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bibliographic essay [Posted here on buy research papers cheap 5 case, 31 January 2002, with kind permission of the author and CHOICE: current reviews for academic libraries (Middletown, CT: Association of College and Research Libraries) July/August 2001, Vol. 38, No.11/12, pp. 1899-1909 ( copyright by the American Library Association )] Author's Note: The following essay was written for Choice, the journal of the cheap write mandatory minimums, American Library Association, and includes books in the English language only. Clearly there are many more excellent works in other languages in the history of cartography, which is truly an international field. Cheap Unit 5 Case Study? Interested readers should search the bibliographies of Imago Mundi for cheap write my essay, references to papers cheap 5 case these, or consult the introduction world war essay, bibliographies on the Education pages of the Groupe des Cartothcaires of LIBER. This essay provides an over-view of recent developments in the history of buy research cheap unit 5 case study, cartography, beginning with general works and resources, followed by an account of the age of introduction world war essay, discoveries, a watershed in the history of maps.

The study then looks back to the precursors of the medieval and classical periods, reviews non-Western maps and the colonial period, and concludes with the technological revolution in mapmaking of the present time. Most works are drawn from the last fifteen years, which have been dominated by buy research papers cheap unit study the publication of the multivolume The History of Cartography , edited by J. Brian Harley and can someone contemporary, David Woodward. Online Cheap Unit? Maps are now such commonplace objects and geographical forms so standardized in our minds that it is hard to imagine a world in which this was not so. For example, we recognize the shape of a familiar landmass like Africa, whether it appears on a map, a coffee mug or on the back of a teenager's partly shaved head. When our standard view is challenged, we are disturbed and angry. Showing the Australian map of the world with south on top provokes a roar of outrage from a college history class: Turn it right side up! But there is a history of cartography, a history of the development of mapping, and it is not a simple story of forward progress. And there will be a history of future mapping, which may take forms as yet unimagined by us. The field of the history of cartography has been transformed in the past two decades. A map has been traditionally defined by geographers as a representation of things in space, a definition that implies a certain level of physical correspondence.

A new definition, according to Harley and Woodward, reads thus: Maps are graphic representations that facilitate a spatial understanding of things, concepts, conditions, processes, or events in the human world. This definition takes one away from seeing maps as objective representations of physical space into second world war essay, considering them as human documents with all their attendant biases and failings. Such artifacts as diagrams of cheap 5 case study, imaginary cosmographies, landscape paintings, and mental maps may now be considered maps. The working out of this definition is seen in its widest form in Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian and Pacific Societies (volume 2, book 3 of History of Cartography ), which discusses the essay, dreaming diagrams of the buy research cheap 5 case, Australian aborigines, the cosmographic calendars of the cheap write my essay minimums, Mayans, and ritual sand paintings of the Navajos. These works are not maps in the traditional sense, but they do incorporate spatial relationships and individual places, often in terms of spiritual significance. Buy Research Online 5 Case Study? Traditionally, the history of cartography had been dominated by of war essay geographers and was viewed as a triumphal march toward the increasingly accurate, measured maps of the present. Such a story culminates in the use of precise tools, aerial surveillance, satellite mapping, and Geographic Information Systems. The maps of the past tended to be discounted as crude and clumsy approximations of real space.

Not that these early map historians were slipshod-despite the changes in the orientation of the field, classics, such as books by Raymond Beazley ( The Dawn of buy research online, Modern Geography ), George Kimble ( Geography in second the Middle Ages ), and John Wright ( The Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades ), still have much to teach us in their careful examinations of individual maps. As historians of cartography have moved away from geographical accuracy as the chief quality of a map, they examine instead maps in buy research cheap 5 case themselves. What was the can someone do my essay the value of genesis, mapmaker intending to show? Is it possible that measurement was not particularly important and that some other consideration shaped the map in question? Editors Harley and Woodward address these questions in Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean (volume 1 of The History of Cartography ), which appeared in 1987 and pulls together the research of many scholars of the preceding decades. Papers Online Cheap Study? Its effect can hardly be underestimated, judging from the burgeoning research that has followed its publication. Volume 2 is published in three parts: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and essay, South Asian Societies, Cartography in papers online Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies , and the book on traditional non-European societies cited above. Volume 3, on minimums, the cartography of the European Renaissance, will be issued shortly. Subsequent volumes will take the history up to the present time.

The field of the history of cartography has attracted scholars from online, a number of academic fields. Art historians, literary theorists, and political historians have joined geographers in studying and help me do, analyzing maps of the past. Art and Cartography , a selection of essays edited by Woodward, is buy research papers online unit, a particularly interesting illustration of the cross-fertilization of academic fields. At present there is no comprehensive one-volume history of can someone do my essay midwestern study, cartography. Leo Bagrow's classic History of Cartography , enlarged and revised by R. A. Skelton in 1966, was the last attempt, and now the unit 5 case, multivolume History of Cartography , cited above, appears to be its replacement. The best brief introduction is by Norman J. W. Thrower, who recently published a new edition of his Maps and Men , having changed the title to Maps Civilization . Thrower, a geographer and cartographer, is most insightful on write my essay mandatory minimums, the modern period, where his mastery of the techniques of mapmaking is supreme.

The book includes a helpful appendix with a glossary of papers online cheap study, mapping terms. Peter Whitfield's The Image of the World: 20 Centuries of introduction second war essay, World Maps is less scholarly but has an excellent selection of buy research papers cheap 5 case, color illustrations. John Snyder's Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections is a general book about a more specialized subject. Snyder deals with the online glg 220 4 deserts lab report, eternal problem of buy research study, representing a more or less spherical Earth on a plane surface and describes various solutions that have been found. This is an excellent introduction to essay art case an important subject in cartography, since the type of projection chosen can radically alter the appearance and meaning of the map. Catherine Delano-Smith and Roger Kain's English Maps: A History serves as a good overview of the field, although its subject is limited to maps made in England or for English use. The authors offer a comprehensive view of mapmaking and map use from the Middle Ages to the early twentieth century, putting maps into their cultural and political context. For reference there is the useful Cartographical Innovations: An International Handbook of Mapping Terms to 1900 , edited by buy research papers cheap unit 5 case Helen Wallis and Arthur Robinson.

The book is effects of war on soldiers essay, made up of a series of papers online cheap 5 case study, brief essays on the terms, each followed by a bibliography. Can Someone Do My Essay Of Genesis? General categories include types of maps, maps of human occupations and activities, maps of natural phenomena, reference systems and geodetic concepts, symbolism, techniques and media, methods of buy research cheap, duplication, and atlases. Individual essay topics include such subjects as satirical maps, wind roses, and longitude. Another good reference book is the regularly updated Who's Who in the History of Cartography , edited by can someone art case Mary Alice Lowenthal. Primarily a guide to people working in the field, it also includes a useful introductory section, including a general bibliography, a list of important research centers and cheap study, map collections, and a list of journals. Since the history of cartography is an international field, one expects many of these sources to be in languages other than English.

Top of page. The flagship journal in the field is the venerable Imago Mundi , founded in 1935 and now into its 53rd volume. Published annually, it includes scholarly articles, book reviews, an help my essay the drunk annual bibliography, and a calendar of events in the field, such as lectures, conferences and exhibits. A list of the contents throughout its history can be found at the Imago Mundi Web site. Among other useful journals is Terrae Incognitae , published by the Society for the History of Discoveries. It emphasizes the discoveries themselves, but many of the articles concern historical maps. Papers Online Cheap Unit? The product of the Smith Center at the Newberry Library in Chicago, Mapline carries brief articles along with news about lecture series and information on the library's collections.

The Washington Map Society publishes The Portolan , which is cheap write, issued three times a year, and includes longer articles and an excellent annual bibliography. Buy Research Cheap Unit 5 Case Study? A more popular publication is the bimonthly Mercator's World , which absorbed the journal Map Collector in 1996. Introduction Second World? It publishes nonacademic (i.e., no footnotes) articles on a wide range of map-related topics, with color illustrations. Though the publication has an impressive board of directors, the articles are not always carefully edited-caveat lector! Mercator's World is 5 case study, directed at collectors as well as scholars and contains information on map auctions and sales, an important inclusion since map collectors play a significant role in do my essay midwestern art case study the field of the history of cartography. Some are scholars in their own right, and papers online 5 case, some have generously supported the cheap my essay, academic world with lecture series, fellowships, and gifts to map libraries.

The main discussion list on papers online unit, the Internet is MapHist , founded in effects essay 1994 and monitored by David Cobb, librarian at Harvard University. Copies of the complete discussions on CD-ROM, with convenient index, are sold periodically. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Unit 5 Case Study? . Effects Essay? The list broadcasts announcements of buy research papers cheap unit study, conferences, fellowships, and do my essay study, new books, as well as lively debates on map-related topics. Participants include map dealers, librarians, college and buy research cheap 5 case study, university professors, graduate students, and amateur enthusiasts. The Web has two principal gatekeeper sites that provide links to many other sources. The first, Map History/History of Cartography, is established at the Institute of Historical Research at the University of London. This site includes a general introduction to the subject as well as news and guides to library collections and map dealers. Midwestern? A recently added link directs one to articles and books posted on papers cheap unit study, the Web. There is essay, also an papers cheap e-journal, MapForum , which has published ten issues so far. Cheap Write My Essay Minimums? The other site, Top of page. New theoretical approaches to the history of cartography can be found in The History of Cartography , particularly Harley's opening essay in buy research papers online unit 5 case volume 1. Harley is also the introduction second war essay, author of Maps, Knowledge and cheap unit 5 case, Power in The Iconography of Landscape , edited by Denis Cosgrove and Stephen Daniels.

Here he makes clear the way that maps, rather than being objective sources of information, can be used to establish control, a theme now being expanded on help me do my brother the drunk, by writers in specialized historical fields. Books by Mark Monmonier ( How to buy research papers online cheap study Lie with Maps, Drawing the Line ) apply these ideas with mostly modern examples, written in second a breezy, popular style. Mappings , edited by Denis Cosgrove, includes a selection of articles across the buy research online 5 case study, historical spectrum, mostly incorporating postmodernist theory. Soon to appear in English translation from the University of Chicago Press is Christian Jacob's L'Empire des Cartes: Approche thorique de la cartographie travers l'histoire [Editor's update, May 2008 - the details are: Christian Jacob, The Sovereign Map: Theoretical Approaches in Cartography throughout History . Translated by Tom Conley. Edited by buy research papers cheap week 4 deserts Edward H. Dahl. Papers Online Cheap? (University of Chicago Press, 2006)]. Trained as a classicist, Jacob ranges over the entire field of cartography, drawing examples from every period of history. The term mapping is sometimes used so broadly by literary scholars in particular that a geographer would hardly recognize his original artifact. An example is Tom Conley's The Self-Made Map . This work, set in early modern France, does discuss such cartographers as Oronce Fin, but it ranges into the cartographic writing of Rabelais, the arrangement of words on a page in printed texts, and the design of capital letters. Help The Drunk? An event that did much to establish a new view of map history was an exhibition titled The Power of papers cheap 5 case study, Maps, by the Smithsonian Institution in help my brother the drunk 1992-93 and curated by Lucy Fellowes and Denis Wood.

The exhibition assembled an impressive collection of maps from various cultures and periods-from stick maps of the Marshall Islands and medieval manuscript maps to buy research papers online cheap unit study road maps of papers online glg 220 4 deserts, North Carolina-and provided a showcase for new techniques of mapping. A memorable display was an buy research online unit animated sequence showing the sea bottom beneath the polar ice sheets. There was no exhibition catalog, but Wood produced a book with the same title, describing how maps are often confused with reality, when in fact a map's selection of places and symbols transforms reality. Unfortunately, the book, a rambling personal essay, is second world, poorly illustrated, always a drawback for a book about maps. The postmodernist approach of Wood and others was criticized as an oversimplification by Jeremy Black in Maps and Politics . The crucial event in European map history was the discovery of America and the simultaneous exploration of Africa and Asia. European geographers and online, mapmakers found it necessary to revise their view of the world. Do My Essay The Value? In the preceding century, several forces had come together (the rediscovery of Ptolemy's work, the refinement of nautical maps, the buy research papers online cheap 5 case, improvement of measuring techniques) to give intimations of a more scientific approach to cartography.

Thus, as new lands were discovered, mapmakers were able to fit them quickly into the world picture. This exploratory energy continued into the 20th century, when, for buy research papers glg 220 week lab report, example, the Northwest Passage was finally navigated and mapped. Peter Whitfield's New Found Lands , after a brief account of ancient and medieval explorers, swings into buy research papers, high gear in the fifteenth century, carrying the story up to the end of the nineteenth century. An interesting insight into the progress of discovery can be found in Lost Islands by Henry Stommel. Of War Essay? He describes the persistence of nonexistent navigational hazards for years and introduces us to the fascinating 1856 catalog Rodgers' Register of Doubtful Dangers. Harley's Maps and the Columbian Encounter accompanied an online unit 5 case study exhibition commemorating the year 1492. Harley also produced a video of the buy research papers cheap glg 220 week, same title, which drives home the online cheap unit 5 case, point that Western maps were a factor in the domination and elimination of Native American cultures, overwhelming Native mapping traditions and second, place-names, and legitimizing conquest. Walter Mignolo makes the same point in The Darker Side of the Renaissance , a book emphasizing the irrational and self-justifying myths that lurked behind the modern and reasonable facade of the Renaissance.

Two chapters specifically discuss the mapping of non-European countries by their colonizers. The invention of printing, which occurred almost at buy research 5 case the same time, also had a great effect on maps, which could now be widely distributed with their uniformity maintained. The simultaneous spread of literacy meant that more people were capable of reading maps, and a market for their sale emerged. Five Centuries of Map Printing , edited by David Woodward, is essay the value, a technical overview, issued on cheap unit study, the 500th anniversary of the first printed map. Woodward observes that, while map printing led to an explosion in map availabil-ity, the process also limited the mapmaker in such areas as color and pictorial elements. Essay Contemporary Art Case Study? Excellent studies of early printed maps include Rodney W. Shirley's Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps, 1472-1700 , and Tony Campbell's Earliest Printed Maps, 1472-1500 . Papers Study? The first is of war on soldiers, a cartobibliography of maps of the world, while the latter includes all types of maps. Cartobibliographies are organized with an entry for each map. Papers Online Cheap? In Shirley's work, for help my brother, example, each entry includes the name of the mapmaker (if known), the 5 case study, place and date of publication, the size, the title of the book, a brief description, and a photograph. Second War Essay? These are indispensable tools for the researcher. Papers Online Cheap? Sea Charts of the Early Explorers , a beautifully illustrated volume by Michel Mollat du Jourdin and Monique de la Roncire, begins with the first appearance of nautical charts in the West in the thirteenth century and shows how they were modified up through the seventeenth century. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Glg 220 4 Deserts Lab Report? R.A.

Skelton's Explorers' Maps: Chapters in the Cartographic Record of Geographical Discovery is an older, but still informative book. Skelton closely links the various voyages to the maps that were used and buy research unit study, those that resulted. His notes and observations on the individual maps are always valuable. The European voyages of the sixteenth century led to an explosion in map production, which suddenly became a profitable business rather than a scholarly avocation. Two of the most famous sixteenth-century mapmakers, Abraham Ortelius (d.

1598) and Gerard Mercator (d. 1594), recently celebrated quadricentennials, which gave rise to a spate of do my contemporary study, conferences and commemorative volumes. Ortelius's work is described in essays written by Marcel van der Broecke and unit 5 case, others in Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas . Gerhard Mercator's The Mercator Atlas of Europe , edited by Marcel Watelet, reproduces a copy of this cartographer's atlas discovered in 1967 along with folio sheets from essay midwestern contemporary study, wall maps of Europe (1554), the British Isles (1564), and the world (1569). An accompanying text volume provides a group of buy research cheap 5 case, interpretive essays. Do My Essay The Value? This is 5 case, a beautiful, but rather expensive, book. Unfortunately, the buy research cheap glg 220 4 deserts lab report, other retrospectives of Mercator's work are not yet available in English translation. The mapmakers of the sixteenth century are cataloged in Robert Karrow's Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and Their Maps: Bio-Bibliographies of the Cartographers of Abraham Ortelius, 1570 . Karrow takes the eighty-seven cartographers named in a list originally published by Ortelius in 1570, expands their biographies to include modern scholarship, and illustrates many of the maps. Buy Research Papers Study? Two thousand maps are cataloged in this useful work. Mercator and Ortelius were both natives of the Netherlands, which dominated cartography in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Kees Zandvliet's Mapping for Money follows the activities of the Dutch, primarily through the East and West India Companies, which wanted accurate maps as tools to help them explore new markets.

An interesting feature of this book is the section on topographical painting and paintings that include maps. On Soldiers Essay? The painter Vermeer's works are widely known, but here one can see that he was part of a Dutch tradition that used maps in an iconic as well as practical fashion. In From Graven Images: Patterns of Modern Materialism , Chandra Mukerji discusses the map of the papers cheap unit 5 case study, early capitalist period as both a consumer good and a capital good, an essay midwestern art case item for study, display and an item for business use. An ongoing series by Gnter Schilder, Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica , offers complete coverage to selected maps from online cheap week, this era, with text in both Dutch and English. The four volumes published so far come in pairs, with a text volume for each volume of beautifully produced facsimile maps and atlases. Jerry Brotton's Trading Territories emphasizes the commercial motives for exploration and mapping through several case studies, beginning with Portugal. The book opens with an analysis of a tapestry made to commemorate the wedding of Catherine of Austria to Joo III of Portugal in 1525.

The sovereigns are shown with a globe turned to reveal the overseas possessions of Portugal, the king's scepter resting on Lisbon. This book also emphasizes the role of the Ottoman Turks in the evolution of sixteenth-century maps. Sixteenth-century world maps dealt with the increasing knowledge of the Americas as they were explored. Many books cover this interesting phenomenon, showing how the now-familiar geographical shapes of the Western hemisphere emerged from the papers online cheap, fog of the unknown. Introduction? Worthy of papers, special mention is Philip D. Burden's Mapping of North America , a cartobibliography of maps, 1511-1670.

A projected second volume will include maps from 1671 to 1700. Essay Midwestern Art Case? Seymour I. Schwartz and Ralph E. Ehrenberg's The Mapping of America is less inclusive but covers the buy research online 5 case study, entire period from essay midwestern contemporary art case, 1500 to the present. This is an excellent general overview. A more specialized work, William P. Cumming's The Southeast in Early Maps , has recently been reissued in buy research papers unit 5 case study a revised edition by Louis DeVorsey. Introduction World War Essay? This book, with 450 maps, covers the period from discovery to the American Revolution and the area between the northern border of Florida and buy research cheap 5 case study, the southern border of Virginia.

The new edition includes an interesting chapter by DeVorsey on Native American maps of the region. Dora Beale Polk's The Island of California: A History of the can someone essay contemporary art case, Myth examines the perennially interesting problem of mapping the California coast. The survival of numerous maps showing California as insular has been a great boon to the map trade. Governments began to use maps as tools not only for buy research papers online unit, foreign conquest and economic exploitation but to introduction second world establish control at home and for purposes of national defense. Monarchs, Ministers and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe , edited by David Buisseret, is a collection of papers online 5 case, articles dealing with England, France, Spain, Austria, Italy, and Poland. This is the published version of the 1982 Nebenzahl Lectures, held annually at write mandatory the Newberry Library in Chicago. The essays explore, as the subtitle indicates, the increasing use of maps for political purposes. Josef W. Konvitz's Cartography in France, 1660-1848: Science, Engineering, and Statecraft is a more extensive work on France. Konvitz traces the state sponsorship of cartography from the administration of Colbert under Louis XIV, through the eighteenth century, when France completed the first national mapping project in Europe, conducted by successive members of the Cassini family.

Konvitz shows how maps began to be used for buy research online unit 5 case study, military purposes, for designing canals and roads, and for economic and social programs. As governments took over the making of maps, the maps became secret documents, forbidden to introduction second fall into the hands of the enemy. Maps had become a weapon in international competition, whether of a military or economic nature. The mapping and commercial career of another French cartographic family is ably described in Mary S. Pedley's Bel et Utile: The Work of Robert de Vaugondy Family of Mapmakers . The maps that preceded the papers online cheap unit, age of discoveries have been treated as curiosities, studied originally for their distortion of the world as we now perceive it. In the works of Raymond Beazley, George Kimble, and John Wright (mentioned above), medieval maps were ridiculed for their simplicity and religiosity. Cheap Write My Essay Mandatory Minimums? More recently, the same maps have been analyzed in their own terms and buy research unit study, found to be eloquent expressions of a worldview that might inform our own. Chapters by David Woodward, Paul D.A.

Harvey, and Tony Campbell in volume 1 of midwestern art case, The History of Cartography , edited by Harley and Woodward, are a good place to online unit study start. Paul Harvey also wrote Medieval Maps and Mappa Mundi: The Hereford World Map , which are brief, well-illustrated essays that provide a good overview. The new encyclopedia Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages , edited by J. B. Friedman and others, includes many map-related entries. Evelyn Edson's Mapping Time and Space covers the early period to 1300, examining the way medieval maps are often constructed to represent time (historical, theological) as well as space. My Essay Minimums? A general work on buy research unit 5 case, the subject of measurement is Alfred W. On Soldiers? Crosby's The Measure of Reality: Quantification and cheap study, Western Society, 1250-1600 . Crosby considers the development of a devotion to measurement a crucial element in the West's rise to world domination.

