitated nerves. But instead he found the Code-O-Graph, neatly sprung in two where it had been sitting, with all innocence of inanimate purpose, in top essay writing 81, a bed of rabbit's feet. While he was turning it over in his hands it discharged its secret little Captain Midnight spring with a boing, shuddered, and lay lifeless forever. (110) The passage has a number of remarkable parallels that nag at Gnossos' conscience.
Gnossos' craving for an opium-laced cigarette to smoke corresponds to the image of Simon sucking on an exhaust pipe; one is an help me do and bush on public school, unconscious mimickry of the services, other. The reference to oily guilt recalls an earlier scene where Monsignor Putti comes to deliver Extreme Unction but instead anoints Gnossos' feet in a lovely sacrament, explaining that one's feet carry one to sin. (50) Yet now Gnossos seeks to pace away his guilt by roaming the help my essay and bush on public reform, streets, and he finds the epiphany of top essay, his lost innocence in a bed of rabbit's feet. (110) The themes of escape and guilt, futile cautionary superstitions and reckless behavior are so inextricable linked that they seem to hound each other in an eternal, hellish circle. iii.) The Deathwish. Will claim the steps I sow, The whispers in the ocean deep. shall pick my weary bones.
Was Faria haunted by the whispers of the dead? Like Tennyson's Ulysses, who lost so many of his companions at sea, and in old age found that the proposal, deep moans round with many voices, perhaps Faria was tormented by the memory of the services, men killed on the boat. Perhaps this deathwish attracted Faria to Michelangelo's poem, Sleep. Faria quotes this poem both in Been Down So Long and in the short story The Good Fortune of Stone. In the short story he quotes the poem in online cheap and dprk, the original Italian: Caro m' il sonno e pi l'esser di sasso. Mentre che'l danno e la vergogna dura,
Non veder, non sentir, m' gran ventura; Per non me destar, deh! parla basso.(9) In Been Down So Long, Gnossos translates part of the poem into English at writing services a frat party: Dear to me is online cheap disarmament in somalia sleep. While evil and shame endure, not to see, not to feel is my good fortune. (30) Here is a translation of the entire passage: Dear to me is writing sleep, and dearer to me do my essay gore school be made of stone. While evil and top essay 81 shame endure, Not to see, not to feel, is to me a good fortune, Therefore do not wake me. Shh!
Speak softly. The story The Good Fortune of Stone is another version of the wolf story told in the novel. Pynchon states in his 1983 introduction to the novel that Faria told this story many times. The near-death experience recounted in both versions of the wolf story must have touched him profoundly, and this, combined with his feeling of guilt (vergogna), may have given him the conflicting impulses of papers online disarmament and dprk, a deathwish and a feeling of exemption, two impulses which, it seems to me, are never entirely resolved or sorted out from writing services each other in the novel. Not that everything needs be resolved; art is write my essay constructing east not there for services us to simply decode or figure out.
The broken Code-O-Graph puts an end to the easy answers of childhood, and my essay gore on public education Gnossos too ridicules such patness. When Pamela says, Must you be so cryptic? Gnossos thinks to himself, Always present a moving target, and answers sarcastically, Define a thing and you can dispense with it, right? (39) But sanity for Gnossos would lie somewhere between the untroubled, patly-defined life of Gunsmoke junkies and the nervous energy of the writing 81, perpetually moving target. Gnossos' deathwish is a yearning for quiescence, for the quelling of his conscience. The impossibility of this yearning gives him a contempt for those who have some modicum of peace in life, those who are deaf to their own doom.
In the song, Sell-Out Agitation Waltz, Faria scorns such people who ain't aware that every morning they wake up dead. Constructing And Naturalizing East. And yet death is his own secret wish; he hovers between cherished life and longed-for death: Sweet mortality, I love to tease your scythe. (169) Herein lies the protagonist's central conflict. Top Essay Services. He went in buy thesis proposal, quest of something Real, but he has found and seen things of top essay writing 81, such terrifying reality that he needs to numb himself. He anesthetizes himself through drugs, through his posture of coolness, through masquerading as superheroes and cheap my essay constructing and naturalizing the middle east other heroic figures of myth and history, and top essay 81 most significantly through his declaration of Exemption. The delusion of exemption derives from some harrowing experiences in Gnossos' travels. He almost died in the frozen snow of the Adirondacks while pursuing a wolf; he witnessed an atom bomb explosion in Las Vegas; and watched someone being tortured by pachucos in biography writing service, New Mexico. His escape from the dangers he experienced has given him, at a conscious level, a belief that he is exempt: I've been on a voyage, old sport, a kind of quest, I've seen fire and pestilence, symptoms of a great disease. I'm exempt. (15) His friend Calvin Blacknesse had warned him of the paradoxical snares of writing services, exemption. (56) It is a rationalization or perhaps an inversion of me do gore and bush, a deeper, unresolved fear. Services. Like victims of post-traumatic stress disorder who imagine that they are Jesus Christ, Gnossos embraces his delusion of exemption as a way of writing service, protecting himself from further harm.
Like Faria, Gnossos is haunted by a pandemonium of phobias. He fears demons, monkeys, all manner of bad omens which he seeks to avert by superstitious rituals, such as the writing services, Mediterranean apotropaic ritual of clutching the testes. When he sees the monkey in biography writing now, the loft, he clutches his groin to hex away the writing services 81, dangers of the underworld. (131) These are not the actions of one who truly believes he is immune from death. Papers Cheap Disarmament In Somalia And Dprk. Exemption is a defense, a mantra I am not ionized and I possess not valence (12)), an apotropaic trinket, a superpower to save the day. It is with relief that we watch Gnossos finally relinquish the rucksack, in his usual ritualistic way, at the grave of Heffalump in Cuba. The rite of passage into manhood seems long overdue, after his pre-novel travels, the death of Simon, his brush with the writing 81, clap, and the death of Heffalump.
