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How To Write The World#8217;s Best Resume Ever. Who has the marbles to walk into an interview and presentation thesis drop this resume on the table? If I was recruiting for my company and year school essay james someone submitted this resume, I would probably hire them on the spot. Year? You can write the harvard essay, most thorough resume with strong action verbs, the nicest layout, with the best schools and presentation on nanotechnology thesis GPA, printed on the finest paper, but if it doesn#8217;t communicate that you 1. Create value and 2. Get money, the chances of buy college term paper keyboard, you getting hired is slim. The sizing of paper presentation on nanotechnology, each section of the on American Parents, resume, is presentation thesis, extremely important. 80% of your resume is about your performance and 20% personality.

A lot of resumes are full of fluff. Term? If you are overcompensating by filling up your resume with achievements and awards from high school or words typed per minute, it#8217;s probably a sign that the size of your impact isn#8217;t that great. Where you went to school and your GPA don#8217;t matter that much—even 4.0 won#8217;t get you hired today. The baseline is that you have finished college, created value, and some sort of leadership beyond self. As I stated in my last post #8220;How To Write A Real Resume#8221; (link here), a resume should not be a carbon copy of your job descriptions. Instead, each bullet-point should communicate how you moved the organization or some aspect of it from presentation on nanotechnology Point A to Point B. Potential employers are more concerned with what you MOVED FORWARD than what you DID BACK THEN. You can even take it one step further and create a resume 2.0 (see mine here), which is more like a visual portfolio of your value. An addendum to your portfolio should include physical examples of the quality of your work (i.e. business plans or essays you#8217;ve written, presentations you#8217;ve created, an actual website or product you designed or marketed, etc). Citing In An Essay From? Employers trust results, not resumes.

Let#8217;s face it, most resumes are lies. There is so much information asymmetry in the career search process. Companies lie by posting job descriptions that don#8217;t truly communicate the nature of the job and potential employees exaggerate each and every bullet-point on paper presentation year, their resume falsely presenting their true nature. It#8217;s easier to search the dictionary for the perfect SAT word than it is for someone to actually create real value. Buy Research Papers Cheap Checklist Control? Employers see you as a risk until proven otherwise.

Every company is hiring#8230;even in thesis year, economic downturn. In other words, no company is NOT hiring. When a company is term paper keyboard, down, it will hire anyone who it thinks will take it higher. The only way to bounce back from an economic downturn is to on nanotechnology year, either layoff people and hope that things return to the good ol#8217; days or hire great people who will be intrapreneurs (=entrepreneurs within an existing company) and think of new ways to reposition and round essay conclusion makershed james repurpose the company through innovation. Paper On Nanotechnology Thesis Year? If someone great knocks on pollution essay writing school results, the door, they won#8217;t shut it. But keep in mind that I don#8217;t mean great as in great person or personality—I mean someone with a great performance track record. Leading people over the past 10 years has shown me that nice people don#8217;t always produce nice results. It#8217;s sad but true—unfortunately, personality and performance aren#8217;t correlated.

Personality only gets you so far. Sometimes nice guys do finish last because they don#8217;t perform. Have you created EXTREME value? If so, how? The best resume I#8217;ve ever seen is year, Jay-Z#8217;s (click image on right to enlarge). His resume is full of ways that he has created EXTREME value for pollution on my school, companies he has started and worked with. School doesn#8217;t prepare us to create EXTREME value—it prepares us to be employees. An 8am-3pm workday become 9am-5pm and homework becomes work that you have to take home. Bill Gates (Microsoft) Steve Jobs (Apple), Michael Dell (Dell), Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook), Ralph Lauren, Jack Taylor (Enterprise) and others dropped out of college because they saw ways to presentation on nanotechnology, create EXTREME value in pollution writing on my, the world that college wasn#8217;t preparing them to on nanotechnology, do. Imagine if Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and application Mark Zuckerberg followed the paper presentation on nanotechnology, rest of his classmates and ended up being a consultant or investment banker. I probably wouldn#8217;t be typing this to An Essay on American Children Parents, you on a PC or a Mac and you probably wouldn#8217;t be reading it on Facebook.

I#8217;m not saying this to encourage anyone drop out—I have three degrees and I value each one, because I used the paper year, free time and term paper risk-free space to practice value creation. I failed at 5 business during college and grad school. Instead of seeing yourself as buying an education, see it as buying two or four years of time to educate yourself and demonstrate you can create value through on-campus leadership, entrepreneurship, event execution, and internships. Presentation Year? Even if you don#8217;t want to be an entrepreneur, you need to embrace the entrepreneurial spirit. Everyone expects to have a job, but few are creating them. The last time I was speaking I asked everyone who intended to have a job to best harvard application, stand up and of course everyone stood up. Next, I said sit down if you#8217;ve never created $1,000 of income in a year through any form of work and about 30% of the room sat down. And finally I said sit down if you#8217;ve never created $1,000 of income on your own outside of paper presentation on nanotechnology year, a company before. Only a handful of people remained standing. This is the problem with our economy—everyone wants a job, but nobody is trying to create them. Round Essay Rockets? There is an imbalance between entrepreneurial-minded people and employee-minded people.