Though not writing specifically about maps, he puts technical developments in mapping into a broader context. Local and regional maps were made in the Middle Ages, but surviving examples are rare. In Imaginary Cartographies: Possession and Identity in Late Medieval Marseille , Daniel Smail laments that the medieval archive of Marseille contains not a single image even remotely like a map. He goes on to describe, however, the do my essay the value of genesis, development of buy research papers online unit study, a mental (imaginary) cartography that becomes more uniform as the centuries progress. His work is based on the records maintained by notaries who recorded deeds, wills, and second, other property-related documents. He shows how local identifications of cheap, place were originally based on neighborhoods or landmarks but were eventually replaced by the image of the the drunk, city as a network of 5 case, streets, leading to the standardized street address of modern times. Local maps extant from the Middle Ages are discussed in the relevant chapter by Paul D.A. Harvey in The History of Cartography , volume 1. Cheap Write My Essay Mandatory Minimums? The larger medieval world maps are rare, delicate, and difficult to study, even on site. To remedy this problem some are now being reproduced on CD-ROMs.

The Bibliothque Nationale of France has issued the buy research papers online cheap unit 5 case, multilingual Mapamondi: Une carte du monde au XIVe sicle , featuring the Catalan Atlas, a large world map made in Majorca in 1375, reputedly by buy research papers cheap week 4 deserts Abraham Cresques. Buy Research Papers Online Unit? The visuals are good, but the CD-ROM is online cheap glg 220 week 4 deserts lab report, difficult to navigate. Essays on various topics are unattributed, and buy research papers unit 5 case, there is no index of place-names. It is can someone essay of genesis, more suitable for browsing than research, and buy research cheap 5 case, dedicated students would do well to seek out the deluxe book by the fourteenth-century Abraham Cresques, Mapamundi, the Catalan Atlas of the Year 1375 , edited by cheap mandatory minimums Georges Grosjean. The Hereford Cathedral map of c.1290 is the subject of Naomi Kline's A Wheel of study, Memory , a CD-ROM of the Hereford Mappamundi, from the University of Michigan. Papers Online Cheap 4 Deserts Lab Report? Rumor has it that the Biblioteca Marciana in buy research papers online cheap unit 5 case Venice will soon issue a CD-ROM on their treasure, the Fra Mauro world map of 1450. Jeffrey Burton Russell takes on one of the most common misconceptions about the Middle Ages: that most people subscribed to essay of genesis the flat earth theory.

His book, Inventing the Flat Earth , proves convincingly that the earth was viewed as a sphere from the 6th century BCE forward. He traces the flat earth idea to Washington Irving's hagiographical treatment of Columbus in 1828, Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus . Russell's work is an interesting essay on the need of modern Europeans to believe in papers online unit study their technical superiority over other cultures, even their own past. The appearance of the Vinland map, which has produced so much controversy in the last 35 years, provided the impetus for some excellent scholarship. This map, found in a 15th-century manuscript and bound with an account of a 13th-century expedition to the court of the Great Khan, shows Vinland and Greenland as islands in the North Atlantic. Although the Norse discovery of Vinland about the year 1000 is not in doubt, no early maps by these seafarers have ever been found. The map has been largely rejected by the academic world as a forgery, though it has its determined supporters, particularly at Yale where the map is housed. R.A. Skelton, Thomas E. Marston, and George D. Painter's The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation was published in 1965 and has recently been reissued in a slightly revised edition. Skelton's lengthy essay on the map and its antecedents is a fine introduction to buy research online cheap glg 220 lab report medieval cartography.

The book contains a good facsimile of the disputed map. With few and fragmentary exceptions, the earliest surviving maps in the West are medieval. Hence there has been great speculation over the nature of the maps that preceded these, the maps of Greek and Roman civilization, and to what extent their form and content were reflected in medieval maps. Literature provides evidence that such maps existed, but what did they look like? Claude Nicolet, in Space, Geography, and Politics in papers online cheap 5 case the Early Roman Empire , has argued that the Roman Empire needed maps in order to administer its wide-ranging domains.

At issue here are maps of large areas, such as the Agrippa map, a public monument erected in Rome during Augustus's reign. This work is described with tantalizing vagueness by buy research papers online week lab report Pliny (in his Natural History , 1469), with little indication of its physical appearance. Online? The widely accepted idea that this monument was a map is challenged by Kai Brodersen in Terra Cognita , a work so far not translated from the German. He lists the various forms of the map that scholars have proposed and scorns as creeping presentism the concept that one cannot govern a large empire without maps. In question is not whether the Romans were capable of surveying smaller areas, as evidenced by the surviving surveyor's manuals the Corpus Agrimensorum Romanum , but whether this facility extended to wider horizons.

For more on Roman surveyors, see Oswald A.W. Dilke's The Roman Land Surveyors . The closest thing there is to a survivor of a Roman world map is the Peutinger Table, a large strip or itinerary map covering the effects, known world. There is, in the National Library of Vienna, a twelfth-century copy of a fourth-century copy of a first-century original. The Tabula has been discussed by O.A.W. Dilke in Greek and Roman Maps , but for a set of good color illustrations, one should pore over the volume of plates accompanying Tabula Peutingeriana: Codex Vindobonensis 324 with commentary by Ekkehard Weber. Possibly designed for administrative purposes, the map shows the Roman roads, thoughtfully marked with baths and granaries where travelers could rest and refuel. The high point of scientific cartography in buy research papers unit the classical world was the work of Claudius Ptolemy (c.90-160 CE).

In his Cosmographia he discussed various methods of map projection and gave instructions for making a map based on a grid of latitude and of war on soldiers essay, longitude lines. He listed the coordinates of 8,000 places, some of them unfortunately in error. No maps survive from his day, but the buy research papers cheap 5 case, maps were reconstructed in the late medieval period, both in Constantinople, where his work had survived, and in the Latin West to which it was imported and translated in the early fifteenth century. The work also survived in the Arab world but seems to have had little influence on mapmaking there. Ptolemy's work had a profound impact on Renaissance cartography, revolutionizing mapmaking and pointing it toward the more physically oriented maps of the future. Can Someone Contemporary Study? A translation of his Geographia , as The Geography , is available with black-and-white reproductions of the papers unit 5 case, maps in an edition by Edward L. Stevenson. Essay? For color reproductions (without the text) there is Ptolemy's Geographia: Tabulae, Claudii Ptolomaei (Cosmography: Maps from Ptolemy's Geography) with an introduction by Lelio Pagani. Both of these editions are based on fifteenth-century manuscripts. Facsimiles of early printed editions of Ptolemy (such as the Cosmographia ) appeared in buy research papers the 1960s, edited by R.A. Skelton.

For a current analysis of Ptolemy's work one should consult the chapter by O.A.W. Dilke in volume 1 of The History of Cartography , edited by Harley and Woodward. Cartography became a hobby of Renaissance statesmen and artists, such as Leonardo da Vinci. The rulers of of war on soldiers essay, Italian and German cities were particularly interested in pictorial maps of their own cities. Between 1572 and 1618 a collection of 530 city maps was published in Cologne by George Braun and Frans Hogenberg. A selection of these maps is nicely reprinted by John Goss in George Braun's City Maps of buy research papers cheap, Europe: 16th Century Town Plans from Braun Hogenberg . The British Library's The City in Maps: Urban Mapping to 1900 , by can someone essay contemporary James Elliott, offers a more general overview of city maps, including those of Braun and Hogenberg.

One spectacular product of Renaissance cartography is the gallery of maps in buy research online cheap unit 5 case study the Vatican, designed by Egnazio Danti in 1580. Forty maps of Italy, cities as well as regions, are arranged in geographical order as though the central corridor were the Appenine mountain range. Help My Essay My Brother? Scenes of saints and miracles on the ceiling are also geographically arranged, leading one to the rather medieval conclusion that Italy is the New Holy Land. Lucio Gambi ably describes these murals in The Gallery of Maps in the Vatican , which is illuminated by luscious photographs. David Woodward takes a different approach in Maps as Prints in the Italian Renaissance: Makers, Distributors Consumers . He is interested not only in buy research online cheap unit 5 case study how maps were made but in who sold them and who bought them and why. The maps of the non-Western world are the world, subject of the books making up volume 2 of The History of Cartography , edited by Harley and Woodward.

The Western mapping tradition, with its emphasis on measurement, rapidly came to dominate the papers online unit 5 case, cultural dialogue over the representation of space during the imperial era. Some extremely interesting recent works examine this process. In her book The Mapping of New Spain , Barbara Mundy studies a survey ordered in 1580 by the Spanish Viceroy of cheap write mandatory, New Spain, an area covering central Mexico. A wide-ranging questionnaire was sent out to local officials, who were also asked to provide maps of papers online cheap unit study, their territory. The resulting maps vary widely in essay the value form, symbolism, and content, some following a Westernized mapping style and others clearly the product of a preexisting Aztec tradition. Mundy's analysis is supported with good illustrations. Another important work is Thongchai Winichakul's Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation , which describes the intersection of traditional Thai with Western colonial concepts of nationhood in the nineteenth century, resulting in a delineation of papers cheap unit 5 case, Siam's boundaries and the formation of what the author calls the geo-body of Thailand. Essay Of Genesis? This process was map driven, in that the map did not represent the existing reality, but brought a new reality into being.

The traditional idea of Siam was based on a hierarchy of rulers rather than a delimited territory. The kingdom was focused on the center with vaguely determined edges. Pushed by border disputes with France and England, the monarchy took the mapping initiative. In the study, process of redefining Siam, the victims were the help, small semiautonomous border states with shifting and multiple allegiances. This book provides excellent and unusual insight into the role of maps in the interaction between Western and non-Western governments in the colonial era in Southeast Asia. Better illustrations, in color, of the Thai maps can be found in buy research papers cheap 5 case study Thomas Surez's Early Mapping of Southeast Asia . Although European maps are the primary focus of Surez's book, there is a brief introductory section on native Asian maps. Can Someone The Value Of Genesis? The beautifully illustrated China in Ancient and buy research papers cheap, Modern Maps , edited by Yan Ping and others, covers 2,000 years of map history in a cartobibliographic format. Richard J. Smith's Chinese Maps: Images of All under Heaven is produced in papers online cheap glg 220 week a very small format and buy research unit 5 case, the illustrations are almost impossible to see, but the text is extremely interesting. Smith's text and Yan's pictures are a good introduction to the field, more fully covered in The History of Cartography , volume 2, book 2.

Matthew H. Edney's Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of British India, 1765-1843 deals with imperialist issues from the European side. The main subject of his book is the immense project of mapping the Indian subcontinent, carried out by British overlords. Control was definitely the issue here, but, as Edney points out, there was much disorganization and help my brother, bureaucratic confusion. He also puts the mapping project in the context of the Enlightenment, with its positivist approach to knowledge of the physical world, a subject treated more extensively in Geography and Enlightenment , edited by David Livingstone and Charles Withers. In conjunction with Edney's book, one might watch Measuring India, the eighth segment in the film series Shape of the World from the 1991 production by Granada TV.

Simon Berthon and Andrew Robinson wrote a book based on the film series. Buy Research 5 Case Study? Edney criticizes some of the do my essay midwestern art case study, assumptions made in buy research unit 5 case study the film's more superficial account. The mapping of cheap mandatory, Europe's colonies inspired similar projects at home. Colonial Ireland was the first part of the British Isles to be mapped, as described by J.H. Andrews in A Paper Landscape: The Ordnance Survey in online cheap unit 5 case study Nineteenth-Century Ireland , followed by England's admirable Ordnance Survey maps. In the course of the war essay, nineteenth century, most European countries, and the United States, were surveyed in national mapping projects. At the same time, new types of papers unit study, maps that were useful to reforming governments were emerging.

Thematic maps, first developed to show physical (and potentially profitable) phenomena such as mineral deposits, were adapted to display social and economic themes. Buy Research Online Cheap? Maps became an effective way to buy research cheap unit 5 case present the data gathered by census takers. Arthur H. Robinson's Early Thematic Mapping in the History of Cartography is the rather pedestrian title of a most interesting and readable book. The author argues that the development of thematic mapping in the early nineteenth century was a revolution in essay study the history of cartography comparable to the rediscovery of Ptolemy in the fifteenth century. One of the most sensational of the thematic maps John Snow described is Robinson's 1855 map of London, marking sites of deaths from cholera. Thanks to Snow's graphic presentation, it became clear that a huge disproportion of fatal illnesses occurred within a few city blocks near the Broad Street pump.

This work led directly not only to the closing of the offending pump but also to buy research papers online unit 5 case the understanding of the role of contaminated water in spreading the disease. Since the nineteenth century, the subject matter for introduction second world war essay, thematic maps has continued to expand. Such maps are used to papers online unit illustrate the geographical distribution of essay contemporary art case study, various phenomena, such as religions, languages, employment, plant species, earthquakes, and zoning regulations. By the eighteenth century, new surveying techniques made it possible to papers online cheap unit study produce accurate relief maps for the first time, showing the earth's surface in three dimensions. A dispute arose over the most effective way of presenting this information, whether with some type of shading (intuitively comprehensive) or by the use of contour lines (more accurate). P.D.A. Harvey's The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Surveys presents developments from early pictorial maps through the help my essay my brother the drunk, various technical changes. Besides the expected coverage of European maps, he includes examples from Mexico, India, China, and buy research papers 5 case, Japan. Infinite Perspectives , a recent book by brothers Brian M. Ambroziak and Jeffrey R. Cheap Write Minimums? Ambroziak, offers a brief history of topographical mapping, but the authors are most anxious to promote their 3-D method (glasses included).

It is not surprising to find that much of the progress in topographical mapping took place in the challenging terrain of Switzerland. The 19th Century: Education and Literacy. The expansion of public education in the nineteenth century and online cheap unit study, the consequent increase in literacy led to greater familiarity with and use of maps. Whereas a map in midwestern study the Middle Ages would have been a relatively rare document, seen by few people, a map now became a common item, seen and used by many. The idea of producing a map for way-finding, which seems essential to our modern idea of maps, was a rather late development.

Although there are examples of itinerary maps before the sixteenth century, they seem to have functioned as records of journeys already taken or possibly as planning documents. The invention of printing, however, was soon followed by 5 case the production of small, folding maps that could be carried in one's saddlebag, and cheap glg 220 4 deserts, eventually one's glove compartment. In 1996, the Nebenzahl Lectures at the Newberry Library featured Maps on the Move, and buy research papers cheap unit, a book of the lectures, offered by James Akerman, is slated to do my midwestern art case appear in the coming year. A brief but informative article, Twentieth-Century Highway Maps, by Thomas Schlereth, can be found in From Sea Charts to Satellite Images , edited by papers online study David Buisseret. Douglas A. Yorke and John Margolies's Hitting the Road: The Art of the American Road Map examines the art work that appeared on of war essay, road maps, with numerous colored illustrations. Maps were apparently used in schools from ancient times, and several geographical texts from the Middle Ages seem to have been lectures delivered while standing in front of a map. Jeremy Black's Maps and History deals in part with school atlases, which were frequently the conveyors of nationalistic bias. Maps in bibles appeared in quantity after the Protestant Reformation, again facilitated by the invention of printing. These woodcut maps educated their readers on the subject of the travels of Paul, the disposition of the ancient kingdoms of Israel, and the possible location of the Garden of Eden.

An illustrated catalog of these early maps can be found in Catherine Delano-Smith and Elizabeth Morley Ingram's Maps in Bibles, 1500-1600 . Walter Ristow's American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the 19th Century surveys the business of making and selling maps. Printed maps were first made abroad to be sold in America, but eventually the papers online cheap 5 case study, United States had its own map-printing industry. Before the establishment of the US Geological survey in 1879, most American mapmaking was in private hands. Rand McNally, founded in 1856, long dominated the can someone essay the value, field, and the firm receives a detailed history in Ristow's book. The map as an icon, sometimes more or less informative, now appears everywhere: in books, newspapers, on television, in advertisements. The distortions that frequently mark these productions are described by Mark Monmonier in How to Lie with Maps and Maps with the News: The Development of American Journalistic Cartography . Nigel Holmes's Pictorial Maps includes a number of excellent color illustrations of such maps. Papers Cheap? This interesting book not only traces the history of cartography but gives many examples of maps in jokes, books, tourist literature, and postcards. The text is brief, but the pictures are well chosen. The Value Of Genesis? J.B. Post's An Atlas of Fantasy features maps meant to be works of fiction, from the map in Thomas More's Utopia to more modern imagined landscapes, many of them book illustrations.

Peter Gould and Rodney White's Mental Maps discusses how maps of real places are shaped by ideas and experiences, which affect distance, detail, and direction. The authors give a dramatic example of a map drawn by a young black boy of his neighborhood in Philadelphia. Though his immediate surroundings are presented in detail, the buy research 5 case, white-occupied area across the road is a blank terra incognita. Celestial maps are at least as old as terrestrial ones. Until recent times, globes were produced in pairs: one celestial, adorned with drawings of the constellations, and one terrestrial. An example is the enormous Coronelli globes made in the seventeenth century for Louis XIV. Smaller versions of these globes are on permanent display in the Library of Congress. An excellent account of Islamic celestial cartography by Emilie Savage-Smith appears in The History of Cartography , volume 2, book 1, edited by Harley and Woodward. Peter Whitfield's The Mapping of the Heavens offers an overview of the development of celestial maps with colored illustrations. Do My Essay Contemporary Study? Terrestrial globes were not commonly made in the West until the sixteenth century, but they soon became a staple of both the philosopher's study and the schoolroom. The globe clearly solved the buy research cheap 5 case study, knotty problem of map projection, but its expense and general cumbersomeness limited its use.

A good general book on the topic is Elly Dekker and Peter van der Krogt's Globes from the Western World . There seems to be no single book on the development of mapping techniques from the impressionistic views of the Middle Ages to write the introduction of latitude and longitude in the fifteenth century and the invention of triangulation for use in surveying in the sixteenth century. Longitude has recently attracted attention thanks to papers cheap 5 case Dava Sobel's best-selling book Longitude on the drama of John Harrison and his lifelong quest for a clock that would keep perfect time at sea. Sobel's enhanced version of this book, The Illustrated Longitude , is coauthored by my essay my brother William Andrewes. The intelligent captions-and pictures-add a great deal to the work. Andrewes is also the editor of the papers from the Longitude Symposium (1993), The Quest for Longitude . Papers Unit 5 Case? Mapmaking tools were refined in succeeding centuries, up through the twentieth-century explosion of new technology. Norman Thrower succinctly covers this development in Maps Civilization . Can Someone Essay Contemporary Art Case Study? He states that the introduction of aerial photography (first balloons, then airplanes) produced dramatic changes in mapping, enabling mapmakers to extend their vision to remote, inaccessible areas of the world. In the second half of the twentieth century, satellite photography came to supplement photographs taken from airplanes. Satellites are now of even greater importance in providing reliable coordinates for the Global Positioning Systems (GPS). By providing any holder of these small, hand-held devices with exact latitude, longitude, and altitude, mapmaking was instantly democratized and way-finding made potentially easier, though many ambitious hikers have used the system to get profoundly lost.

Thomas M. Lillesand and Ralph W. Kiefer's Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation describes these developments. The drawing of maps has been revolutionized by the use of computers. Indeed, the leading journal in the field, The American Cartographer , has changed its name to Cartography and buy research online cheap, Geographic Information Systems . Using the appropriate software, the mapmaker can change projection, scale, or text, and print the results with ease. For the possibilities of such a system one may consult the latest edition of a textbook such as Ed Madej's Cartographic Design Using ArcView GIS . The opening chapter describes the rapid advances in computer cartography in the last decade but warns, You can make maps rapidly with the effects on soldiers, software, which means that you can also produce a lot of bad maps quickly. An overview of GIS can be found in buy research papers online cheap unit 5 case Geographical Information Systems , edited by Paul A. Longley et al.

This two-volume compendium is cheap write, made up of chapters contributed by different experts. At the present, mapmaking is going in two diametrically opposed directions: the increasing, even finicky, accuracy of physical maps, and the quirky, cartoon-like maps that accompany advertising, journalism, and buy research cheap unit 5 case study, other popular media. The map is my brother the drunk, now such a familiar image that it is hard to imagine a time when most people had never seen one. The daily weather map is an example of the widespread modern use of maps, whether one sees the colored version in the newspapers with its cryptic array of signs or the animated version on television with its simulated swirling air masses. It is easy to see why most histories of cartography end in 1900 or even earlier, as the explosion of new technologies, new uses for maps, and their universality in papers cheap unit 5 case study contemporary culture raise numerous questions, difficult to resolve. By studying the maps of the past, one is led to reflect on how each period and culture has drawn maps to suit itself, and then our obsession with physical accuracy is placed in its proper perspective. Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas: Essays Commemorating the Quadricentennial of his Death, 1598-1998 , ed. by Marcel van den Broecke, Peter van der Krogt, and Peter Meurer. Houten, Netherlands: HES Publishers, 1998. Akerman, James. Maps on the Move.

Newberry Library (forthcoming). Ambroziak, Brian M., and Jeffrey R. Ambroziak. Infinite Perspectives: Two Thousand Years of Three-Dimensional Mapmaking . Princeton Architectural Press, 1999 (CH, Apr'00). Andrews, J.H. A Paper Landscape: The Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-Century Ireland . Write? Oxford, 1975. Art and Cartography: Six Historical Essays, ed. by David Woodward. Chicago, 1987. Bagrow, Leo. Buy Research Online Study? History of Cartography . Papers Online Cheap Glg 220? Rev. and enl. by R.A. Buy Research Papers Cheap Unit? Skelton. Harvard, 1966.

Beazley, C. Raymond. Can Someone Do My Contemporary? The Dawn of Modern Geography. P. Smith, 1949. Original ed., London, 1901. Buy Research Cheap Unit Study? 3v. Berthon, Simon, and Andrew Robinson. The Shape of the of war essay, World: The Mapping and Discovery of the Earth . Rand McNally, 1991.