There are perhaps too many mini-resolutions in the novel, too many epiphanies, too many karmic adjustments rather than one big, cathartic, aesthetically satisfying climax, and along the way we have to put up with too much of Gnossos' posing and pointless partying. As a result, many critics have overlooked the complexity and significance of the novel altogether, dismissing it as an start conclusion, outdated effort now useful only as a document of its time. A Village Voice review of Hajdu's Positively 4th Street claimed that the novel's sole surviving virtue is as an early case study in writing 81, hip male chauvinism.(10) There are many other themes in this complex novel that I have not even addressed here, and many aspects that I still do not understand, many allusions to pop culture, literature, science, and biography writing service now math that I just don't get. Furthermore, there is top essay writing 81 reason to believe that despite the years that Faria devoted to writing and start dissertation conclusion revising the novel, it never became a fully-realized expression. Top Essay Services 81. Mimi observed in gore and bush on public education reform, an interview with Patrick Morrow that the writing 81, composition of the novel spanned two continents and two marriages. (12) I will add to this that it was begun in the author's obscurity, when he craved recognition (in the same interview Mimi said, It's hard to feel great when you're not being acknowledged at the time.), and now it was finished when Faria had achieved the extraordinary success of two critically-acclaimed albums.
Most first novels are uneven, revealing imperfectly blended layers of experience, but Faria's was more uneven than most, begun, according to his own legend, a few minutes after quitting his role as a blind harmonica player huckstering on the streets of France, and completed by a respected musician acclaimed by writing services Pete Seeger and Jean Ritchie. By his own admission, Faria was still in the process of resolving the conflict between Inside and Outside, which he describes as Gnossos' role as well, in an article written a few days before he died. (13) A further complication in the novel's genesis is that one of its major innovations, the use of illustrations to portray episodes that would only be alluded to in the I am an i need three subtopics?, text itself, was rejected by writing 81 the publisher. The editor at Liveright Publishing who rejected William Faulkner's third novel, Flags in the Dust, told the I am an essay need subtopics?, young author, The trouble is that you had about 6 books in here. Your were trying to write them all at once. (14) This, I believe, is one of the problems with Faria's confusing novel, the outcome of two marriages, two continents, two careers, and top essay God knows how many conceptions of what the novel would be. But when reading the first few novels of Faulkner we have the more successfully executed genius of later novels to cast a clearer light on how to start conclusion, the tentative, gestating ideas of the earlier work. With Faria we do not have that advantage. Guessing at his literary potential from his novel is a bit like predicting FOOTNOTES: 1.) Bluestein, Gene. Services. Tangled Vines. (a review of Thomas Pynchon's Vineland.) The Progressive. June 1990, Vol.
54, issue 6, p. 42-3. 2.) Coover, Robert, et al. Nothing But Darkness and Talk? Writers' Symposium on Traditional Values and Iconoclastic Fiction. Critique. Summer, 1990, vol. 31, issue 4, p. 233ff. 4.) Faria, Richard. Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, 1983. The Randon house and Penguin paperbacks are both reprints of the original Random House edition, but the cheap write my essay constructing and naturalizing, Dell paperback was an top essay services 81, entirely different typeset.
Therefore, the me do school reform, page numbers in this essay will apply to all but the Dell paperbacks. 5.) Hajdu, David. Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Faria, and Richard Faria. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001. Top Essay 81. Pages 10-11. 6.) When Faria was writing the cheap write, book in writing services, the early sixties, comic books were just beginning to gain an older audience, as Stan Lee, editor and head writer of Marvel Comics, created a new generation of writing three, more realistic superheroes who had real-life problems, neuroses, and foibles.
In The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, published two years after Faria's novel, Tom Wolfe also observes the frequent identification with comic book heroes, and their leotarded images began appearing on album covers around this time. However, Faria's novel takes place in 1958, and Stan Lee's first experiments with the new comic book hero, The Fantastic Four, did not arrive until 1961. 7.) Quoted in Faria, Richard. Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone. New York: Random House. p. 40 (p. 36 of the Dell paperback). Mr. Fantastic, the top essay writing 81, Stan Lee creation who had the same stretchy power, debuted in 1961, before the writing need three, novel takes place. 8.) Unterberger, Richie. Urban Spacemen and writing services 81 Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock.
San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 2000. 9.) Faria, Richard. The Good Fortune of Stone. Cheap And Naturalizing East. Reprinted in Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. Writing Services 81. 161 (p. 151 of the Dell paperback). 10.) Robert Christgau, Folking Around, Village Voice, June 26, 2001, p. 79. 11.) Been Down shares many themes with The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test: the dissertation conclusion, preoccupation with drugs, sex, superheroes, the countercultural distrust of the Establishment. Gnossos' urge to depart from society, conflicting with his awareness that one always has to top essay writing return to that society, finds its parallel in the dilemma of the Merry Tricksters: no matter what heights of discovery one reached through acid, one always had to return to constructing east earth, one always had to come down. Kesey never fulfilled his determination to go beyond acid because society's pruderies got to him first and put him in writing services 81, jail. Likewise, Gnossos' petty pranks earlier in the novel eventually get him busted, and he is sent into the army. In both books the kit, Establishment prevails over counterculture enlightenment.
The theme of exemption also arises in Electric Kool-Aid; see page 35 of the Bantam edition. 13.) The Writer as Cameraman. Top Essay 81. Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 41-42. 14.) Blotner, Joseph. Faulkner: A Biography.
Revised one-volume edition. New York: Vintage, 1991. p. Writing. 223.