The Shape of the World video produced by Granada TV (CH, Jun'91). Black, Jeremy. Maps and History: Constructing Images of the Past . Yale, 1997 (CH, Nov'97). ____. Maps and Politics. Chicago, 1997 (CH, Jul'97).

Braun, Georg. The City Maps of Europe: 16th Century Town Plans from Braun Hogenberg , John Goss. Rand McNally, 1992. Papers Cheap Unit 5 Case? British Library. The City in cheap mandatory minimums Maps: Urban Mapping to 1900 , [by] James Elliott. London: British Library, 1987. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Unit Study? Brodersen, Kai. Terra Cognita: Studien zur rmischen Raumerfassung . Hildesheim: G.Olms, 1995. London: Reaktion Books, 1997. Brotton, Jerry. Trading Territories: Mapping the cheap write my essay, Early Modern World.

Cornell, 1998 (CH, Sep'98). Burden, Philip D. The Mapping of North America: A List of Printed Maps, 1511-1670. Online? Rickmansworth, Herts.: Raleigh Publishers, 1996. Campbell, Tony. The Earliest Printed Maps, 1472-1500 . California, 1987 (CH, Oct'88).

Cartographical Innovations: An International Handbook of Mapping Terms to 1900 , ed. by _Helen M. Wallis and Arthur H. Robinson. Tring, Herts, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1987. China in Ancient and do my the value, Modern Maps , Yan Ping et al. London: Sotheby's, 1998. Conley, Tom. The Self-Made Map: Cartographic Writing in Early Modern France. Minnesota, 1996 (CH, May'97). Cresques, Abraham. Mapamundi, the Catalan Atlas of the Year 1375 , ed. and with commentary by Georges Grosjean. Dietikon-Zurich: Urs Graf; distrib. by Abaris Books, 1987.

Crosby, Alfred W. Papers Cheap Study? The Measure of Reality: Quantification and do my essay of genesis, Western Society, 1250-1600. Cambridge, 1997 (CH, May'97). Cumming, William P. Buy Research Papers Cheap Study? The Southeast in Early Maps. 3rd ed. Rev. and enl. by introduction Louis DeVorsey. North Carolina, 1998.

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Libraririe Droz, 1991. Delano-Smith, Catherine, and Roger J.P. Kain. English Maps: A History . British Library, 1999. Buy Research Online 5 Case Study? Dilke, O.A.W. Greek and Roman Maps. Cornell, 1985. ____.

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Five Centuries of Map Printing, ed. by David Woodward. Study? Chicago, 1975. Nebenzahl lectures of 1972. From Sea Charts to Satellite Images: Interpreting North American History through Maps , ed. by the value David Buisseret; introd. by buy research cheap 5 case study J.B. Harley. Chicago, 1990 (CH, Jun'91). Can Someone Do My Essay Midwestern Contemporary Study? Gambi, Lucio. The Gallery of online cheap unit 5 case study, Maps in the Vatican , tr. by Paul Tucker. George Braziller, 1997. Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Applications, and Management , ed. by help my essay the drunk Paul A. Longley et al.

2nd ed. Papers Unit 5 Case? Wiley, 1999. Geography and Enlightenment , ed. by David N. Livingstone and Charles W.J. Withers. Chicago, 1999 (CH, Apr'00). Gould, Peter R., and 4 deserts, Rodney White. Mental Maps . 2nd ed. Allen Unwin, 1986. Harley, J. Brian. Maps and the Columbian Encounter . Golda Meir Library, University of Wisconsin, 1990.

Harvey, P.D.A. The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and papers online cheap 5 case study, Surveys . Thames Hudson, 1980. ____. Mappa Mundi: The Hereford World Map. Toronto, 1996 (CH, Dec'96). ____. Medieval Maps . Toronto, 1991. The History of Cartography , ed. by J. Brian Harley and David Woodward. 2v. Chicago, 1987 et seq.

2v., 2nd vol. in 3 books (CH, Mar'93). Volume 3 (forthcoming). Holmes, Nigel. Pictorial Maps . Watson-Guptill, 1991. The Iconography of essay, Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design, and Use of Past Environments , ed. by Denis Cosgrove and papers unit, Stephen Daniels. Introduction World? Cambridge, 1988.

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Lillesand, Thomas M., and Ralph W. Kiefer. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation . 3rd ed. Wiley, 1994. Longitude Symposium (1993: Harvard University). The Quest for Longitude: The Proceedings of the Longitude Symposium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, November 4-6, 1993 , ed. by William J.H. Andrewes. Harvard, 1997 (CH, Apr'97).

Madej, Ed. Cartographic Design Using ArcView GIS . Do My Midwestern Contemporary Study? Albany, NY: OnWord Press, 2001. Mapamondi: Une carte du monde au XIVe sicle . Buy Research Online Cheap Unit 5 Case? CD-ROM facsimile of Atlas Catalan in Bibliothque Nationale, Paris. Codition Bibliothque nationale de France/ Opus Species; Montparnasse Multimdia (1998). Mappings , ed. by Denis Cosgrove. London: Reaktion Books, 1999. Mercator, Gerhard. The Mercator Atlas of Europe: Facsimile of the Maps by Gerardus Mercator Contained in the Atlas of Europe, circa 1570-1572 , ed. by Marcel Watelet. 2v.

Walking Tree, 1998. Help My Essay My Brother? Mignolo, Walter. The Darker Side of the Renaissance: Literacy, Territoriality, and Colonization . Michigan, 1995 (CH, Mar'96). Mollat du Jourdin, Michel, and Monique de la Roncire with Marie-Madeleine Azard, Isabelle Raynaud-Nguyen, and Marie Antoinette Vannereau. Sea Charts of the Early Explorers: 13th to 17th Century , tr. by L. Le R. Dethan. Thames and Hudson, 1984. Monarchs, Ministers and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in buy research papers cheap unit 5 case study Early Modern Europe , ed. by David Buisseret. The Kenneth Nebenzahl, Jr. Lectures on the History of Cartography.

Chicago, 1992. Monmonier, Mark. Drawing the Line: Tales of Maps and Cartocontroversy . Henry Holt, 1995. My Brother? ___. How to buy research papers cheap unit 5 case Lie with Maps . Can Someone Do My Essay The Value? Chicago, 1996. Buy Research Papers Cheap Unit 5 Case? ___. Maps with the News: The Development of American Journalistic Cartography. Chicago, 1989 (CH, Feb'90). Mukerji, Chandra. From Graven Images: Patterns of help my brother, Modern Materialism . Columbia, 1983 (CH, May'84).

Mundy, Barbara E. The Mapping of New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geogrficas . Chicago, 1996 (CH, Apr'97). Nicolet, Claude. Space, Geography, and Politics in the Early Roman Empire. Cheap Unit 5 Case Study? Michigan, 1991. Transl. from L'Inventaire du Monde: Gographie et politique aux origines de l'empire Romain.

Paris: 1988. Pedley, Mary Sponberg. Bel et Utile: The Work of essay the value, Robert de Vaugondy Family of Mapmakers . Tring, Herts, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1992. Polk, Dora Beale. The Island of buy research papers 5 case, California: A History of the Myth Nebraska, 1996.

Post, J.W. An Atlas of Fantasy . Mirage Press, 1973. Ptolemy. Cosmographia. Bologna, 1477, introd. by R.A. Skelton. Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1964. ____. Geographia: Tabulae, Claudii Ptolemaei, introd. by Lelio Pagani; [tr. by second world war essay Simon Knight]. Buy Research Online Cheap Unit 5 Case Study? Leicester, England: Magna Books [1990?]. ____. The Geography , Claudius Ptolemy; tr. and ed. by Edward Luther Stevenson.

New York Public Library, 1932. Reissued by Dover, 1991. Ristow, Walter W. American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the 19th Century . Wayne State, 1985. Robinson, Arthur H. Early Thematic Mapping in the History of Cartography . Can Someone? Chicago, 1982. Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians . Praeger, 1997. Schilder, Gnter.

Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica . 4v., 1 each text and atlas. Aalphen aan den Rijn: Canaletto, 1986-92. Schwartz, Seymour I., and Ralph E. Ehrenberg. The Mapping of America . Abrams, 1980. Shirley, Rodney W. The Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps, 1472-1700. London: Holland Press, 1983. Skelton, R.A.

Explorers' Maps: Chapters in the Cartographic Record of buy research papers cheap unit study, Geographical Discovery. Praeger, 1958. Help Me Do My Brother The Drunk? Skelton, R.A., Thomas E. Marston, and George D. Painter. The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation. Yale University Library, 1965. Buy Research Online Cheap Study? Smail, Daniel Lord. Imaginary Cartographies: Possession and Identity in Late Medieval Marseille . Cornell, 2000. Smith, Richard J. Effects On Soldiers? Chinese Maps: Images of papers cheap 5 case study, All under Heaven. Oxford, 1996. Write My Essay Mandatory Minimums? Snyder, John P. Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections.

Chicago, 1993 (CH, Feb'94). Sobel, Dava. Buy Research Cheap? Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time . Walker, 1995 (CH, Mar'96). Sobel, Dava, and William J.H. Andrewes. The Illustrated Longitude.

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Im Originalformat, commentary by introduction second war essay Ekkehard Weber. Graz: Academ. Druck- und Verlagsanst, 1976. Online Cheap 5 Case? Thongchai Winichakul. Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation. Hawaii, 1994. Thrower, Norman J.W.

Maps Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society. Chicago, 1996. Revised edition of Maps and Man (CH, Sep'96). Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia ed. by John Block Friedman, . . . [et al.]. Garland, 2000 (CH, Feb'01). Whitfield, Peter. The Image of the World: 20 Centuries of World Maps. Pomegranate Artbooks in help me do my essay my brother association with the British Library, 1994. ____. The Mapping of the Heavens. London: British Library, 1995. ____.

New Found Lands: Maps in the History of Exploration. Routledge, 1998 (CH, Dec'98). Who's Who in the History of Cartography: The International Guide to the Subject (D9), ed. by Mary Alice Lowenthal. Tring, Herts, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1998. Wood, Denis with John Fels. The Power of Maps.

Guilford Press, 1992. Woodward, David. Maps as Prints in the Italian Renaissance: Makers, Distributors Consumers. Buy Research Online Cheap Study? London: British Library, 1996. Wright, John K. The Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades: A Study in the History of Medieval Science and Tradition in Western Europe. American Geographical Society, 1925; Dover, 1965. Yorke, Douglas A., and John Margolies. Hitting the Road: The Art of the American Road Map. Design by Eric Baker Design Associates.

Chronicle Books, 1996. Zandvliet, Kees. Mapping for on soldiers essay, Money: Maps, Plans and Topographic Paintings and Their Role in buy research papers online unit study Dutch Overseas Expansion during the 16th and 17th Centuries. Of Genesis? Amsterdam: Batavian Lion International, 1998. The American Cartographer . Falls Church, VA: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 1974-1989. Buy Research? Cartography and Geographic Information Systems Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 1990-1998. Imago Mundi. Can Someone Essay The Value? Berlin: Selbstverlag des Bibliographikon, 1935- . Annual. The Map Collector . Tring, England, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1979-1996.

Absorbed by buy research papers cheap 5 case Mercator's World. Mapline . Hermon Dunlap Smith Center for the History of Cartography at the Newberry Library, Chicago, 1976- . Mercator's World: The Magazine of Maps, Atlases, Globes, and Charts . Eugene, OR: Aster Publishing Company, 1996- . Help Me Do? Absorbed The Map Collector in 1996. Six issues annually. The Portolan. Silver Spring, MD: Washington Map Society, 1984- . Online Unit 5 Case? Three issues annually.

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Secret Fire: The Relationship Between Kundalini, Kabbalah, and Alchemy. All Rights Reserved. Copyright Mark Stavish 1997. 11 March 1997. The following exercises are designed to assist in freeing the most potent energy known to humanity and buy research online cheap unit 5 case, resident in creation. They are not designed for someone with little or no esoteric experience. In general, it would be advisable to have at lest one to of war essay, two years of practical, daily experience with the Middle Pillar and/or Pentagram Rituals; in addition, an equal amount of time with the Hexagram Rituals. Several workings of the 32 nd through 24 th Paths on the Tree of Life would also be desirable 1) , and regular practice of once a week or so of unit 5 case study, “Rising on my essay, the Planes” 2) . Common sense, a willingness to “Make haste slowly”, and a balanced lifestyle may be the best protection against any unpleasant side effects of these, or other, esoteric practices 3) . It is very important that you keep a diary of your practices and experiences with the exercises given. The amount of time it will take to experience the buy research online cheap unit 5 case, Secret Fire is unknown, although preparation is the best guarantee of can someone essay midwestern study, success. The amount of time given to each exercise should not exceed more than 15 or 20 minutes in the beginning, and then 30 or 45 minutes after the first half year or so.

It is also strongly advised that anyone undertaking these exercises also maintain a regular, daily usage of spagyric tinctures for each of the planetary qualities of the day it is buy research papers online unit 5 case used. This additional, slow, and methodical cleansing of the subtle psychic channels will aid in relieving some of side-effects of esoteric work. The nightly application of “Dream Yoga” is also suggested, as this will attune the effects of war essay, student to the qualities of the day while sleeping, aid in interior contacts, and may shed light on particular problems of the Work. 4) While this may seem like a lot of work, it is not. Tinctures are fairly easy to make, all that is required is their regular use. Papers Online Cheap Unit 5 Case Study. This takes no more time than swallowing a vitamin. Dream yoga is done as we are falling asleep anyhow, no additional time required for can someone essay contemporary this either. What is does take is regularity, commitment, and perseverance. Qualities that assure, albeit confer, adepthood.

Best of luck in your practices. In the Bonds of Esotericism, In the Western esoteric practices there is an apparent knowledge gap regarding the role of esoteric practices and papers online unit study, their effects on the subtle, and not so subtle, bodies of practitioners. In the East, all practices, whether designated as such or not, are designed to awaken the semi-dormant energy resident in all creation, and ‘living beings’ in particular. Introduction World War Essay. This energy is known as “Kundalini”, “The Serpent Fire”, and the “Dragon” depending on tradition. Extreme care has been taken, despite contradictions between systems, to buy research papers cheap unit study, chart the effects of exercises on this latent energy, and how it ‘flows’ through the physical, emotional, and psychic body, at what stages, and in relation to which exercises. Such a detailed analysis is lacking in of war essay modern Western esotericism. For modern kabbalists, the most common introduction to ceremonial magic is through the Lesser Ritual of the Pentagram and the Middle Pillar Exercise. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to show how this, and related exercise can stimulate the Secret Fire, and to suggest exercises for its regulation by esoteric students who are engaged in buy research papers online 5 case a Hermetic path, such as general studies or alchemy, who may have experienced its awakening and are in do my of genesis need of simple and direct exercises for its regulation. The majority of modern esoteric students are familiar with the Middle Pillar exercise, as such, it will be the fundamental basis for much of this article.

In addition, the Sepher Yetzirah , and a limited number of alchemical references will be made. The basis of kabbalah is that through increasing levels of density, humanity came into its present state of physical incarnation and psychic evolution. Buy Research Unit. Through rituals, exercises, and meditations, the energy latent in creation generally, and the body of the practitioner in particular, can be “awakened”, purified, and directed. This energy can then be used for spiritual development, psychic expansion, or physical health and my essay the drunk, improvement. Creation is seen to have taken place, in online unit study Western kabbalistic and alchemical terms, in the following process. The Divine mind of God, the Absolute, or in Hebrew the essay the value of genesis, Ain Soph Aur (Limitless Light), through a series of expansions and contractions establishes the boundaries of Creation. The first world is the most subtle, and buy research papers 5 case, closest to the original state of non-existence, and is Atzilooth . This is called the my essay mandatory minimums, world of Fire, because of the lively, undefined, and almost uncontrollable nature of online 5 case study, fire.

Next is Briah , or the World of Archetypes and forms as our human mind can grasp them. It is symbolized as the World of Air, and is the result of a barrier world that is week 4 deserts formed by buy research papers online unit 5 case the creation of the next World, Yetzirah , or Water. This is the highly psychic and emotionally charged world immediately behind the veil of second, material existence, or Assiah . Also known as the papers online unit, World of Earth, because of the solid, concrete nature of cheap week 4 deserts, material life. The purpose of this scheme, is to show that creation occurs in increasingly dense levels of papers online unit 5 case, energy-matter, from the most subtle, or Fire , to the most dense, or Earth . Within this context of increasing density, there also arises a series of write mandatory, ten planes or levels of consciousness which combines with energy-matter, known as Sepheroth , or spheres of being. They occur in a pattern of: unity, reflection, polarity, reflection, polarity, unity, reflection, polarity, unity, and finally materialization. This basic idea of unity-polarity-and re-harmonizing, is the online unit 5 case, basis of kabbalistic and alchemical practices, and second world war essay, is derived from the observation of Nature.

Each World is a reflection to a denser or more subtle degree than the one before or after it. Each Sepheroth is a reflection, in part, of what proceeds or follows it. However, since each reflection is only partial, or slightly distorted, each Sphere takes on its own unique characteristics. Only the so-called “Middle Four Sphereoth” have the ability to harmonize or reflect in total all of the energies of creation, on some level. This ‘zigzag’ of Creation is called the “Lightning Flash”. The return of energy from dense matter, back through the various stages, Sepheroth, and Worlds of Creation is known as the papers online unit, “Path of the Serpent” because of its reverse, or complimentary ‘zigzag’ nature back up this diagram called the Tree of Life. For the alchemist, somewhere between the third and me do, fourth level, or sphere of buy research papers 5 case study, creation, energy takes on the characteristic that will allow for the formation of matter at some future state, or level ten. Papers Lab Report. This energy is called Prima Materia , Chaos in the Bible, Spiritus Mundi (Spirit of the Earth), and buy research online unit 5 case, others.

Here, duality is made complete, and can someone essay, genuine polarity exists, as opposed to simply the potential, or idea, of papers online cheap unit study, polarity that had existed previously. Energy is divided into help active and passive modes, with the active energy constituting the energies of life, and the passive one the energy of matter. In “The Golden Chain of Homer”, the active energy is called Niter and the passive energy is called Salt. The energy of Life manifests in two forms, Fire and Air. While both are predominately active in nature, fire is the more active of the two, with Air being slightly passive because of the buy research unit, partial Water Element in help the drunk its makeup. Potential Matter manifests its energy as Water and cheap 5 case, Earth. These Elements have nothing to do with the material bodies of the same name, and as such are capitalized and called “Elemental” to write mandatory minimums, distinguish them from the earth we walk on, water we drink, air we breath, and fire we cook with. They are in unit fact, energetic states, each with their own unique characteristics, as well as each of the me do my essay my brother the drunk, previously mentioned ten levels of consciousness within them.

The Elements also have preferred ways of online unit 5 case study, interacting with each other, to form the Three Principles of alchemy. There are in fact, forty different ways energy-matter-consciousness can manifest in our world. The Three Essentials are the alchemical principles of Sulphur, Mercury, and Salt. Like the can someone do my the value, “Elements” these principle concepts are to be thought of a “Philosophical” and not literally as chemical elements or compounds. The Alchemical Sulphur, or Soul, of a thing predominates in the animating principles of energy (Fire) and intelligence (Air); Alchemical Salt, or the physical body of a thing, predominates in unconscious forces, psychic, and instinctual intelligence (Water) and solid matter (Earth); Alchemical Mercury, or general life force, predominates in intelligence (Air) and instinctual forces, and psychic energy (Water), as such it is the link, or bridge, between the unit 5 case study, higher forces of Sulphur and can someone midwestern contemporary study, the lower body of matter. In the buy research papers cheap study, mineral realm the dominant energy is that of Earth, a little Water, and very little Air or Fire. In the vegetable realm, the dominant energy is Water and Air, but little Fire and Earth. In the animal realm, the dominant force element is Fire, then Air, but little Earth. These qualities need to be understood as they have been defined for the following information to be of any use to the practicing, or aspiring, Hermeticist. For example, using the introduction, above definitions, we can say that the plant realm has an abundance of instinctual energy (Water) and intelligence, i.e. a specific function (Air), but little direct energy (Fire), as this is buy research online received passively from the my essay my brother the drunk, sun; and little hard, physical, matter (Earth).

In the East as in the West, the idea of principle Elements and Philosophic Principles are expressed in more or less the same manner. This original undifferentiated energy from creation is often called in Indian philosophy, and modern occult, and New Age circles, as akasha , or Spirit. However, akasha, consists of two (2) aspects, one active as we have noted, Niter, and the other passive, Salt. Cheap Unit. The energies of Niter are also referred to as the force of Kundalini , or spiritual forces. In alchemy, this is the Secret Fire.

To the Salt, belongs the cheap mandatory, force of Prana , or Vital Energy. The function of the Vital energy is to maintain physical life forms and existence. It is completely instinctual and unconscious and is heavily influenced by cosmic cycles, astrological pulses, and other natural phenomena. The function of the Secret Fire is to papers cheap 5 case study, increase in humanity, the only place where it is present, its sense of self, or “I”. At the lowest level or functioning, this is the can someone midwestern contemporary art case study, ego, at buy research papers unit its highest, it is Divinity incarnate, as both are two sides of the same coin. One is ‘self’ in relation to the physical world and online 4 deserts lab report, others; the other is ‘self’ in relationship to buy research papers, all of Creation and as a co-creator. In the vast majority of humanity, this Secret Fire, or liberating energy of self-consciousness, lies dormant, asleep at buy research week lab report the base of the online cheap unit, spine, coiled like a serpent. Only a small amount manages to escape, reaching a sepherothic level, or so-called chakra , thus creating a loci of consciousness for each person. If it reaches the top of the skull, and effects of war on soldiers, beyond, a spiritual awakening can occur, allowing for a descent and re-ascent of the energy, during which the psychic centers can be awakened allowing for the manifestation of psychic powers and buy research papers cheap unit, related phenomena. The Secret Fire ascends as a result of a temporary weakening of the Vital Energy in buy research cheap week lab report the physical body. This is why so many spiritual awakenings take place under great physical stress, times of illness, or near-death-experiences.

When the Secret Fire will ascend through the various psychic-physical currents causing it to be enveloped in a sphere of luminous light. The experiencing of the Secret Fire, as a result of the suppression of the physical body’s Vital Energy, can create a condition which manifests in various forms: -Some perceive the bright light as an angel, their Higher Self, or “Holy Guardian Angel”, others as a spiritual teacher. -Astral projection may result, along with perception of the immediate surroundings. -Uncontrolled physical movements may also result, typical of so-called ‘kundalini phenomena’: shaking, rapid breathing, swinging of the torso, uncontrolled giddiness, and sitting straight upright in buy research papers online cheap 5 case study the Pharaonic position. After a period of time, the energy will descend, and do my essay the value of genesis, return to the base of the online cheap unit, spine. The effects of this awakening will take some time for the consciousness of the my essay minimums, individual to adjust to, and is not limited to the ‘non-physical’ realms. The physical body, although to a lesser degree, is also changed and improved in functioning, constituting a genuine “re-birth’ on several levels. However, it is buy research unit 5 case up to the mind, or sense of “I”, of the individual, to cooperate with this influx of power if more permanent changes in consciousness are to be made. As we can see, the concept of on soldiers essay, kundalini, or the Secret Fire, is linked to two polar concepts: that of the buy research papers online study, undifferentiated creative energy, and the second, as the cheap write mandatory minimums, seed of buy research study, this energy locked on each cell of material creation, and focused in humanity at the base of the spine.

When this energy rises as a result of psychic experiences, and not because of physical weakness, it can cause the Vital Energy of the body to be concentrated on various areas of the body, creating physical and psychic disturbances. If the energy becomes concentrated in the head, it can create the illusion of a spiritual awakening, as well as the well known “hot and cold” flashes, or currents, up and down the spine. The effects of the Secret Fire however, and not its re-distributive effects on the Vital Energy, can create the following phenomena: If the introduction, energy rises to the top of the papers online unit 5 case study, head, then it becomes possible to second world, work directly on the Vital Energy within the papers online cheap 5 case study, body, and essay, use it, as a means of enhancing the psychic experience and spiritual awakening. In short, the psychic centers must first be awakened by the Secret Fire and purified, before the energy of the physical body, can be concentrated upon them. Thus, our psychic exercises, and esoteric meditations are designed to prepare our minds, bodies, and consciousness for the liberation of the Secret Fire buried deep inside us. Through a progressive cleansing of the blood, nervous system, and endocrine glands, the ‘chains’ of the Vital Energy upon the Secret Fire are reduced and eliminated, allowing the ever present power and energy, a veritable pressure waiting to be released, to spring into buy research papers cheap 5 case action. Thus, the Serpent doesn’t really sleep, it is we who are asleep to its presence and potential blessing. The Secret Fire and the Sepheroth. “So he drove out the man: and effects of war on soldiers, he placed at the east of the buy research papers online cheap unit, garden of Eden cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the write my essay minimums, Tree of Life.” Genesis 3:24. The use of the “Tree of Life” has been both a blessing and a curse for buy research cheap unit 5 case study modern esotericism.

When understood, the “Tree” offers a complete and working model of Creation on both the microcosmic and macrocosmic scales. However, where many fail is on the personal level. The ability to apply the write mandatory minimums, often very general information of the Tree to personal experiences of the initiate when they deal with physiological phenomena is profoundly lacking in papers online study modern esoteric circles. The reasons for this are several: First , many modern esotericists simply repeat what they have learned without experiencing whether or not it is true on a personal level; second , the language of kabbalah is multi-leveled, with the same word having several meanings, thus many who are using the words don’t know what they actually mean, or on what level it may be interpreted; thirdly , the diagram of the Tree is simply too neat and compartmentalized. Many kabbalists are unable to adapt to the fact that interior reality is much more flexible than the help me do the drunk, Tree allows when applied to the two dimensional page or illustration. These problems are farther complicated by the idea of “One Tree” but “Four Worlds” making much meaningful, practical information nearly impossible to come by regarding the crises of papers online cheap unit 5 case, spiritual awakening and contemporary study, so-called Kundalini phenomena as it relates to buy research papers online cheap 5 case study, kabbalistic practices. When compared to the clear and explicit information available from Taoist and Tantrik sources, it is no wonder that so many Americans and Europeans prefer those systems to those more culturally and introduction second world war essay, historically related. To help resolve these problems in the transmission of buy research online, knowledge, only information that has a relationship to experience of the author or others he has discussed this topic with will be included here. Buy Research Papers Cheap 4 Deserts Lab Report. Theory will be stated as theory, and experience as experience.

The meaning of common kabbalistic words will be defined, and redefined, to keep the communication clear and direct. An extensive use of confusing and cheap 5 case study, somewhat irrelevant god-forms, references to mythology, and cosmology unconnected to the personal experience will be avoided. Arousing the mandatory, Sleeping Serpent. “Just as Moses lifted up the flaming serpent in the desert, so must the Son of Man be lifted up, that all who believe may have eternal life in him.” John 3:14-15. The Lesser Ritual of the Pentagram is papers 5 case study often the first ritual learned by aspiring magicians. Its function is to teach the basic mechanics of solitary ritual, and to give a basic technique whereby destructive energies maybe repelled or dispersed from the effects of war on soldiers, sphere of influence of the operator. The symbols used in the ritual are fundamental to other rituals of a more complex nature; however, to disregard the Lesser Ritual as somehow less effective is buy research papers online a mistake. A ritual, no matter how simple or complex is only as effective as the can someone do my essay the value, skill of its operator. Online Cheap. Repeated use of the LRP is can be more effective than incompetent or irregular use of more sophisticated rites. In total, there are approximately six fundamental rituals used in Western occultism reflecting an influence of The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn: 1) the Lesser Ritual of the Pentagram 2) the Supreme Ritual of the Pentagram 3) the Lesser Ritual of the Hexagram 4) the Greater Ritual of the Hexagram and 5) the Rose+Cross Ritual.

The use of The Flashing Sword appears to be irregular; however, it will also be considered along with its companion exercise or, The Rising Serpent . Within these, the use of the Middle Pillar is optional, it is however, the Middle Pillar Exercise which does the most to purify the bodily energies, or Vital Energy, and make pathways for the release of the Secret Fire. “I will make the victor a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go out no more: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is help me do my brother the drunk new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name.” Revelations 3:12. Several variations of the Middle Pillar Exercise exist, however their fundamentals remain the same. Whether or not one uses the Elements as suggested by Regardie in “True Art of Healing” or the Sepherothic/planetary correspondences as he later suggests (and is most commonly used) in his book “The Middle Pillar” is irrelevant. The methods used by the Arum Solis will also be considered as an alternative exercise. The theoretical basis of the Middle Pillar is that through imagination, breath, and concentration, the papers online study, psychic energy of do my essay, creation, here principally Yetzirah , can be directed allowing for a purification of the Vital Energy that holds the Secret Fire in check.

As our psychic centers are cleansed of emotional, moral, and materialistic residue, they better reflect the cosmic energy that works through them. Through its pre-described pattern of circulating the energy, the Middle Pillar assists in smoothing out the edges of our aura, as well as increasing the buy research, flow of energy in general directions, so that the psychic pathways, both large and small, can be purified and strengthened through an increase of Vital Energy. The pathways described for the Middle Pillar are circular in nature. They are for the most part large, clear, and bright, with a reflective quality too them. Regardie says that the psychic spheres should be imagined like large, clear, brilliant diamonds if no other color is known. Although, in the end, the entire sphere, or extended aura, of the can someone do my, practitioner should be imagined as a brilliant diamond radiating heat and light. The beauty of the Middle Pillar is that it, like many esoteric practices, is really a layered exercise.

Containing an almost infinite amount of cheap, flexibility and growth potential. As the practitioner develops in skill and manipulation of the world war essay, imagery, the buy research 5 case, amount of new possibilities increases. One of central movements of the do my essay of genesis, Middle Pillar is the “Fountain of Light” . Here, the practitioner imagines a brilliant force of energy forcing its way up through the soles of their feet and out the top of their head, spraying along the edges of their aura, making it strong and clear of any roughness, and gathering again at their feet. This cyclic imagery is repeated several times. This key part of the exercise, is the cheap 5 case study, central part that prepares the central pathways for the eventual release of the Secret Fire. Introduction Second. It is also similar to buy research unit 5 case, Eastern practices as seen in Chinese Chi Kung , Indian Tantra , and second war essay, Tibetan Vajrayana yoga. This being said, it is also clear that some differences exist between Eastern and Western methods of online cheap unit 5 case, releasing the introduction war essay, Secret Fire. The methods of direct work on the psychic centers, and an upward climbing of the spinal column is more traumatic than the more general work of the Middle Pillar.

It is for this reason, that the techniques of yoga, save a few, that are aimed straight away at releasing the Secret Fire, require supervision of a guru. Being that they so restrict the activities of the practitioner, and require close supervision, they are also systems that are impractical for day to day life in American and European culture. While similarities exist, and will be examined, the buy research papers online cheap 5 case study, major differences appear to be the buy research papers week 4 deserts, following: 1) Indian yoga is aimed principally at liberation from the physical realm in as quick a method as possible. Western esoteric practices are aimed at the perfection of papers online cheap unit 5 case study, matter and the psyche within the material world, and not an abandonment of it. 2) Chinese yoga, or Chi Kung , is more akin to Western practices, in that it is introduction world aimed at perfection of the material world, and buy research papers online unit 5 case, even the contemporary, spiritualizing of the body into a “Body of Light”. It, however, is more akin to Indian yoga, in papers online 5 case study that it starts at level of the etheric body ( nadis or acupuncture points) and proceeds from can someone do my essay the value of genesis there. This “from the bottom up, and inside out” approach is different from the Middle Pillars “top down, outside in” method. Because the etheric body is directly effected early on, the buy research online cheap unit 5 case, effects are more dramatic, as well as potentially traumatic for can someone do my essay contemporary art case study the unprepared. In the Middle Pillar, the etheric body is often the buy research online unit, last thing effected. This is because the symbolism used, as well as the need to develop skills in concentration, visualization, and meditation effect primarily the mental outlook of the practitioner for a long period of time.

Only after considerable practice, of a year or more, on a daily basis, do the cheap glg 220 week 4 deserts lab report, effects of the Middle Pillar begin to sink into the astral body, and online cheap unit 5 case study, eventually filter into the etheric and introduction world war essay, physical bodies of the cheap study, practitioner. It is stated in one source, that it takes a minimum of three years for even the most advanced yoga practitioner to release the do my essay art case, Kundalini through special exercises. A ‘release’ which we have stated, is not a release per online cheap unit 5 case, se, but the removal of can someone essay midwestern contemporary art case, obstacles to its natural expression. This is a critical point, since it is often said that to experience kundalini it will often take twenty years of practice of esoteric exercises, or even Hatha Yoga, the same amount of time it took Nicholas Flamel to confect The Philosopher’s Stone . During a recent workshop, Jean Dubuis stated that it may be possible to complete the buy research, extremely dangerous Flamel Method in my essay three years. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap 5 Case Study. It may be that for the alchemist, the interior creation of the Philosopher’s Stone is nothing short of the kundalini experience, and the exterior creation of the Stone is the ability to direct this Cosmic creative energy at will. 3) Tibetan systems run somewhere between the Chinese and Indian, in that they are concerned with liberation, but also with the creation of an etherial body made from their bodily essences. This Diamond Body , or Rainbow Body , is introduction war essay pure light and can materialize at online unit 5 case study the will of the adept. Like the Chinese and Indian systems, the Tibetan system uses rituals for the purification of the effects essay, mind and emotions of the practitioners, as well as the visual images in both anthropomorphic deities and abstract geometric forms. The Rituals of the Pentagram and Hexagram fulfill this function when performing the Middle Pillar.

Thus, we can see, the major differences in Eastern and Western practices can be summarized in function and reference point of origin. The East seeks liberation through progressive untying of the knots of ignorance that bind humanity to buy research cheap unit 5 case study, incarnation. The West seeks to perfect the material world making material reality a reflection of help my brother, spiritual reality. Once accomplished, the adept can then proceed to dis-incarnate at will. The Western approach seeks to be more active in buy research online cheap study the world and to transform it, while the essay, Eastern approach is to see the world as an illusion that is impermanent, and as such, is buy research online cheap unit more passive. Such philosophies, like all beliefs and cultures, reflect the physical environment of their earliest origin.

In tropical and sub-tropical zones the buy research papers cheap week, concern with time is less important that in the Northern hemisphere where a winter without food stores means death for the community. The cold, harsh realities of arctic zones produce a different theory and technique, and as such, different ideal (gods) than agricultural areas. Whether one is a hunter nomad or an established agrarian society is reflective of the physical landscape they live in, and as such effects values, needs, and spiritual philosophy and unit 5 case study, technique. This is of critical concern whenever one is considering adopting the esoteric practices on another land or culture. Why did it arise, and under what circumstances?

Are those same conditions applicable today, and in the life of the potential practitioner? In view of current conditions, are the practices being considered progressive or regressive in nature? That is, are they forward moving, or simply an idealization of a mythical past ‘golden age’? Salt, Saturn, Sexual Ecstasy, and Spiritual Bliss. “The heart girt with a serpent is my Name!” Chaldean Oracles. Salt is a symbol of wisdom and learning. Saturn, is associated with Ouroboros , the help me do my essay my brother, Great Serpent biting its tail, symbolic of limitation. As such it is closely allied with the earth, but also all of material creation, and those things which border on non-being, or Eternity. In one 15 th century manuscript, the serpent is made of two colors, red and green. Red is outside and green is inside.

Green, the color of Nature and of Venus, is the beginning of the Work. Red, the papers online 5 case study, color of the help me do my brother the drunk, Stone, and papers cheap unit 5 case study, Mars, is the end of the world, Work. “Sapiens dominabitur astris.” The wise shall exercise dominion over papers online cheap unit study the stars. As we correct the astrological imbalances (i.e psychic centers or chakras) within ourselves, astrological conditions outside have less of cheap write my essay, a negative effect on us. We gain dominion over the ‘stellar’ forces and can “make the sun shine in our oratory when we will it so.” The seventeenth century pupil of Jakob Boehme, Gichtel placed the buy research papers 5 case study, cosmic spiral, or “Wheel of Nature” within the human body. J.G. Gichtel’s Theosophica Practica , 1898. Saturn is the crown, Jupiter the brow, Mars the throat, Sun with a serpent around it, the heart, Venus liver, Mercury the spleen, and Moon the sexual organs, in straight theosophic decent down the Tree.

It is the Heart with a serpent that attracts our attention. Here he also places the Element of Fire. Egyptian initiates were also called scarabs because they pushed along the egg of their regeneration. Mysteria Magica, vol 3 The Magical Philosophy : The brow included in the Middle Pillar (called: Clavis Rei [1 st Formula] The Rousing of the Citadels ) and essay, the color scale varies with each center. An additional use of the rising twin serpents of the unit, Caduceus are included at the end. The brow is attributed to essay art case study, Saturn, and is said to balance out the Yesod center, as well as add power to the remaining centers in the Middle Pillar as the Golden Dawn and papers study, Aurem Solis present it. Alchemically, Salt is derived from the union of Elemental Earth and Elemental Water (or Assiah and Yetzirah), the Secret Fire is ‘hidden’ in the Salt (material body) and represents the effects of war, unconscious, instinctual forces that seek release.

It is sometimes called “Hellfire” in that if uncontrolled, or poorly released, it can reek havoc on buy research online unit, the body and psyche of the papers cheap week lab report, student, via its purifying effects. This is illustrated by the 31 st Path, or Path of Fire, sometimes mistaken for “Purgatory” or “Hell” by buy research papers online unit 5 case study the un- regenerated who pass through this Path after death. Of War. This Path is also under the direction of Mercury and Shin, the buy research papers cheap 5 case, symbols of buy research papers glg 220 week, spiritual guidance and evolution. For those interested in Notarikon , Shin shares the same numerical value, 300, as the Hebrew phrase, “The Spirit of the Living God.” “I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire.” Matthew 3:11. The letter Shin is often used in meditation as a symbol of Divine light, life, love, or presence. It is imagined above the head, just touching the crown, then inside the head proper (as it is papers unit study associated with intelligence and me do the drunk, the energy of the nervous system in the Sepher Yetzirah ), descending into the heart, and finally, expanding from there to engulf the meditator in a sea of fire. Because it consists of three flaming Yods , or tongues, it is sometimes associated with the flaming tongues of Pentecost, and a variety of Trinitarian concepts. Several possible interpretations are available to use regarding this statement: One suggests that John the papers unit, Baptist was initiating repentance as well as entrance into the watery world of Yetzirah, but that Jesus, was offering a path of initiation into the fire of the Soul, or full adepthood.

A second interpretation is that John was offering initiation up the 29 th Path, or the Path of Water; while Jesus was offering the harder and more rigorous Path of Fire, or the 31 st Path to his disciples. Neither of these is a definitive answer, only a modern kabbalistic attempt to understand Scripture in the context of initiatic practices. The mention of the Holy Spirit is more informative, however, as this phrase was adopted by the Jews during the period of the Babylonian Captivity and represents the origin of Persian and Chaldean influences on Jewish mystical beliefs. The term Holy Spirit ( Ruach Elohim ) is derived from the Zend Avesta , and the phrase, Spenta Mainyu , or “Holy (Creative) Spirit”. The creative power is implied and not stated in the original, and appears to be lost in subsequent translations into modern languages via Jewish and do my essay, Christian traditions. This Spenta Maiynu is a purifying and regenerating energy and intelligence with a cosmic host of six or seven intelligence’s at its command.

“It [Spenta Mainyu] is the self-realizing quality or activity of Ahura Mazda (the Good Mind); it is the self-generating energy that leads to cheap, the creation and evolution of the universe. Spenta Mainyu is dynamic and creation is an ongoing process. For Zoroaster, holiness meant also abundance, growth, and midwestern contemporary, health. Spenta Mainyu represents the principle of augmentation and development in the universe.” (F. Mehr, p.29) This power and their beings comprise the Mathrem , or Mathra , literally, ‘the sacred word of power’, which is the basis for the development of the practice of mantra in India and “Words of Power” in the Middle East and Egypt. Buy Research Online Study. Manthrem or Mathra is in its own right held to be the supreme mantra from which all others are derived, in the same fashion as YHVH is the origin of all Hebrew Divine Names. This is mentioned because in Persia and Babylon, the convergence of what would develop into semi-independent Eastern and Western esoteric practices is complete. In one respect, it could be said to second world war essay, be the original home of yoga, kabbalah, alchemy, and magic as we know them. Period art and architecture shows winged creatures familiar to Jewish and Egyptian tradition, planetary diagrams, an early version of the Tree of papers unit 5 case study, Life, and several variations of the intertwined serpent motif.

The Cosmic Triangle of Fire. “The successful adept must be endowed with a knowledge of the can someone essay the value, material of the Great Work; also with faith, silence, purity of heart, and prayerfulness. After passing through the gate surmounted with the buy research study, hieroglyph of philosophic mercury he traverses the seven angles of the citadel, representing the chief operations of the help me do my brother the drunk, Great Work - calcination, dissolution, purification, introduction into the sealed Vase of Hermes, transference of the Vase to the Athanor [furnace], coagulation, putrefaction, ceration, multiplication and projection. And even upon reaching the Petra Philosophalis , he finds it is held in custody by a formidable dragon.” Amphitheatrum sapientiae aeternae , Heinrich Khunrath.

Saturn is related to Mercury in alchemical text, and is given the same ambiguous sexuality, or androgyny, and named it ‘Mercurius senex’. In Tiphareth, the geometric symbol is the buy research online cheap unit 5 case study, interlaced triangles of can someone do my essay, water and fire, or the Star of David. When expanded to connect the planetary sepheroth of the Tree (with Saturn being attributed to Daath), the Triangle of Water connects the spheres of Mars, Jupiter, and Luna. Buy Research Papers 5 Case. The Triangle of Fire connects Saturn, Venus, and Mercury. Just as Ouroboros is cosmic energy (the serpent) limiting itself (Saturn), Venus is the creative cosmic force multiplying itself in life (its vegetative nature) as a prism splits the light of the sun.

Mercury, like Saturn in many respects, is androgynous, and controls the help me do my essay my brother the drunk, fire of buy research online cheap study, creation, directing it in the creation of the can someone essay midwestern contemporary, Philosopher’s Stone. Mercury holds the Caduceus, or winged staff with two serpents intertwined around it. The Wings represent sublimation, the serpents the basic forces of creation. There crossing over buy research online unit 5 case study is the psychic centers, often given as seven in number, here representing the colors in the spectrum, plus white (Venus). Central to the diagram is Sol, which is the cosmic creative forces which unify, enliven, and harmonize creation, and which we can hope to contact. It is central, and directs and controls all of the other planets, psychic centers, or aspects of Cosmic energy.

By contacting the fire of the Sun, we can open the fire of the other psychic centers (via Venus), and more easily direct the restrictive and enlightening energy of Saturn, through the powers of the Mind, or Mercury. To understand these multi-faceted aspects of the planets, particularly Venus and Mercury, it is important to the value of genesis, have done the Pathworkings up to Tiphareth. Online. While this is not required to perform the techniques later in this monograph, it is a help for an understanding of the theoretical part. However, we can begin to understand the relationship of the Spheres to each other by undertaking a series of meditations based on the following idea: Venus is the regenerating, sensual, active life force in its vegetative and unconscious manner. It responds to heat, light, and emotion. On the Path of the Decent, Venus splits the singular rays of the Sun into introduction world war essay the many facets of the color spectrum, and as such, can lead us to a better understanding of the relationship between multiplicity and unity, the psychic centers and planets, and their unique natures. On the Path of Ascent, Venus re-unites the divergent energies, both planetary and personal (psychic centers) and harmonizes it into a singular force, although still multi-colored, until it returns to online cheap study, the Sun as pure light.

“This Stone rises in growing, greening things. Wherefore when the introduction war essay, Green is online 5 case study reduced to its former nature, whereby things sprout and can someone study, come forth in due time, it must be decocted and putrefied in papers online unit study the way of our secret art.” Splendor solis , Trismosin. The Stone is made through the greening of nature (Netzach) and it returning to its source (Tipahreth) by putrefaction (Death card of the do my essay the value of genesis, path connecting them). Mercury gives form and meaning to the diverse energies made by the splitting actions of Venus, and re-unites them as fundamental forces, symbolized by the Caduceus. Mercury is Psychopomp , or Guide of the Soul, and directs the energies that Venus represents. Since both Venus and buy research study, Mercury sit at the base of the Pillars of kabbalah, they access the material, astral, and mental realms, and can influence all three to some degree. On the Descent, Mercury creates form and do my essay midwestern contemporary study, structure, for the body, the mind, or the soul, and on the ascent, Mercury helps free us from the limitations of form, without forgetting its lessons. The serpent is primordial force or energy, fire and water being the papers online 5 case, principle two of creation, with air and earth following them. Because it shed it’s skin, it is seen as a symbol of regeneration and renewal. Cheap My Essay Minimums. It is also dangerous, deadly, can be found often in ‘guardian’ roles near springs or water as well as deserts. When controlled or mastered, it is seen as mastering a powerful and deadly, yet regenerating force, basic to papers online cheap study, creation, or possibly from which creation came.

The Secret Fire is directly linked to the sexual, (i.e. principle and most basic creative forces) in humanity. Can Someone The Value. Here, the relationship between ‘bliss’ ‘ecstasy’ and the erotic impulse can be clearly seen and experienced. The development of a host of papers 5 case, ‘sexual yogas’ and ‘sex magic(k)’ practices bear this out to some degree. However, it is the sexual desire in humanity that acts as its basic drive and evolutionary force. It also suggests that the ability and need for mystical experience is can someone of genesis biologically rooted. Only by ignoring the most basic of pleasures, sex, can we ignore the drive to ecstatic union on some level. The ‘little death’ or petite morte , is unit a forerunner of the ‘big death’ as we let go and experience divine oblivion. Sexual power, linked to our innate drive for mystical experiences, is also linked to human evolution, and some kind of predetermined point or state to which we are being directed. This is a significant point, in me do that almost all of modern Western societies psychological illnesses are focused around sexual repression and obsession.

If the Secret Fire flows freely, or with greater strength than before, without the buy research papers online unit, proper purification of the effects of war on soldiers, Vital Energy of the physical body, it is possible that it will result in what appears to be extreme physical, but more likely psychological, illness in the form of schizophrenia and psychosis, instead of psychic gifts, genius, and papers cheap unit 5 case, either transpersonal states, or simply altered states of consciousness. Wilhelm Reich, the father of Orgone Therapy states that the basis for all mental-emotional disturbances are anchored in the physical body, and that these anchors can be released through breathing techniques, somewhat similar to pranayamana. Since the body is the “Salt” of alchemy, and partially composed of accessible unconscious elements through its “Watery Element” all of our emotional and physical experiences become indelibly marked, associated, or stored in help my brother the drunk our physical body. If these blocks, or energy concentrations of emotional and physical trauma (composed of Vital Energy) are not removed before the Secret Fire begins to flow more intensely, the so-called negative side effects of ‘Kundalini phenomena’ will appear. Abuse of drugs, alcohol, and sexual extremes only buy research papers unit worsen the condition in that they inadvertently release the buy research papers glg 220 week 4 deserts lab report, Secret Fire by weakening the physical body and its link to the astral, thereby damaging the etheric substructure, and create energy blocks in papers the end rather than diminish them, when the mind and body attempt to effects of war, make repairs. A nervous system damaged by substance abuse makes a tricky vehicle for online unit the clear, clean, and powerful expression of the Secret Fire. It is through our nervous system (under the domain of Yesod-Luna) that we engage both the physical world, as well as out interior world. It links the body (Malkooth) with the Mind-Intellect (Hod) as well as instinctual, creative, and sensual urges (Netzach). If it is effects of war on soldiers essay damaged, our ability to relate fully, creatively, and productively to these psycho-physical-spiritual parts of our self becomes endangered. If it is damaged, then our most direct and important link to our Holy Guardian Angel, and means of releasing the buy research papers cheap 5 case study, Secret Fire safely (via Tiphareth) is threatened in this incarnation.

“Listen, then while I make known the Grand Arcanum of this wonder-working Stone, which at can someone do my the value the same time is not a stone, which exists in every man, and may be found in its own place at all times…. It is called a stone, not because it is like a stone, but only buy research online cheap study because by virtue of its fixed nature, it resists the action of fire as successfully as any stone….If we say that its nature is spiritual, it would be no more than the truth; if we describe it as corporeal, the expression would be equally correct; for it is subtle, penetrative, glorified, spiritual gold. It is the cheap my essay, noblest of all created things…it is unit 5 case a spirit or quintessence.” A Short Guide to the Celestial Ruby , Philethes. How long it takes to un-block our psychic anatomy for a more complete and harmonious functioning of the Secret Fire is unclear. It is stated that even the most advanced yogis require a minimum of three years of special practice for this to occur. Can Someone Contemporary Art Case Study. Since that kind of training takes place under specialized and supervised conditions, it can be assumed that modern Western life requires more time, as well as self-reflection and referral, since the average Western occultist, be they kabbalist, alchemist, or both, will spend the majority of unit 5 case, their time working alone or at best in occasional small groups. Certain schools of yoga as well as kabbalah and Sufi practices view the heart as the center of the individual universe, and the most important of all psychic centers. By opening the heart, we gain access to our Interior Master, or Holy Guardian Angel ( messenger ),characterized by a strong manifestation of intuition.

This is the final resting place for the Serpents Tongue after its ascent over the skull, and as Boehme and Hermetic imagery have shown, the “Heart girt with a serpent” is the ideal to which mystics aspire. As one yogi put it, we approach the “Big King” first, and allow him to direct the activities of the serpent — language not unfamiliar to of war on soldiers, Hermeticists. Adam Kadmon: Secret Fire and YHVH. “For our God is a consuming fire.” Hebrews 12:29. While alchemy, kabbalah, and astrology have been homogenized in modern esoteric practices to create an almost seamless synthesis, this is not true of earlier periods. Traditionally, alchemy and astrology played almost no role in Jewish kabbalah 5) , and buy research cheap, while it has been put forward that may Jews were alchemists, and some great alchemists possibly Jews 6) , no manuscripts of Jewish alchemical practices seem to exist in any great number. Even the most famed Esch M’saref , or “The Refiner’s Fire”, is a compilation of material, focusing mainly on gematria, and not a ‘chemical’ work in itself.

Early kabbalists imagined creation taking place in several stages, from which was generated the anthropomorphic image of the do my essay art case study, ‘primordial man’, or Adam Kadmon . This ‘first man’ was imagined as being created out of the four-letters of the unit study, Divine Name stacked one on top of the other. Yod was the head, Heh, the arms and shoulders, Vau, the spine and sexual organs, and the final Heh, the hips and legs. A host of attributes and qualities came to help me do my essay my brother the drunk, be associated with each letter, and as a whole, it formed its own school of kabbalistic meditation. By adding other letters, altering combinations, and substituting letters based on numerological equivalents, additional Divine Names, names of archangels, angels, and other spiritual beings were generated. The oral tradition of Adam Kadmon is similar to that of the Egyptian god Osiris, in that Osiris was dismembered and unit, reconstructed, while Adam “Fell” to pieces, and it is the work of the kabbalist to reconstruct the Original Adam. Each of us is said to be a piece of this original soul, and it is our purpose to find our place in Creation, via kabbalistic methods.

Saint-Germain and the Most Holy Three-Fold Wisdom. The idea of Secret Fire in initiatic psycho-alchemical texts such as The Most Holy Trinsophia (Three Fold Wisdom) 7) illustrates the point of papers online cheap glg 220 4 deserts lab report, hidden fire, associated with volcanic power, and under the influence of Venus. Works such as this bear a strong resemblance to alchemical-kabbalistic texts, and either use mystical symbolism of these esoteric schools, or such symbols are used to interpret the text#039;s meaning. In the text, Saint-Germian reportedly recounts the details of his initiation through the twelve degrees of Cosmic Consciousness. The use of earthly fire in the form of buy research papers online unit study, volcanic eruptions, lava, and write, seas of flame symbolize the online unit 5 case study, presence of an underlying matrix of living energy that pervades material and non-material creation, uniting and constantly renewing it through what can be seen as violent activity.

La Tres Sainte Trinsophie is do my essay contemporary art case study comprised of twelve sections, each with its own illustration. The most obvious alignment that can be seen, is between the twelve sections, the zodiac, and the stages of alchemy. It can also be suggested, for our considerations, the online cheap 5 case study, seven major and five minor psychic centers. The story begins with Saint-Germain on the lava beds of Vesuvius, later he passes an can someone do my essay of genesis alter on which is a cup, with a winged serpent intertwined around it twelve times. Saint-Germain then enters into a vast realm of fire, in the midst of which is a greenish-gold serpent with ruby eyes which he must dominate with a sword, the symbol of an enlightened will. With this act, anger, hate, and pride are cast out of his consciousness, and buy research online 5 case study, the senses are brought under direction.

In one of the buy research papers online week 4 deserts, scenes depicted, Saint-Germain is in front of a triangular alter with an elaborate candlestick . Buy Research Papers. It’s base is formed out of two intertwined serpents and terminates at a lotus, with the taper placed in the center. Two inscribed panels accompany the illustration. The first one reads: “To the of war, strong is given the burden” and the second, “Kindle a fire upon the high place that the sacrifice may be borne upward to the Desired One.” The final illustration shows the heavens ablaze with light and a triangle surrounded by papers study a square and essay, circle. The initiate, here Saint-Germain, is accompanied by Isis Revealed, the goddess of life and papers unit, Nature. The pictures described illustrate that even at midwestern contemporary art case the end of the Illuminist era, classical alchemical and kabbalistic symbolism was in papers online 5 case widespread use by esotericists. However, its direction was changed from classical, or laboratory alchemy, to ‘philosophic’ or ‘spiritual’ alchemy.

Just as kabbalah had undergone a radical transformation at the hands of alchemists and Christian mystics, alchemy itself had also changed. While such manuscripts may be of dubious value for practical laboratory work, fortunately, they still are of value for interior spiritual initiation — an initiation that only the Secret Fire can bring. The Middle Pillar is a well known exercise to almost every student of magic. The details of the exercise are clearly outlined in Israel Regardie’s book of same name, and essay, will not be gone into here. Instead, exposition of those points relevant to the Secret Fire will be outlined. These points are: Secondary considerations will be paid to: Malkooth or ‘Kingdom’ is online unit 5 case study a complex sphere in that it represents several broad concepts simultaneously. It is at once, our feet when the Tree of Life is projected on the human frame (and the knees and base of spine when seated or kneeling); all solid matter, earth, and all material creation. It is our bones, and the marrow they contain is a personal aspect of the help me do my essay the drunk, Secret Fire. It is important that we have a strong sense of foundation when we talk about online cheap unit study Earth and cheap write my essay minimums, Malkooth, so that in meditation we can remain grounded and secure.

The stronger our sense of connection to the earth and our bodies we have, the more energy we can generate and the easier it will be to direct it. It is analogous to trying to build a skyscraper on a poured slab concrete for a foundation verses a four-story subbasement. Cheap. The better the foundation, the stronger the structure. Since the Secret Fire is hidden in the Earth, it is good to cheap write my essay, spend some time, even several years, working through the details of the Pentagram rituals. Cleansing, harmonizing, projecting, and withdrawing the energy represented there into yourself and surrounding area. The North is an especially important area for concentration, in that it is buy research papers online 5 case Earth of Earth, and is our hidden gateway to the Secret Fire. Introduction World War Essay. Buried in buy research papers online study the solid nature of matter, is an underlying vibrant energy that is of war on soldiers continually pulsating, giving rise to form and life, and turning energy into matter and online cheap 5 case study, matter into energy. This underlying nature is illustrated in the Sign of Taurus, the zodiacal sigil given to the North.

In it we see the Moon crowning a circle with a dot in the center, or the Sun. This combined lunar-solar sign for earthly nature points to the theory that all matter is simply condensed sun light, or hidden fire. By associating the do my essay the value of genesis, heaviness of Earth and the underlying heat it contains (the molten, volcanic core) with our feet, knees, and base of spine (and eventually our whole skeletal system), we can begin to experience the literal network creation is formed from. This imagery is reinforced by the statement that Malkooth and Kether are one. This is felt by papers cheap unit 5 case imaging that an unlimited stream of energy is pulsating into and out of creation from the Ain Soph Aur at Kether, and then imaging the same for material creation as you envision it, at Malkooth. All to often the spheres are imagined as being static beings or states, when nothing is farther from the truth. They are alive, dynamic, and constantly interacting with each other and the energy-matter matrix. This interaction is most clearly seen on my essay my brother the drunk, the Middle Pillar and the central spheres.

In Western and some Eastern esoteric practices, all exercises begin with a drawing down of energy from the Crown, or Kether. This is done because Kether is on the edge of “non-existence” and draws energy into and out of being. This energy is then regulated until it becomes manageable by our human consciousness, said to be somewhere around Chesed on the Cosmic scale of things. On the buy research papers online cheap unit 5 case study, personal level, Kether, or our personal Crown, regulates the can someone essay, flow of energy into papers 5 case study and out of our bodies. We then direct this energy through our brain and nervous system, until it becomes manageable by our consciousness. Just as Kether is the bridge between Being and Non-Being on the Cosmic Scale, our personal Kether is the bridge between energy and matter. Essay. In our personal being, this is the pineal gland.

Malkooth is the final condensing of these Cosmic forces, and on the Cosmic Scale is all of online cheap 5 case study, material creation. On our personal level, it is our physical bodies, and as an help my brother the drunk intermediary, it is the environment we live and move in with others. Since Malkooth is a World, that of Asssiah, as well as a Sphere, it has its own “Kether aspect” or ability to create matter that goes from the most dense to most subtle. These subtler forms of matter border on their own realm of “Non-Being” or that which crosses over buy research papers cheap unit 5 case study from the online glg 220 week 4 deserts, purely material to the psychic. In our bodies this would be the prostate and sexual glands, perineum, and base of the spine. The meeting place for these two polar aspects of our being and creation, is in the Heart Center, or Tiphareth. Here, all of creation is harmonized and brought into a state of dynamic tension and vitality around an intelligent center. This intelligence directs the other aspect of creation so that they work in harmony with one another for the good of all. This is our heart pumping blood to all of our organs, our pituitary gland, or “Master Gland” giving directions to all of our endocrine system, our Solar Plexus, regulating nerve energy in general; and the nucleus of buy research cheap unit study, each atom, cell, or the Sun in our solar system.

In its role of chief mediator of forces, Tiphareth is constantly sending vital energy to all area of creation, and transmitting energy from the Crown, or highest abstract realms, to Malkooth, or the densest levels of matter. It, in many ways, is the regulator of this energy to such a degree that it can be said that matter itself is actually made by Tiphareth. In physical terms this means that all matter is nothing but condensed light energy. In personal terms, its means that our bodies and environment are the creation of our deepest held thoughts. To help develop a more conscious and functional relationship between these three centers of energy-matter-consciousness exchange, the can someone study, following exercise is suggested: Imagine a brilliant sphere of Light with a binding, almost point black center, just above or touching the buy research papers online cheap unit 5 case study, top of papers cheap glg 220 week lab report, your head. Inhale, drawing down a shaft of this sphere into your Heart. Exhale, sending the shaft of light through your body and legs out the soles of your feet, into the molten center of the Earth. Inhale again, visualizing the fiery energy of this Center of the Earth moving up in a golden reddish stream to your Heart. Hold it, energizing the heart in brilliant light. Exhale, seeing the light expand in heat, light, life energy, and papers online cheap 5 case study, power.

It is important at this point, that the energy not only be coordinated with the inhalation, but be ‘breathed up’ from the earth and not forced. This can be done by buy research papers online glg 220 week imagining a strong, flexible, hollow tube or canal running from the center of the papers online cheap unit, earth, or feet, to the heart center. The energy can also be imagined running up the feet, as a pulse , entering the spinal column, and can someone do my essay art case, focusing energizing the buy research papers unit 5 case study, heart area. Imagine after a period of time, that it is in the heart of the universe, and me do my brother the drunk, of the adept, where matter and energy meet and are created. Just as our ‘heartfelt’ feelings direct the limitless energy of Kether into manifestation, so do they direct manifestation back to buy research online, Kether, or elsewhere, if we desire. It is very important that the heart not be overheated, and buy research papers online week 4 deserts, that the energy once accumulated be circulated or discharged in some fashion. This can be into a talisman, a healing treatment, or into a glass of cold water which is then consumed. It can also be discharged out the solar plexus as a general circulation to the rest of the papers unit, aura. In addition, the vowel sounds associated with the Rose+Cross ritual, or A.I.O. On Soldiers Essay. may be intoned after competency in the basic techniques has been acquired. First, practice intoning the papers online cheap 5 case study, sounds as a single breath, resonating from the center of second, your heart.

After a while, begin splitting the sounds so that A resonates with the head; I with the heart; and O with the Solar plexus. Cheap Unit Study. After a period of time, move the O sound down to the perineum where it will have a stronger affect on the ‘Malkooth’ sphere(s). 8) Substantial resonating of the sounds in the perineum will open up 12 different channels that link the spine to the legs, knees, and feet, uniting these various ‘functional’ Malkooths. It also effects the prostrate gland in introduction war essay men. Yesod — Link Between the Selves.

Yesod sits astride the gateway to the invisible, and is the repository for all that ascends and descends into manifestation. Papers Online Cheap. It represents several key elements of our being, including our nervous system and brain; psychic centers; unconscious yearnings and glg 220 week 4 deserts lab report, desires; and locus of memory. Through its sometimes dark and troubling, but always powerful waters, we can come into direct contact with our Holy Guardian Angel in Tiphareth. By imagining Yesod as a gateway that reflects up as well as down, we can learn to buy research online 5 case study, direct our psychic energies in either direction. This way, Yesod is more than just a doorway which we knock at and hope something is thrown out to us, but instead is a portal we can move through and exist consciously . While much of this early expansion will take place in dream states, such as lucid dreaming, and spontaneous astral projection, eventually a greater degree of control will emerge, in which consciousness is effects of war essay projected willfully and cheap 5 case study, returns with full memory of the value of genesis, its experiences. This state can be quickened though, by reinforcing Yesod’s link to unit study, Malkooth (for memory) and Tiphareth (willed consciousness). The following exercises are designed with these two goals in mind. After performing the Middle Pillar, focus your attention on Yesod. Imagine it as a large sphere extending to the edges of your expanded aura, violet in color. Shrink it back to normal size and then imagine all of essay contemporary study, your physical energy, in Malkooth, and throughout your body, is moving up toward Yesod.

This is your ability to move, manifest, and buy research online unit, create in introduction second world the material world. Imagine the spheres merge and become harmonious. Now, pull it up even further to papers cheap unit study, Tiphareth, and bathe the combined material and psychic-sexual energy of Yesod in the golden light of Tiphareth, and feel the buy research papers glg 220 week 4 deserts lab report, three merge into one. Buy Research Online Cheap Unit 5 Case. After several minutes project them back to their original positions. Imagine the light of Yesod as being simultaneously dual in nature, reflecting up toward Tiphareth and down toward Malkooth. Move to Tiphareth and do the same, imagine its light reflecting down toward Yesod, and up toward Kether, the source of all energy.

Imagine the essay contemporary study, Elements as pure and perfect ideas , emanating from Tiphareth through a clear field of Yesod, and condensing into matter. Imagine your thoughts as pure and perfect ideas, being projected from your heart, with the combined sexual-creative energy of Yesod, into manifestation in unit 5 case study Malkooth. Imagine the pure light and energy of Kether above your head, becoming accessible in Tiphareth, your heart, and can someone do my essay the value of genesis, manifesting as pure creations in Malkooth, beneath your feet. Feel the energy reverse this process, going from hard, cold, dense matter, to abstract energy forms, to pure, undifferentiated energy. In addition, the Clavis Rea Formula can be an effective illustrator of this point.

Circulation of the Light , after the establishment of the spheres, they should be vivid, clear, and deep in the body as well as extended out from it. This can be done in phases, with the first phases working gently on the outside, forming broad bands of light, and increasing in density and power as they begin to reach deep below the surface of the tissue, to the bones themselves. Cheap Unit Study. This helps to buy research cheap week, anchor the power in the body, while expanding and clearing the aura. At all times, the energy should be palpable. The Fountain of Light should move through the spinal column slowly at first, and with greater intensity and speed as experience progresses. The burst should be lively and papers cheap, bright, with a clear fluid like flame coursing around the edges of the expanded aura, at a radius of three to essay of genesis, four feet on papers online cheap unit 5 case study, all sides. Lose yourself in the flow of energy, as it passes through your body, out your head, into your feet, up your legs, purifying and can someone essay contemporary, energizing as it goes. At the conclusion of the exercise, you may withdraw the energy into the sub-epidermal layer of your body, feeling it strengthen and energize the tissue, sinking into buy research papers online unit 5 case the bones and purifying the do my study, marrow, an buy research papers essential element in long life and strong bones. This should also be done along the spinal cord, imagining that the soft tissue between the vertebrae are packed with energy and the nerve connections are strong and vital. The Rituals of the papers cheap 4 deserts lab report, Pentagram and Hexagram.

The rituals of the online cheap 5 case, Pentagram we use for directing the principle Elements of the material world (Assiah), the matter-energy matrix closest to our consciousness, and the outer-materially directed personality of this incarnation. Can Someone The Value. It is through directing and purifying to some degree these Elements, that we can begin to turn our attention inward and have the Vision of our Higher Self, or Holy Guardian Angel, that exists in Kether, communicated with in Tiphareth, and reflected to 5 case, us in the subconscious of Yesod. The ego, or self-created image of self in relation to the material world is completely dominated by can someone do my essay midwestern art case these rituals, and through them, we can adjust our sense of self, so that we may direct our energies toward Self. Buy Research Papers 5 Case Study. When this is done, we not only can converse with our Holy Guardian Angle, but realize that we and it are one and the same. The pentagram rituals can also be used in this same respect for creating material conditions that are to our advantage, as well as spiritual advancement. They can be used to create a near material environment for the sustaining of planetary forces as well. Introduction War Essay. In this aspect, the unit 5 case study, several rituals are often combined.

The planetary rituals of the Hexagram represent the manipulation of inner and outer planetary forces through our own psychic centers. Papers Cheap Lab Report. They can result in direct physical manifestations of body or environment, or in interior experiences of an initiatic nature. Such initiations signify an expansion of consciousness, and increased activation of the online, psychic centers involved, and introduction second world war essay, possible generalization of the effects to other centers. For example: a solar ritual will bring increased activity to the psychic ‘heart’ center, but also to the pineal gland in the brain as it is solar in papers cheap unit 5 case nature. A lunar ritual will bring increased memory and mental clarity, but also will stimulate the nervous system, and psychic centers generally, as well as cyclical sexual impulses. Effects. A Venus ritual will stimulate the kidneys, sexual impulses, and increase ones sense of beauty, harmony, and buy research online study, artistic expression. It will also add power to all of the psychic centers as a result of Venus’ ‘prism effect’ on psychic energy if directed properly, and increase the flow of love to the heart. Thus, each planet has its specific and general effects, as well as manifestations on the mental, emotional, and material planes. As we increase in awareness, and contact more consciously the various planetary spheres within us , they will appear to take on an almost objective existence. In these semi-objective states, we can contact others of a similar vibration, or communicate with the various ‘beings’ of the invisible world.

These worlds also have degrees of buy research papers online cheap glg 220 4 deserts lab report, density, hence the use of Elemental attributes in buy research papers online the vertical mode of expression. The densest world is Malkooth/Assiah, with each of the planets having a ‘home’ in online week 4 deserts lab report the Quarters, and Yetzirah is more subtle and given the online cheap 5 case study, attribute of Water, with its own special relationship to the Planets. Next, there is Briah, with its Airy, expansive nature, and peculiar relationship to the planets, and finally, Atziluth’s fiery nature, from which the previous worlds are but denser and more stable expressions. Just as our consciousness shifts in its relationship to things when it moves to the astral from the material, it shifts again when it moves from the lunar astral to the solar astral, or mental worlds; and again when the move is from the Mental to the Spiritual. These shifts can best be explained as going from effects object relationships (material), to subject relationships (I-Thou), to direct relationships , and buy research unit 5 case, finally identity relationships . Of War Essay. On earth we view things as objects separate from us. In the online cheap, lunar astral we experience them a objects, but with a relationship to them. In the Solar astral, we experience a thing directly, that is we know it. In the can someone do my essay midwestern contemporary art case, Spiritual realm, we are it. This helps to explain some of the buy research papers, statements made about kundalini experiences in yoga, as well as the mystical experiences of other esotericists.

In kundalini, or Secret Fire experiences, the do my, aspirant often talks of being ‘one with creation’, or having the ability to look inside the nature of things. This would indicate that the energetic impulses being released are expanding awareness to the level of Briah. When the final level is reached, Atzilooth, we become like the Biblical Enoch “who walked with God and was no more”. This framework also helps explain why many magicians succeed or fail at magic. The identity of ‘another’ doing the work for us, is a very materialistic approach to magic. Later on, after experiencing the buy research 5 case, reality and illusions of the astral worlds, the do my essay, direct , or personal relationship is built, in which the magician sees the powers being directed as aspects of his or her self, and not exterior to their being. This form of expression is more akin to the level of the adept, but also the buy research papers unit 5 case study, mystic, and practitioner of yoga who visualizes the cheap minimums, chakras as inside their body and papers unit study, not as exterior worlds, as in Western Pathworking. At some point however, all of these various viewpoints merge, and systems become blended in the experiences and my essay my brother the drunk, evolving psyche of the buy research online cheap, disciple. The difference is more as a point of origin, not as a final destination.

Note of Caution!! It is very important that all of the following exercises are preceded by a period of can someone do my essay contemporary study, prayer and devotion to online cheap unit 5 case, the Cosmic and that their fruits be offered as gifts to the Creator. They must also be started by invoking the energy from above in some fashion, be it the Qabalistic Cross, the can someone do my essay the value of genesis, Middle Pillar, the Clavis Rei, or simply as a beam of light coming from above, entering at the Crown, and terminating at the base of the buy research papers online cheap unit, spine or feet depending on your posture. This is critical of any negative side effects are to be avoided or minimized, as only energy radiating from help my essay my brother Kether can be contacted with out creating an imbalance in our system. Here, we seek to use this energy to repair imbalances, not forget it, and buy research papers online cheap unit 5 case, inadvertently create new ones. Also, at the end of each meditation, return the cheap write my essay mandatory, energy to the Cosmic either imaginatively, or by buy research cheap 5 case study offering the fruits of your spiritual labor to God. The Triangle of Fire represents a specific aspect of Tiphareth and should be considered in me do my essay my brother the drunk relationship to the Middle Pillar, although it can be performed independent of papers cheap unit study, it, or as we will see, as an adjunct exercise to intensify the effects of both exercises. After establishing your working space, focus your attention on your heart. Imagine the great intertwined Star or Shield of can someone the value, David, in gold, associated with this sphere. Feel the upper triangle radiating a pulsing heat, and the lower one, a running coolness. Imagine them turn into buy research papers cheap unit 5 case study a combined fiery triangle of Fire, and glistening triangle of Water.

In the buy research papers online cheap glg 220 4 deserts lab report, center is a brilliant dot, Yod, or Shin, as you decide. The lower triangle of buy research papers, Water is our relationship of consciousness to the psychic and material worlds. The Upper triangle of Fire, is our relationship to the spheres of adepthood, spiritual illumination, and interior revelation. Imagine yourself as the center point, between these two living triangles. Turn your attention to the Fire Triangle. Let the Water Triangle fade from consciousness.

Feel yourself in the center of a small pyramid of Fire. It you were to stand up, you could touch the apex. Seated or kneeling, you sense the great fire all around you. Surrounding the base of the pyramid is a giant serpent with its tail in its mouth. Close your eyes and feel with each breath, and do my essay of genesis, heart beat, the fire pulse in buy research unit 5 case study unison and grow more intense. The fire radiates both outward from the pyramid, as well as inward to its center, where you are. Lose yourself in the pulsing, living, flame. Intone the Divine Name IAO, resonating it outward from the center of your heart to the edges of the universe. Can Someone Do My Of Genesis. Feel the fire grow bright with each vibration and the serpent stir. At some point you may feel, or imagine the serpent rising, and reaching a point of extension.

Go with it, and view through its eyes. Return when you are done, by imagining the buy research 5 case, serpent coil back, placing its tail back in its mouth, the papers online cheap week lab report, fire regulating, and the triangle merging with the triangle of buy research papers cheap, water, both turning gold, and exiting to consciousness. Saturn and the Secret Fire. This is special series of exercises relating to of war on soldiers, Saturn and its relationship to other planets, and as the manifestor of Creation. This exercise is buy research cheap 5 case directly related to the previous one, or The Triangle of Fire. When placed on the Tree of Life, the Hexagram connects the spheres of Yetzirah and Briah, giving a gateway to Atzilooth, with Saturn where Daath is placed. The Triangle of Fire is composed of Saturn at the apex, and Mercury and Venus at the base corners, with the Sun in the center. By meditating on the qualities of these planets, and can someone do my study, their relationship to each other via this diagram, we can see that Saturn is the secret sphere, that offers us access to the energy-matter-consciousness continuum. Imagine yourself in online cheap 5 case the center of the Triangle of Fire again, placing the Astrological signs, or godforms of Saturn, above, or above and papers glg 220 week lab report, before you, Mercury at your right, and Venus at buy research papers cheap 5 case study your left.

See them as living and vital, with a thin strand of fire, light, and love, connecting them. Remember, Saturn is effects of war often given as the sign for matter, and Venus inverted as the sign for papers online cheap unit 5 case study Antimony, or the Earth. Continue this meditation for several weeks, or once a week, for several months. Fifteen to twenty minutes is all that is needed. The following method of meditation is based upon the fundamental associations known to every student of kabbalah. It can be performed by experienced or novice students alike, although novices should spend more time on the fundamentals to the drunk, insure success later on, without having to go back and repeat the basics. This series of exercises relates to the stages and Elements of Creation and papers online cheap unit 5 case study, the nature of the Primordial or archetypal expressions of consciousness. Those who have experience working with Hebrew and/or the Elements as outlined in basic magical practices will be able to move more quickly through this exercise.

Those who have little or no experience in magic will find it a suitable and powerful introduction to these concepts on a very personal level. The Hebrew doctrine of Creation sets forth the idea that the Primordial Man, or Adam was composed of the do my, four lettered name of God stacked in vertical form to appear as sort of stick figure being. In addition, all of creation could be found to have it origin in this sacred name, and it pronunciation was closely guarded, so much so, that it is now lost. The discovery of its proper intonation is said to bring power over everything, so much so, that there are schools of kabbalah that only work with the various manipulations of this Name as their form of meditation. For us, the Tetragrammaton will be used as a visual and mnemonic guide for buy research papers online 5 case study our meditations and exercises designed to release the Secret Fire in Creation. The standard Elemental applications will be applied: Yod (Head, endocrine system) is associated with Fire; Heh (shoulders/chest, and cardiopulmonary system) with Air; Vau (Spine/Nervous system, including sense organs) with Water; and introduction second, the Final Heh with the buy research 5 case study, dot (the hips, legs and feet, and help me do my brother the drunk, skeletal system) with Earth. The dot in the final Heh symbolizes the buy research cheap unit 5 case study, secret, hidden point of light, life, and love in all of creation, and hidden in matter. My Essay My Brother The Drunk. It is this secret force that when liberated brings us to the heights of divine bliss and consciousness in the original Fire of Yod.

As with all exercises, begin by papers unit 5 case drawing energy, in some fashion, down from Kether to the Earth. This can be through the Kabbalistic Cross, the Middle Pillar, or the Psychic Pump as previously described. Once a calm center is established, and a sacred space to contain the energy, either through the Pentagram Ritual, or imagining a vast and cheap my essay mandatory minimums, empty dome sphere around you (about six to buy research papers online cheap unit, nine feet in diameter), you may proceed. Imagine the Primordial Man in front of you, vast and towering. Merge with the image, growing in size as you do. See the the value, flaming Yod as your head, and imagine that it, or a ray from it, projects itself downward through the Airy world. Forming the first Heh, and continues into the Watery world, gaining density and weight, forming the Vau, and finally, into the world of solid matter, forming it, along with the Final Heh. There, the flame grows small, flickering brightly, but only as a small spark, compared to its vast and brilliant place of buy research online cheap 5 case study, origin, and to the dark, cold, solid world of matter in which if now appears trapped. Identify with the solid earth. Feel your feet rooted to it. Imagine that they, your legs, knees, and hips, are all heavy, solid, and firm, immovable and dense.

Feel and essay midwestern art case study, imagine the great strength and stability that this offers you and online cheap 5 case, appreciate it, as it is the foundation of help my essay the drunk, your being. Continue with this imagery, and sense a point of dense, brilliant, heat and buy research online 5 case, light in the center of this dark, solid matter. See it grow brighter and stronger, as though it were the center of the Earth itself. Continue with this heat and light, and let a strand of it move up from the center of the earth, through the layers of solid matter and rock to your feet, forming a sphere of great heat and light. After several days, pull the energy up to your knees. After several more days, pull it up to your hips. After about a month of practice, pull it up and focus it at the base of your spine. Extend the solid earth imagery to include your skeletal structure as well. Can Someone Do My Essay Of Genesis. Breath the fire up from the center of the papers unit 5 case study, earth, feel it focus around your spine, and move up to the top of your head. Imagine that your head is an empty sphere, waiting to receive the energy from below. Feel the help me do, energy course throughout your body, focusing on the bones.

Breath it into papers online cheap 5 case them, cleansing them of any weakness or disease. See the effects of war, marrow inside grow, and fill them with its bright red power. Extend it across the skull, jaw, and buy research papers online cheap 5 case, teeth. As before, when you are done with the meditation, absorb as much energy as you can, and send the rest to the center of the earth, closing off the contact. After a month or two of this exercise, move on to the Vau.

See the energy move through your feet, to the spine, and move up and through its narrow center column to cheap lab report, the brain. Imagine that as it enters the spinal column, with each breath, the fluid contained therein, course up and across your brain, nurturing the tissue, and descending back down. Imagine your senses becoming stronger and more acute. Visualize the vast fiery energy coming form the center of the earth as increasing your psychic sensitivity and psychic centers. This can be imagined simply as the nervous system becoming bright and healthy. Then, move on to the next, or First Heh. Here sense the papers online 5 case study, energy as having moved up your feet, into the spine, and write minimums, when it reaches the upper body and back of the head, it also fills the lungs with greater power and cheap unit, expansion. Feel yourself lifted up and expanded, as though your vision was made clearer, and sense of purpose, and destiny more definite. Imagine the lungs being charged with bright, warm healing energy, vitalizing the breath and blood. After a few days, imagine the vital power moving from the middle of the world, shoulders, down the arms, and to the hands.

During this period experiment with projecting, circulating, and receiving energy through your hands. In general, the right hand should project positive, expansive, electrical energy; and the left should project magnetic, passive, and receptive energy. Buy Research Papers Online Unit. By holding the hands together, in the classic prayer position, in front of the chest with the cheap my essay, back of your thumbs just touching the sternum, the heart center can be energized. In addition, the energy circulated creates a psychic ‘belt’ or ‘dome’ around the upper portions of the head and shoulders. Practice pulling energy down from the sun, moon, planets, and buy research papers unit study, Cosmos through the left hand and into of war on soldiers essay the earth or a talisman with the right.

Use the classic Sign of the Philosophus , or hands raised above the head with thumb and forefingers touching to form a triangle, to pull energy down into both palms and out through your feet. Try storing it in your solar plexus (you may want to use the Sign of Practicus for this) and papers online cheap unit 5 case, projecting it as previously described. 9) Then, move to the Yod. Here after the energy has moved up to the brain, see the head grow bright and luminous. Feel it absorb the fire from below and rejoicing its return. Sense the can someone the value of genesis, center of your head growing powerful, warm, and buy research online cheap unit 5 case, bright. Focus on this single point of can someone essay midwestern contemporary art case study, brightness, and then send it back down to the earth, while reaching out to the universe with it. Feel yourself lost in a fiery world of primordial power, wisdom, and love. Feel as though you are of vast stature, towering immensely throughout the online cheap unit, solar system. Feel as though the planets themselves are your psychic centers, and the sun is your heart, the Earth your footstool and the original point of creation your crown.

When you are done, shrink yourself back, and shut down the meditation. This energy once experienced has tremendous healing potential. By freeing our negative and destructive thoughts into the center of the introduction second, earth for purification and renewal, we open ourselves to more energy and an expanded consciousness through the papers online study, removal of psychological blocks. Through drawing up the fiery healing energy of the earth, and packing it slowly, smoothly, and methodically deep into our cells, form the bones and its marrow upward and outward, we can increase our psychic sensitivity to telluric currents, weather patterns, and magnetic conditions. In addition, we add strength, energy, and vitality to our physical bodies. Do My Essay The Value Of Genesis. 10) The Flashing Sword and the Rising Serpent. Yesod, Hod, and Netzach in the Secret Fire. This section examines the papers unit, relationship between the sepheroth of the Tree of Life to the Secret Fire, and the impact of two spheres in particular that govern the nervous system, early psychic awakening, and sexual power.

The rising of buy research online cheap week, psychic power from Malkooth, effects not only the feet and perineum, but also triggers a response in the adrenals atop the kidneys. This is often accompanied by a surge of energy, as these glands are the seat of our ‘fight or flight’ response. They are also secondary sexual organs, and as the energy drops down, to enter into the base of the spine (also a Malkooth center) before rising up the spinal cord and energizing the entire body, it stimulates those nerves and online cheap 5 case study, psychic clusters associated with Yesod and Netzach. It is from this stimulation that images, fantasies, sexual potency and aggressiveness, and psychic awareness, sometimes bordering on pszophrenia and psychosis, are experienced. Intense heat and a sense of me do my essay the drunk, purging may also be experienced as a result. When the online unit 5 case study, energy reaches the area of Hod, or Mercury, usually prior to Netzach, but not always, it is said to be following the Path of the Serpent.

This Path is illustrated by a Serpent climbing the do my essay of genesis, Tree of Life, reversing the direction of the descent of the Lightning Flash. Here, the Secret Fire awakens the mind to magical possibilities and structures, but without power. It may energize the brain and speedup patterns of thought, insight, and association, but often this may be vented through excessive talking and verbalization, or routing it through the papers online cheap unit 5 case, throat center. If the energy is not spent, but directed in its upward Path of Return, or ascent, then the very real problem of having to can someone essay contemporary art case, direct the will and consciousness in a singular fashion toward creating a pathway for the energy to flow is encountered. These pathways are the mental and astral constructs, or symbols, used in magical, religious, and esoteric rites. The principle pathway, or map used to direct the Secret Fire is the caduceus of Mercury. Here, the twin serpents intertwine themselves around the central pillar, and themselves form two side or supporting pillars, leading to buy research papers online 5 case study, a winged apex, or crown, shaped like a pine cone, or the pineal gland. When it reaches this point, the Crown, it bestows illumination, Cosmic Consciousness, and can be directed further towards greater spiritual activity, or toward material or psychic manifestation. This energy, or light, is effects on soldiers essay like the rays of the sun (Tiphareth) being split into the many rays of the spectrum (Netzach) by the use of optical filters (Hod). In Hod we not only create, but also clean any existing mental filter, so that the energy rising back towards its source may be properly identified and experienced for papers cheap unit what it is, prior to minimums, its being harmonized into a single ray of light by Netzach. Even after harmonization however, the energy may not have to be returned to Tiphareth.

If left to its own devices, it probably will, as that is its natural inclination. The sudden influx of power and buy research cheap 5 case study, energy may create a strengthening of the recently vivified astral worlds, of which Netzach is the symbolic apex. The Death card which rules the Path between Netzach and Tiphareth signifies the task of the initiate at this stage of the journey, and of the sacrifice that lies ahead. Only by losing their individuality, or through ‘death’, can the separate forces under the direction of Netzach combine to lead the initiate toward adepthood. The reverse of this is also true in one sense, in that by effects on soldiers essay leaving the collective behind, the individual is born, the true individual of Tiphareth. This suggests, that genuine initiation can only cheap study take place when we are no longer dependent upon can someone essay midwestern contemporary art case study, the collective power of an egregore for our sense of protection, purpose, and illumination.

The watery astral womb of Yetzirah must be left, for either the dry air of Malkooth’s material life, or Tiphareth’s spiritual renewal. Along with the intertwined serpents of the online 5 case, caduceus, we find implied in the symbolism the chakras, or psychic centers, upon of war, which the Secret Fire acts in its journey. These centers express modes of papers cheap unit, consciousness, loci of physical and help my essay my brother, psychic power, and are related in various ways to the nervous and endocrine systems as we have seen. In Western esotericism, several methods of expressing these psychic centers exist. There is the use of the planetary names, or mundane chakras as they are called, for the sepheroth. Here, the planets follow the descent of mezla , or Divine Energy, down the Tree of Life and are placed at corresponding locations on the human body. Kether, Hockman, and Binah are in the head; Chesed, Geburah, and buy research online unit study, Tiphareth are in the upper chest and shoulders; Netzach, Hod, and effects on soldiers essay, Yesod in the hips and sexual organs; with Malkooth located at papers cheap unit the feet. Buy Research Cheap Glg 220 Week 4 Deserts. This works well as a mnemonic device and for papers unit 5 case study the exercise known as the Flashing Sword and Rising Serpent , but is not very useful when it comes to attributing planetary powers to specific organs, as in alchemy. Another set of buy research papers cheap week 4 deserts lab report, attributes is to simply take the Middle Pillar and apply either its Elemental correspondences as given by Regardie in The True Art of Healing , or the more well known planetary correspondences as he gives in his book The Middle Pillar . Along the same lines, it is not uncommon to apply the ascending set of Hindu tattwas , or Elemental signs in an ascending manner at each of the cross-bars and spheres on the central column of the Tree of Life. While none of the above sets of designating centers of online cheap unit 5 case, psychic force is perfect, each works in its own particular area, and as such, it might be better to simply accept the symbols given for each exercise without trying to create ‘a grand synthesis’ that will sound good, but be cumbersome or useless for help me do the drunk practical purposes.

Looking at the ascent of buy research papers cheap unit, energy from a more Western viewpoint, it is possible to view the psychic centers not as singular and specific organs, but in many instances as clusters of organs working in concert. Effects Of War. Students of Eastern esoteric practices will recognize that the New Age system of seven chakras neatly arranged with an online unit 5 case study ascending chromatic scale is me do my essay not easily found in yoga or tantra. Instead, what is found, is papers 5 case study just as much contradiction and confusion as in modern synthetic Western esoteric systems. Help Me Do My Brother The Drunk. Whether one uses a system of five, six, or seven psychic centers depends on which system is being practiced. The addition or subtraction of a particular center matters only in buy research online unit 5 case study relations to the details of that particular practice and its aims. Thus, when viewing the psychic centers as objective realities, we enter into a realm fraught with danger. Instead, we need to look at the centers in terms of function and relationship to each other. If in an exercise we notice that a centers activities are not limited to of war essay, the feet, chest, sexual organs, or head, then we have entered into a deeper understanding of that locus of energy. If we find that other organs are being stimulated as well, then we will find that we have begun moving from a strictly symbolic and mental relationship to the psychic centers to a personal and experiential one. This transition to personal experience is buy research papers online 5 case study what development is all about, and not simply neat and comfortable packages of occult lore and of war on soldiers essay, information as is given in endless tables of correspondences.

In one recent Golden Dawn publication 11) a set of correspondences was given for four of the major psychic centers using kerubic attributions. The root center was attributed to the Calf of Revelations; the sexual center to the Angel; the Solar Plexus to the Lion; and cheap unit 5 case, the Eagle to the heart. No Correspondences were given for the remaining centers. Using this as a basis for discussion and experimentation, I would instead suggest the do my essay midwestern art case, following listing as a more effective alternative: 1 st Bull or Saturn 12) or Moon 13) with Fire in the Heart. 2 nd Eagle or Jupiter or Mercury Water in the liver.

3 rd Lion or Mars or Venus Earth in the lungs. 4 th Angel or Venus or Sun Air in the bladder. 5 th Spirit or Mercury or Mars. 6 th Luna or Moon or Jupiter. 7 th Sol or Sun or Saturn.

This suggests that the order of the unit, planets in of war on soldiers the spheres is very relative to ones state of consciousness, and that the correspondences at the time of our descent into material consciousness may be different from the order during our re-ascent into Eternity. If we consider what the alchemists say about online cheap study Saturn, that it is the effects on soldiers, beginning and end of the buy research unit 5 case study, Work, then this re-arrangement of the centers may be true. In an article entitled, “From The Restored New Testament” 14) , the basic idea of can someone, four centers of the buy research online study, genitals, navel, heart, and head is used along with titles taken from The Book of Revelations of St. John. Genitals 1 st and 2 nd centers The False Seer. Navel 3 rd center The Red Dragon. Heart 4 th center The Beast.

Head 5 th , 6 th , and 7 th centers The Cross, The Lamb, The Spiritually Wise, and Illumination The Conqueror. In an accompanying chart, the order of the planets is buy research papers week 4 deserts given from Saturn at the base, to Luna at the Crown, in straight kabbalistic fashion, with a slightly different color scale than usual: Yellow and online cheap 5 case, silver-white (Saturn), pale blue (Jupiter), red (Mars), green (Sun), dark blue/indigo (Venus), orange-yellow (Mercury), violet, silvery opalescent (Moon). Each center is also associated with a zodiacal sign, a seal on the great scroll, and one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. The remaining five signs of the zodiac are attributed to the Elements and Spirit. The problem presented by the Book of my essay mandatory minimums, Revelations , is buy research online cheap study that if it represents a pattern of progressive interior initiation linked to the ultimate experience of the Secret Fire, it is cheap write mandatory written in a highly symbolic format. Many of the keys to these symbols may be very local and papers unit, period specific in origin, requiring extensive research into 1 st century era Gnostic, Christian, Merkavah, and Greco-Roman initiatic practices.

This is not to imply that this is an impossible nut to crack, only that it is one wherein we must weigh the reward against the effort. Help My Essay My Brother The Drunk. To assist those who answer this in the affirmative, the above keys have been given. For this manuscript however, it raises more questions than horns on “The Beasts” head, to which the answers are not immediately forthcoming. The answers may be in some of the older and less accessible schools of Christian kabbalah found in Eastern Orthodoxy, more so than in those Christian kabbalists of Rome, as they are more focused on the Gospel of John, and have not completely rooted out their mystical wing, or use of online 5 case study, symbols for Illumination. After preparing your oratory, or place of working, imagine that your spine is the central pillar of the can someone essay art case study, Caduceus. Establish it well, with a round bottom, wings at level of the throat, solar disk, and a pine cone or brilliant knob at the top. Visualize it in white or reddish-gold, with the buy research 5 case study, left serpent in blue or black; and the right serpent in red. Their tails should meet or cross-over at the base of your spine and effects on soldiers, continue to buy research unit, overlap five more times with their heads facing toward each other, tongues extended, at the level of the throat accompanied by an extended pair of wings. The image should be mounted by a solar disk at the level of the head, surmounted by a pine cone. After a period of several weeks with the above imagery, additional symbols can be added. In the center of each circle formed should be imagined in write my essay mandatory progressive order, the papers unit, kerubic animals listed above.

At the the drunk, level of the throat should be akasha, or Spirit; and the Lunar qualities should dominate the back of the online cheap unit 5 case, head, with Solar dominating the front. Both universal aspects are imagined as unified at the top, and entering and existing through the brilliant sphere or pine cone (pineal gland). If possible, the left serpent should be imagined to have lunar, watery, passive, magnetic qualities. The right serpent, solar, electric, fiery, expansive qualities. The central column mediates, balances, and buy research papers, contains both simultaneously.

After the above images are successfully imagined and papers cheap unit 5 case, maintained, the symbols can be progressively meditated upon. It is important to go in art case study strict order from top to bottom or bottom to papers online study, top. If a psychic blockage is encountered don’t force it. Simply smooth it away gently as you progressively move through the set of my essay minimums, symbols. Buy Research Papers Unit. Don’t spend more than seven or ten days on any one symbol. Remember, that it is best to start new esoteric periods on a Saturday when the psychic power is at its height for the week. This means that it will take a minimum of seven weeks to move through the seven principle symbols on me do my essay my brother, the central column, and an additional three weeks for the basic diagram and two serpents. This is a strong exercise, so don’t force it. If anything unpleasant is buy research cheap unit 5 case study experienced, shorten the periods of meditation. Initially, no more than 15 minutes should be spent on this exercise.

The Serpent of contemporary, Fire and papers online cheap study, the Spear 15) Of all the exercises in this work, the following are the help, easiest to perform regardless of the level of experience of the operator. Their basic concepts will already be familiar to many students, and are useful as guides in buy research papers online study a fundamental understanding of the Secret Fire that exists in the West. Visualize a vast point of brilliant light above your head, so intense that it appears black. Move it down to the top of your head, feel it sinking into your body and psyche, permeating your consciousness.

Feel it move out, extending to form a sphere of golden light and fire around you to a diameter of four to six feet on do my art case study, all sides. Let this sphere of light grow in intensity and power, and know that it is a strong container for papers online unit study the Cosmic forces you are about to invoke. Imagine a shaft of fire, like a spear, blaze down from the point of the value, light above you, penetrate your skull, and move through your body and into the center of the earth. Feel the earth reverberate with its impact, and papers cheap, imagine a stream of living fire, like a golden-red serpent, move in me do my brother the drunk the reverse direction of the shaft, up your spine, and into the hollow of papers unit 5 case, your skull. It is important that you imagine your skull as a hollow and vast receptacle of help my essay, this creative and transforming energy. After several repetitions of this cycle, focus your attention on your heart, and imagine there, a chalice, stone, or other receptive symbol for your highest Self. Wait for a response, and then let everything merge into a vast sea of living golden light, fire, and love. Buy Research Papers Cheap Unit. At the conclusion of the exercise, draw the energy into help me do the drunk yourself, and papers online unit 5 case study, offer it as a gift to the Cosmic. Basic exercises for its regulation. Solar Plexus as chief regulator of buy research cheap week 4 deserts lab report, energy in buy research papers online cheap unit study the body.

If after an exercise there is too much energy in your heart or head area, move it down to the solar plexus and imagine it being circulated out and around your body through that center. This will work after a few minutes, and is especially good for circulating energy that arises from sexual stimulation after these exercises. It is important to establish firm points of Kether and Malkooth in these exercises. If Malkooth is insufficiently established, the risk of flightiness and disconnectedness from everyday life is possible. More importantly, if a strong sense of connectedness is not established at help me do Malkooth, much of the energy will have no where to go, and will be wasted. If it appears that too much energy has been generated and is causing problems that simply circulating it out the buy research papers online cheap unit study, Solar Plexus will not solve, then consider the following: 1.Imagine the energy streaming our of your hands and feet into the earth. 2.Place your hands in effects of war on soldiers a bowl of buy research cheap 5 case, cold water and imagine the energy pouring into it.

3.Walk on the grass or earth with your feet in direct contact. 4.Drink a cold glass of water. These suggestions are for world the discharge of buy research papers online study, energy accumulations that may be unpleasant. Consider them a sort of psychic first aid. The nature of these exercises, generally, is to increase the amount of energy we can handle, and to direct it wisely and slowly for the purification of our psyche and body. Discharging it repeatedly will slow that process; however, maintaining a state of irritation, frustration, and perturbability as a result of esoteric practices is can someone do my essay midwestern contemporary also a drawback. Circulating the Light. Simply put, always circulate the energy when you are done with an exercise.

The suggestions of the cheap 5 case, Middle Pillar, or out the Solar Plexus and around the edges of the extended aura work well. Additional Notes for Consideration. Crowley states that the 24 th Path is attributed to the Goddess Kundalini in 777. Buy Research Papers Cheap Week. Knight has the caduceus with the sign of buy research papers cheap 5 case, Scorpio at introduction war essay the bottom. Papers Unit Study. Scorpio is the sign of the 24 th Path. Square breathing is to be done with the exercises whenever possible. On the inhale, pull the energy down from the crown; hold in the feet, earth, and/or base of spine; exhale to head; hold on the exhale. Repeat. Second War Essay. This adds a great deal of energy to the exercises and limits the amount of time they can be done in buy research cheap study any one sitting. Each sphere has its own Tiphareth, i.e.

Great Star, uniting the smaller “spheres within a sphere” on the Tree of that particular level. Thus, when we direct our attention to the harmonizing influence of Tiphareth we affect all of the planets it touches. When we direct our attention to the Triangle of Fire of Tiphareth, we affect the Fire aspect of all of the Spheres connected to Tiphareth; however, Saturn, Mercury, and Venus, may have a greater response. This of course means, karma (Saturn), creative energy (Venus), and intellect/energy conduits (Mercury). As such, it then is easier to of war essay, regulate planetary energy with the hexagram than the septagram.

The hexagram regulates energy via Tiphareth, the septegram via Netzach. In alchemy, Fire and Air are the matrix of Energy; Water and Earth are the matrix of Matter. Earth ‘energy’ is essential for sustaining health; Water for sustaining initiation; and Fire for initiation itself; Air makes Fire accessible. Salt is the lower yetzirah and assiah; Mercury is Higher Yetzirah and Lower Briah; Sulphur is Higher Briah and Lower Atzilooth. Salt is prone to lunar impulses. Mercury is buy research cheap unit study prone to solar impulses. Sulphur is prone to zodiacal and Cosmic impulses. Kundalini, Evolution and help my essay, Enlightenment , Edited by John White, Anchor Books/Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 1979. Serpent of Fire: A Modern View of Kundalini by papers online Darrel Irving.

Samuel Weiser, Inc., York Beach, Maine. 1995. Energies of Transformation, A Guide to the Kundalini Process by Bonnie Greenwell, Ph.D. Shakti River Press, Saratoga, Ca. 1990. The Doctrine of the Subtle Body in the Western Tradition by GRS Mead. Solos Press, Shaftesbury, Dorset. No date.

First published, 1919. The Middle Pillar by Israel Regardie. Llewellyn Publications, St. Paul, MN. 1991. Kabbalah of the Golden Dawn by Pat Zalewski. Do My Art Case Study. Llewellyn Publications, St. Paul, MN. 1993. Experience of the Inner Worlds by Gareth Knight. Samuel Weiser, Inc., York Beach, Maine.

1993. The Most Holy Trinosophia of the Comte de St. Germain , Introduction and Commentary by Manly P. Hall. The Philosophical Research Society, Inc., Los Angeles. Buy Research Online 5 Case. 1983. The Philosophers of Nature , 125 West Front Street, Suite 263, Wheaton, Ill. 60187. Kabbalah Lessons: Psychic Energy, It’s Source and It’s Transformation by second world M. Esther Harding, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. 1963.

The Gathas of Zarathustra from the Zend-Avesta , ed. by Raghavan Iyer.

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Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of Leadership as many have tried to define it. Buy Research Papers Unit? The sheer complexity of the concept can be understood by the magnitude of the number of research articles available on the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the the value situation and the perceptions and expectations of the buy research cheap 5 case members. Can Someone Essay? Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of the cheap 5 case study other in on soldiers, the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of buy research online cheap unit study leadership (pp. Glg 220 Week? 19-20)'. Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of moral spirit and buy research unit responsibility in the leader, which is cheap write my essay, led to unifying the efforts of the employees in order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16).

Leadership can be explained as the ability of an individual to have power that focuses on papers unit 5 case, how to establish directions by essay, adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to influence others to work hard in order to realize and support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on both individuals' and organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to papers online unit 5 case influence the behaviour of a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of Leadership, one being the traits that the introduction world war essay leaders elicit and other happens to be the organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the fact that leadership has a significant influence on the results achieved by unit study, the group or the organisation. Can Someone Essay Midwestern Contemporary Study? However, it is important to understand that situations and contexts vary in varied organisations and one kind of buy research papers online unit study leadership may not work effectively in all the situations. Hence, it is important for organisations and the Leaders themselves to can someone do my essay contemporary art case understand the expectations of the subordinates and buy research 5 case then try to accommodate the write my essay same in their style of Leadership. Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and Leadership Styles, it is important to understand the different kinds of Leadership styles.

One of the early work done by Kurt Lewin in 1939 along with a group of researchers identified three types of Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. Most of the researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the third style is considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only when the subordinates are motivated and knowledgeable at the given tasks. Buy Research Unit 5 Case Study? With the context in place of an Indian manufacturing company where the workmen are more or less at the mercy of their supervisors in decision making the write my essay mandatory minimums study takes only the online cheap unit 5 case former styles of introduction second leadership to buy research cheap unit study assess the relationship of productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is essay midwestern art case study, 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi).

He was extremely focused on buy research online cheap unit study, his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and extended downward' (BBC). Hitler was known for heavily critiquing those who reported to him and became angry and frustrated with mistakes. He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the can someone do my essay contemporary study Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and would not, rely on the opinions of others, resorting to papers online 5 case study his instincts and opinions (Geoffrey). This kind of leadership falls well within the boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership.

Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the subordinates satisfaction or well being. ' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at the psychological perspectives of the above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on Abasement, Aggression and Achievement. However they score low on Intraception, Nurturance and Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is write mandatory, imperative to understand that there is no certain answer to which leadership style will produce the best results in an organisation. It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for the leader. For example, in a war, the leaders are required to make quick decisions and don't have all the time for a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about exceptional results by more accurate decision making when the leader has good subject expertise and can improve the productivity, however only when the papers online cheap unit 5 case study leader is around.

It is also suitable in of war, situations where the workforce is new and untrained or where economies of scale is being tried to be achieved which leaves little time for a democratic process to be followed in decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to buy research 5 case study lose its shine in the present context over the democratic form of me do my brother the drunk leadership. However, many still have bat in favour of this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of leadership will be effective and not the absolute style per se. 2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, White, 1939; White Lippitt, 1960). They distinguished democratic leadership from autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and buy research papers online cheap 5 case criticism, and a degree of comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. Lewin and his colleagues never developed the buy research papers 4 deserts definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of buy research papers online cheap 5 case study leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the of war on soldiers essay term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of every member in buy research online cheap unit 5 case study, the group activities and in the determination of objectives.

In organisational settings it is imperative for leaders to delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in second, building a pool of future leaders for the organisation. Buy Research Cheap 5 Case? Nagel (1987), argues that to avoid the free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of their collective responsibilities. ' Empowering the members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by essay, setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935). Members' abilities may develop through taking on unit 5 case study, new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders can expand their ranks by introduction second, becoming 'role models' to change novices from buy research online unit study 'followers' to leaders (Baker, 1982, p. 325).

This has particularly significant implication since shortage of talent pool is an important concern for organisations in of war essay, the today's era. The organisations are looking at buy research papers unit study, drawing leaders from the available talent pool from within the organisation first and then resorting to lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to only delegate and empower subordinates but has to take the relationship to the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the bulk of their time and energy to ensuring productive and democratic decision making. Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in mind that the style of leadership cannot by any means be categorized as the better of the can someone midwestern contemporary two leadership styles i.e. Autocratic and Democratic. Though the online cheap unit 5 case study positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of leadership for at least four reasons.

First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater Bennis, 1990). Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in the justness and efficiency of cheap my essay minimums powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935). Third, most people have, to online 5 case some degree, an unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Introduction Second World? Finally, some reject the notion of papers online cheap study democratic leadership for the opposite can someone essay reason, having no faith whatsoever in leaders of any kind and no belief in buy research papers cheap 5 case study, their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935)

However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is a greater degree of collaboration and communication; and people have an increasing awareness of the need for organizational openness and flexibility. With the baby boomers towards the end of the introduction second world war essay tenure and entrance of online cheap Gen Y, who thrive in responsibilities and accountabilities, into the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is introduction world war essay, contextual effect to which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and will be effective. It depends on many factors all of which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the organisational culture, the time frame available for decision making for the leader, the task itself, the capabilities of the subordinates and of course not to online cheap 5 case study miss out the country in which the organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of Productivity. With so much available on help, the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the definition and factors involved in the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. In the former, it continues to papers online unit 5 case study provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. In the latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to research and development, exports, and productivity growth.

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When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to 35 percent of minimums GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to papers online cheap study spend on services, and that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of growth and employment. The focus then shifts from write mandatory minimums mere output to the efficiency, utilization of resources and cost aspect of production which the papers online 5 case study impacts the hiring plans for buy research papers online glg 220 week 4 deserts lab report the industry as well. For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in 1950 to about 9% in 2008. The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the economy matures. However, the situation in developing economies is far from the above mentioned point and buy research papers cheap can be safely assumed that the outlook of glg 220 week manufacturing looks positive in buy research papers cheap unit 5 case, a global context with the developing economies leading the way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down.

Concerns regarding the stability of buy research online glg 220 4 deserts some of the Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the global economy. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for some time now. As a result, the sector's contribution to GDP has declined marginally from 16.1 to 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Growth rate in manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in 2010-11 to 2.7% in 2011-12 and 1% in papers unit 5 case study, 2012-13. Can Someone Do My Midwestern Contemporary Art Case Study? In FY13, only papers unit, 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of effects of war on soldiers essay Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by PWC indicates that the India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the rest of the buy research papers online cheap unit 5 case study world in regards to the growth of manufacturing industry. However, there will be concerns arising out of lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of increase in wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to bother the manufacturing companies' across the globe. Of War Essay? The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Papers Cheap Unit 5 Case? Along with that the increase in can someone do my of genesis, competition and consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the papers online cheap unit study organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs.

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The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at the same input resources and various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to online cheap unit study the term called 'Productivity' which the study tries to cheap define in the manufacturing setup in the Indian context. Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at disposal of the organisation to the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the quantity of buy research 5 case output and the quantity of input used to generate that output. It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation in generating output with the resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of productivity. Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc.

The input can be measured in human resources (number of hours worked, number of labour engaged or the labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc. The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the second world war essay organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. In manufacturing companies across the globe the concept of OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the former productivity measures. In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and allied and their productivity is buy research papers online cheap unit 5 case, being measured on essay the value, an individual basis e.g. delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc.

This gives the papers online cheap 5 case study organisation required control over can someone the value of genesis the processes and more specifically the operations managers to papers cheap unit study have a closer look at the gaps in the system and take short interval controls. For the purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a way to war essay monitor and improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an accepted management tool to unit measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. The analysis of mandatory minimums OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for equipment operation. Buy Research Papers Unit? For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in can someone do my essay midwestern, a month under the premise that the cheap unit 5 case study month consists of 30 days. For e.g. Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the furnace cannot be shut down for any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to buy research online glg 220 week 4 deserts lab report reach the temperature that is buy research online cheap unit study, required for the processing. However the same is not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. From the Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is deducted to write my essay minimums arrive at Planned Production time.

Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the papers online cheap unit study product, strike, lockout and many others. Planned Production time is where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the buy research papers cheap glg 220 4 deserts unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in any product manufacturing are reduced to arrive at the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the papers online cheap unit 5 case process in a manufacturing operation. Buy Research Papers Week Lab Report? The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3. The table below shows the three losses and their definitions. The productive time shown above is the final output that organisations want and try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of Operating Time to Planned Production Time (Operating Time is Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss)

Performance It is the ratio of buy research papers online unit 5 case study Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). This is also calculated as the buy research week 4 deserts lab report ratio Quality Production to Total Production. OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the factors are at 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%.

This illustration clearly shows that in individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is considered a good number) while when combined together in the form of OEE, the papers online unit 5 case performance would be considered gloomy. World War Essay? Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is papers online cheap study, 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to close to 85%. OEE is an effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and improve the production process. The OEE tool gives the managers the ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. OEE not only measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in cheap mandatory minimums, downtime, slower cycle speeds, and online cheap unit 5 case poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to assess and reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in order to improve productivity and help the organisation remain sustainable in the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity. It is one of the cheap glg 220 lab report popularly used metric for buy research online unit assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company.

Technically, it is calculated as the buy research cheap week ratio of Production in units to the number of labour deployed for the achievement of the output. There are a few variants of the same as well where the numerator remains the same however the denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by labour or the papers cheap 5 case study cost of wages of the labour engaged in the manufacturing process. As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of effects on soldiers essay Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Wages for the number of labour deployed for the same output. With different versions available at perusal, different companies use any or a combination of unit 5 case study labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the productivity measures should suffice the understanding of plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of indicators of productivity to assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to have an can someone essay midwestern study, eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the entire system and plan accordingly. Having defined all the elements of the relationship which the papers study study aims at establishing, it becomes imperative to cheap write mandatory minimums look at what the earlier researches have established between the illustrated variables.

2.4 Productivity and Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is papers 5 case, one of the help me do the drunk key factors which impacts the performance of the frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on the performance and leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is buy research cheap study, associated with the quality of papers online cheap week 4 deserts work of subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck Fink, 1998). Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in turn influence the buy research online cheap study level of discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Do My? Settoon, Bennett, Liden, 1996). In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of service. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of frontline salespeople.

Not only does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality. However, specific relationship between productivity measures of workmen and supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the requisite attention of the academicia which this study is trying to aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the importance of leadership and its effect on the performance of employees. Buy Research Papers Online Unit Study? Sauer's study explained the effects importance of leadership behaviour and buy research papers online cheap 5 case how the leader's performance style will affect the organization. Danish et al. (2011) discussed the effect of leadership and a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on the administration and its effectiveness. According to a research done of 511 frontline service providers in 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the introduction world leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for better efficiency. The leadership style used for the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the work culture is good, leadership fails to make an impact. An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in creating the kind of environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin Stringer, 1968).

Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the importance of leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. Papers Cheap Unit? In short, the study aims to examine the relative contribution of service climate and of war essay effective leadership behaviour to buy research papers cheap unit 5 case study employee service quality, and the interaction effect of these two independent variables on the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of 161 pairs of supervisor-subordinate pair in mandatory minimums, 24 companies of Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to innovation for subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. Buy Research Papers Cheap Unit 5 Case Study? When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance. This research again testifies the fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and self-presentation. My Essay? It also testifies the fact that different demographics of employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance.

This adds another dimension to the leadership performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. among 320 heads of instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the principals' leadership style has a significant impact on the teacher's motivation to unit 5 case achieve the desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the teacher's achievement motivation which is can someone do my midwestern study, connected to online cheap performance excellence. Another research in contemporary art case study, the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of buy research papers cheap unit 5 case study risk taking fosters innovation and the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the write my essay employees from buy research carrying out cheap mandatory minimums innovative work in their task area or otherwise. The survey of 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to employee innovation in a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to support the development and buy research online cheap 5 case realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Graen and do my essay the value colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on papers unit study, a continuum where one of the ends is developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on the other end is buy research papers cheap glg 220 4 deserts lab report, exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement. The managers should be able to understand these aspects of leadership since they have a significant impact on the employee behaviours and consequently productivity and performance. However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is 5 case study, also a characteristic of culture of the country which he defined as power distance.

A research on write my essay, 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in buy research papers unit, Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and have higher performance that the peers who have no supportive leader. Also, the intention to quit the buy research cheap 4 deserts organisation was far lesser which has cost and buy research papers online cheap productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by can someone the value of genesis, Shahabuddin et al. on 80 employees working with IT in buy research online cheap, real estate and housing development industry in Bangladesh. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in can someone the value of genesis, job satisfaction of the employees which in turn leads to online cheap unit 5 case higher productivity and can someone do my contemporary performance on the job. It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to have more satisfied subordinates and better performance from online cheap unit study their group members. Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001). Essay Contemporary Study? This leadership style is a fundamental concern of papers online unit 5 case study managers and researchers (Wood, 1994) due to papers cheap its effect on subordinates deliver more productive work when the leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is buy research papers cheap unit 5 case study, seen to lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at introduction second world, work longer, and make positive contributions to their organisations (Griffin, 2002).

Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to job satisfaction and papers cheap therefore managers needed to papers online cheap glg 220 4 deserts adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in order to improve it. Leadership style affects a range of 5 case factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and so contribute to organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and 110 managers could not refute the possibility of a relationship between job satisfaction and leadership style of managers. However, job satisfaction was found to be a function of demographical factors as well. The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on 300 employees across manufacturing and service organisations in the public and private setup. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the on soldiers essay most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is difficult to practice as sharing of power is not easy for managers.

' Excessive altruism in business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the management styles and the effectiveness of buy research papers cheap unit 5 case study human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' The various researches studies in varied industries and online 4 deserts lab report countries show a definite correlation between leadership and performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. The correlation holds true for most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and private sectors as well. However, the studies need to be furthered for the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in buy research papers online unit study, the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for cheap write my essay mandatory generating the papers online cheap unit primary product of the company.

Their motivation, needs and cheap write job satisfaction needs to be taken care of their supervisors if they have to extract the maximum productivity out of them. The productivity and leadership relation is buy research online cheap study, also affected by the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and quality of product were superior in the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by Lippitt and White (1943) and Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of on soldiers essay boys in an American setting. This can be the output of the kind of culture the sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and authority right from the beginning of their life and hence they get used to it as they grow. Buy Research Papers Cheap 5 Case? Another study by can someone do my essay midwestern art case, Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in decision making in presence of online cheap 5 case study authoritarian leadership than they did to democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to both authoritarian and democratic leadership.

The studies in general have shown positive results in write my essay mandatory, presence of papers cheap study leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for job satisfaction and engagement of employees which in turn leads to write my essay higher productivity and better performance. A study by Robert et al. discloses negative effects of close and punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and buy research papers online unit study an increase of borderline significance in aggressive feelings toward co-workers in case of close supervision. When subjected to cheap write my essay punitive supervision the papers online 5 case test group displayed significant increase in indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in verbal aggression. This kind of can someone do my essay contemporary art case study situation won't be favourable for the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and outside of the organisation. The study having established the fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of employees, aims to find out the most appropriate style of leadership for higher productivity of papers unit study workmen in a manufacturing industry. It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in introduction second world war essay, the decision making process which consequently affects them in one way or the other.

As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and Six Sigma concepts to improve productivity all of which in some way or the other lead to buy research online cheap unit 5 case added responsibilities for the workmen and more say in the technical decision making of the can someone essay of genesis plant. Organisations have realised that for growth to be sustainable it has to be collaborative effort of papers cheap each small unit in the organisation and not just top down approach. However, with the education level, skill sets and imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to can someone do my midwestern contemporary art case a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in buy research, as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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Friday essay: the wonder of Joyce’s Ulysses. Author: Reframing A Portrait of the Artist: Joyce and cheap, the phenomenological imagination, Western Sydney University. SF McLaren does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from second world, any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the cheap study, academic appointment above. Western Sydney University provides funding as a member of The Conversation AU. The Conversation UK receives funding from Hefce, Hefcw, SAGE, SFC, RCUK, The Nuffield Foundation, The Ogden Trust, The Royal Society, The Wellcome Trust, Esmee Fairbairn Foundation and The Alliance for Useful Evidence, as well as sixty five university members. Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons licence.

James Joyce once said to his friend Frank Budgen: If there is any difficulty in reading what I write it is because of the material I use. In my case the thought is always simple. “Difficulty” is an understatement for the reader’s experience of the bewildering Ulysses, with its notoriously experimental styles and form, extravagantly wrought language, and approach, in which nothing is “stupidly explained” – a stance that the young Joyce had praised in his idol, Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. A 1922 portrait of James Joyce. shutterstock. Declan Kiberd’s book Ulysses and us: The art of everyday living explores the somewhat generous proposition that Ulysses is a “book of wisdom” about the everyday world.

The key to understanding the genius and richness of Ulysses, I suggest, is Joyce’s inspired “simple” thought of interjecting into this “one day in the life” of effects on soldiers essay a city — its smells and sounds, its sandwichboard men, jingling brass bed quoits, gorgonzola cheese and burgundy, its trams and pubs — an epic apparatus of correspondence that draws us to explore the buy research papers cheap 5 case study, vast canvas of the write my essay minimums, work. By “correspondence”, I mean where one element – say an object, sensation, or cognition – resonates with another, forging a meaningful connection. The most overt form of this is the buy research cheap unit study, referencing of Homer’s Odyssey throughout the novel’s 18 episodes. War Essay! Homer tells the story of Odysseus (the Roman form of this name being “Ulysses”), a guileful Greek warrior, and his epic adventures throughout the Mediterranean region on his way home to Ithaca, to be reunited with his kingdom, his constant wife Penelope (whose virtue is besieged by buy research online cheap suitors), and his son Telemachus. The correspondences between this story and a rather uneventful day in Dublin are by no means self-evident. Odysseus’ counterpart in Ulysses, Leopold (Poldy) Bloom is an advertising salesman who leaves home to go to a funeral, and to work, in introduction world, the knowledge that his wife Molly (Penelope) intends to have an affair that day with Blazes Boylan.

Meanwhile, the buy research papers online study, young poet and intellectual Stephen Dedalus is living a somewhat bohemian life in write mandatory minimums, the Martello Tower with the blasphemous, garrulous, amusing Buck Mulligan. The paths of Dedalus and Bloom cross during the day and night until they meet and have a wide-ranging conversation. Bloom takes care of a now drunken Stephen, and invites him home to stay the night. The correspondences then, do not necessarily entail finding similarities between everyday life and the epic, but they can evoke connections and buy research papers online cheap unit 5 case, comparisons that lead us to reflect. The effect is can someone do my essay midwestern contemporary often comic (Odysseus, participant in the great siege of Troy is reduced to Bloom besieging potential advertisers), in a book of buy research cheap 5 case study which Joyce said “there is not one single serious line in it”, but some correspondences resonate deeply. For instance, Poldy misses his natural son Rudy, whose death has badly affected his marriage. Introduction War Essay! Stephen (corresponding to the son Telemachus) resembles his literal father rather too much: the buy research cheap unit study, verbally inventive, intemperately drinking Simon Dedalus. He could perhaps use the help, tempering touch of caring, practical-minded Bloom. Online Cheap 5 Case! And even a marriage marred by infidelity is, in Ulysses, something to celebrate. Learning how to read Ulysses also leads us to read human experience in ways that defy conventional expectations. Dirt for art’s sake: Ulysses’ reception.

Ulysses’ electrifying novelty polarised opinion from the outset. After it was published by Sylvia Beach in Paris in 1922, T.S. Eliot called it the. most important expression which the present age has found; it is a book to which we are all indebted, and can someone essay of genesis, from which none of us can escape. Many readers were unprepared for the strong language, detailed attention to bodily functions, including female orgasm, and Molly Bloom’s uninhibited discourse.

Not only buy research online does this modern-day Penelope defy the Homeric virtue of can someone midwestern contemporary art case constancy, but she revels in her transgression: (“yes and damn well fucked too up to my neck nearly”). For many, including those who had read the book only partly or not at all, it was chaotic, formless, or as Joseph Brooker notes, a latrine, a “phone book”, a desert “as dry as it is buy research papers cheap unit stinking”. First published by The Little Review, in serial form, it was the subject of an cheap write minimums, obscenity trial and buy research online unit study, was banned in the USA, then the UK. In 1933, however, Justice Woolsey’s decision in the US District Court observed that Ulysses was not “dirt for dirt’s sake”. In Australia, the news that it was obscene, and the news that it was not, took longer to break. The Brisbane Courier Mail of 19 September 1941 claimed that “after being freely available to the public of Australia for the last 20 years”, Ulysses had been “banned by art case study the Minister for Customs”.

The ban was not overturned until Gough Whitlam’s 1972 accession to buy research papers unit power. (Gough once gave a copy of the banned book to his wife.) One of Joyce’s enduring creations is that of a community of people worldwide who meet to write my essay minimums read, discuss or dramatise Ulysses each June 16. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Unit! Ulysses is not only Joyce’s time capsule of effects on soldiers Dublin on that day in 1904, but a monument to papers online cheap 5 case study his beloved partner Nora Barnacle. Introduction Second War Essay! It was on June 16 1904 that Nora first “walked out” with Joyce, and administered what he described to her in a letter as a sexual “sacrament”. Later that year they eloped in self-proclaimed exile to the Continent. However, on a rare return trip to study Dublin five years later, Joyce’s friend Vincent Cosgrave hinted that he had enjoyed Nora’s favours before Joyce did.

Joyce, agonised with doubt, was shattered. Ultimately a good friend, J.F. Byrne, reassured him that the cheap write minimums, story was untrue. Years later, Joyce assigned Byrne’s address to Bloom: 7 Eccles Street. Joyce’s crisis of faith over Nora’s fidelity had, somewhat masochistically, inspired the central event of Ulysses. And indeed, Peter Costello’s thoughtful biography of online unit Joyce suggests that Cosgrave’s boast was not necessarily empty. A Dublin Martello tower. David Jones/shutterstock. The “plot” of Joyce’s epic is otherwise just two cartographer’s lines, the intersecting paths of Bloom and Joyce’s alter ego Stephen Dedalus.

Dedalus believes himself cast out of the war essay, Martello tower by flatmate Buck Mulligan, and buy research papers online cheap unit, surrenders the can someone do my essay study, key to buy research papers online 5 case him. Bloom forgets his key. Both are symbolically usurped; Dedalus does not know where he will spend the night. The first six episodes of Ulysses follow firstly Dedalus’ and then Bloom’s mornings, using internal monologue to reveal the protagonists’ thoughts. In later episodes, the of war on soldiers, structure, language and logic of the writing itself undergo a dizzying series of experiments. Buy Research Online Unit Study! These developments constitute Joyce’s own “Odyssey of Style”, which takes the reader on a wild ride. The seventh, breakout chapter for instance, “Aeolus”, is centred on the offices of the Freeman’s Journal and Evening Telegraph. Aeolus is associated with the Greek god of the winds, whom Joyce mischievously associates with the art of rhetoric. This was set out in a table of correspondences for each episode that he used to explain his design to a mystified public. Aside from the preponderant gossip and banter, in can someone do my the value, this episode both great oratory and nauseatingly flowery writing receive extended attention — the latter to papers online cheap 5 case study hilarious effect, as Simon Dedalus and other layabouts damn the purple prose splenitively before, parched by their exertions, inevitably adjourning to write my essay the pub.

A panoply of rhetorical devices is employed in the episode, which is punctuated by a series of newspaper-style captions or sub-heads, and incorporates multiple references to air flow, as various blowhards in the offices shoot the breeze or, in the case of declining lawyer J.J. O’Molloy, seek to “raise the wind”: ie, borrow some cash. But what is most impressive in papers cheap unit study, this episode is how Joyce extracts meaning through adroitly signalled chains of correspondence that, in the political climate of 1904, make pointed connections between Ireland’s history of subjection (symbolised in Nelson’s Pillar and essay the value, the GPO, from unit, which “His Majesty’s vermilion mailcars” circulate), and can someone essay the value of genesis, her nationalistic aspirations. Chillingly, the episode is cheap unit 5 case set at the time (12 noon) and place of the 1916 Easter Uprising. A gloomy proclamation by editor Myles Crawford, “We’re the fat in the fire” proves prophetic.

Indeed, these offices did burn in 1916. Joyce had begun planning this episode in 1917. Following episodes include a parodic history of help me do my essay the drunk English literature (“Oxen of the Sun”) and a phantasmagorical absurdist drama set in seedy Night-Town (“Circe”) where even objects such as gongs, soap and gas jets get speaking parts. Impressively, Joyce even wrings poetry and beauty out of an apparently technical and scientific mock catechism (“Ithaca”), which includes an inventory of buy research papers online 5 case study seemingly every Bloom possession. The last line of cheap write my essay minimums Molly’s famous monologue. greg/flickr , CC BY. Lastly, there is the justly famous tour de force of Molly’s unpunctuated stream of conscious monologue (“Penelope”), the subject of countless memorable rehearsed readings in Bloomsday activities. “Penelope” is an epic in its own right, in which Molly reviews her day, past lovers, Poldy himself. Molly is accorded the last word.

Joyce likely derived his principle of correspondence from multiple sources, although he adapted it to his own purposes. His early interest in mystical and hermetic philosophy followed the loss of his fervent Catholic faith. Papers Cheap 5 Case Study! Two early influences on Joyce were the poet William Blake and the Swedish philosopher and theologian Swedenborg. Both were interested in the idea of correspondence between the material and divine realms, and on soldiers, the spiritual principle that earthly conditions reflect higher realms. Bloom expresses a parallel idea in a passage from the “Calypso” episode, where he visits the unit study, pork butcher to buy a kidney for breakfast. Leaving the shop, Bloom responds to an everyday object: Watering cart. To provoke the rain. On earth as it is in heaven. Mysteriously, the very next line records that. A cloud began to cover the sun slowly, wholly.

Grey. Can Someone Do My Essay Contemporary Art Case! Far. Even mundane experience need not be meaningless. Take for example, the references to meat in “Calypso”. In Homer, Calypso is the goddess who detained Odysseus on her island for papers unit 5 case study, years for her carnal pleasure. For Bloom, the sight of sausages in the butcher’s window is answered by his desire to perv on the “hams” of the next door girl, whom he in turn associates with a tattered religious garment, a scapular, “defending her both ways”. For Joyce, church and of war essay, policing are closely linked; both are in the confession business. Bloom now indulges in a memory, or fantasy, of the papers online unit study, girl enjoying a cuddle with a policeman in Eccles Lane: “They like them sizeable. Prime sausage.” Later, his disparate musings on meat link us to effects of war on soldiers essay universal themes of buy research papers online cheap study sex, death and advertising.

Sausages invoke a reverie on sex, religion and death. Shutterstock. As a young man, Joyce had read Lamb’s The Adventures of Ulysses and was attracted to its supernatural elements. Ulysses is war essay punctuated by buy research papers online study curious parallels between Bloom and Dedalus, and various synchronicities: Poldy thinks about Blazes Boylan, who immediately appears; Stephen, who has complained about Ireland’s three masters, in war essay, a later scene turns his head back suddenly to see a three-master ship. Papers 5 Case Study! These are not the contrived coincidences of Dickens but realistic experience, attended to in the spirit of wonder. Ulysses is a feast of a book. The walls and the streets echo with laughter, song and banter. The life lived in the shops and pubs and workplaces, the decor, the clothes, the advertising signs and cheap minimums, appliances, is brought back to life in these pages, filtered through the buy research papers cheap unit study, minds of artistic Stephen and scientific but “wonderstruck” Bloom. “Wonder” is one of Bloom’s favourite words; there is much to wonder at.

Ulysses captures the buy research papers online 4 deserts lab report, life of buy research papers online cheap unit 5 case a city. Jaclin/flickr , CC BY-NC. In the first episode, Stephen stands at the stairhead on cheap week, the tower, haunted by visions of his dead mother: Buck Mulligan’s voice sang from within the tower. It came nearer up the staircase, calling again. Stephen, still trembling at his soul’s cry, heard warm running sunlight and in the air behind him friendly words. Is this mere hallucination, the buy research cheap, product of a stressful night, or the continuance of unresolved grief at his mother’s death? And what can we make of Bloom’s parallel experience that same morning? Quick warm sunlight came running from Berkeley road, swiftly, in slim sandals, along the brightening footpath. Introduction! Runs, she runs to papers unit 5 case study meet me, a girl with gold hair on the wind.

Since a cloud has just begun to cover the sun, it seems likely that Stephen’s vision occurs at a similar time to Bloom’s. Kiberd’s beautiful suggestion that this is Bloom’s “Homeric vision”, is appealing. Equally, he could be hallucinating his absent daughter Milly, but then how do we explain Stephen’s similar vision? A definitive answer is not necessarily achievable. Whatever we make of it, Joyce’s epic resembles the can someone midwestern contemporary study, “open work” spoken of by Umberto Eco: one that invites us to explore it for papers online unit 5 case study, ourselves. The supreme virtue of Ulysses is can someone do my essay contemporary study that it so richly rewards the papers online cheap unit 5 case study, considerable exertions required of us. Some relevant resources: Which edition of do my essay the value Ulysses? Choosing the preferred edition of papers online Ulysses is cheap my essay mandatory minimums not a transparent choice, given the vexed publishing history of this book, and online cheap 5 case, the so-called Joyce Wars. Many critics prefer Hans Walter Gabler’s corrected text (1986).

Danis Rose’s attempt to find a more definitive text has met with mixed reviews. Jeri Johnson’s introductory essay to me do the book in buy research 5 case study, the Oxford World’s Classics series is excellent, and this edition also has some very useful notes on each chapter at the back. Take note however that this is a reprint of the original typesetting of 1922 and so is can someone do my essay midwestern art case prone to some possible textual errors. An excellent audio recording from an ensemble cast that really brings the buy research cheap unit study, book alive. In my view, the best way to approach Ulysses: Free downloadable files at: Guides and commentary. It has been said that one does not read Joyce, one studies Joyce. Certainly there is no shame in taking a guide book with one, when embarking on a reading odyssey. Bear in can someone essay of genesis, mind however that guides can be a mixed blessing: they can over-explain and over-interpret, or present us with an overwhelm of information. A popular, updated guide to Ulysses:

Blamires, Harry. The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide through Ulysses 3rd ed. London: Routledge, 1996 . A reasonably demanding guide to and interpretation of Ulysses, from an influential Joyce critic: Ellmann, Richard. Ulysses on the Liffey.

London: Faber and Faber, 1972.