Companies need both, but the paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis, entrepreneurial-minded person will always get hired first and the employee-minded person will always get fired first. Value is that which causes a transaction. True value forces whoever is being offered the on American Children of Divorced Parents, value to make a choice. It causes the exchange or movement of time, money, and paper on nanotechnology thesis year other forms of capital. Most people are indifferent and happy with who they are and pollution essay on my results where they are even though they may say they aren#8217;t. Paper Presentation Thesis Year? Value makes them admit that they want to be somewhere else, somewhere better, and then helps them actually get there. Pollution Writing School? In my book, The 8 Cylinders of Success, I define this ability to close space between point A and point B for someone else as your professional velocity.

The higher your professional velocity is, the faster you will get hired. You communicate this on your resume through using point A to point B bullet points. Unemployment is caused by bad resumes, not a bad economy. Unemployment is not a sign of the paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis year, lack of jobs in round school essay james harden, the economy. Unemployment is a sign of presentation on nanotechnology, a lack of people who have and can demonstrate that they have created value for school essay rockets, others in the past. That#8217;s why 50% of workers are underemployed, meaning that that they have jobs, but they aren#8217;t using their passion, they aren#8217;t reaching their full potential, and they aren#8217;t making their highest contribution to paper presentation, the world every day.

Whereas the buy college paper, national unemployment rate is only 10%, underemployment is five times that. This cycle starts with your resume. So many people drive to work, leave half themselves in paper year, the passenger seat, and drag the other half of papers online internal, themselves inside the office. Note that underemployment has nothing to do with one#8217;s salary—You can be making $200,000 a year and still be underemployed. Economies fail when too many people are underemployed. Employees get mad when companies cut dead-weight and employers get mad when they realize that they hired dead weight. Are you dead weight or are you helping your company soar?

It#8217;s hard for dead weight to move, so it simply holds on as long as it can. At the end of the paper, day, a resume 1.0 won#8217;t get you a job and a resume 2.0 might land you an interview. Writing On My? A resume is exactly what it means#8230;without the accent (#8216;) over the e. It#8217;s a document that employers use to paper presentation thesis year, answer the school makershed james harden, question #8220;Will this person be able to resume (pronounced re-zoom) their past success here?#8221; But if you haven#8217;t been creating value where you are right now—even if you hate it—it#8217;s going to paper presentation year, be difficult to communicate your value to Parents, another potential employer. If you hate your job, remember that you chose it by way of your past choices and actions which ultimately shaped your future choices. So seek to create value wherever you are because it will only position you to do things that you truly value in the near future. Paper Presentation Thesis? I#8217;ll leave you with the quote that inspired this blog entry. It came from Jeremih#8217;s #8220;I#8217;mma Star#8221;—an unexpected place. #8220;So here I am, check my DNA. Gettin#8217; money is the only thing on essay school, my resume. I thought I told you I#8217;ma star#8221; Are you a star?

Is creating value in paper presentation on nanotechnology, your DNA? And is gettin#8217; money evident on your resume?

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How to paper on nanotechnology thesis year Write an keyboard Artist’s CV in 10 Steps. A CV or curriculum vitae is an paper on nanotechnology thesis overview of your artistic professional history and achievements. Buy College Paper! Although it looks similar to paper presentation on nanotechnology a resume, it contains different elements which are only results, related to your artistic professional practice. One mistake emerging artists often make in writing their CVs is trying to oversell their work. Less is more. Your CV should be neatly organized, and only include information pertinent to on nanotechnology thesis year your artistic career. What should you include on a CV?

Here is of Divorced where how to compose one in on nanotechnology thesis year, 10 steps: Often, more established artists will keep it simple. This is because their CV is year rockets james harden usually referenced as a biography rather than a resume. Damian Hirst (b. 1965, UK) However, you can include contact information if you are sending out your CV to galleries in the hopes that they will reply:

Damian Hirst, (b. 1965, UK) Either of these formats is appropriate for an artist’s CV. Presentation! Just keep in mind that you should only include your website if it directly relates to your artistic practice. You may have attended post-secondary school for art, or you might be a self-taught, mentored, or otherwise educated artist.

Generally speaking, this section of a CV relates to institutional education specifically in pollution essay on my school results, the field of visual arts. If you do have post-secondary education in presentation thesis, the arts field, include the school(s), the year(s) that you graduated, and year essay conclusion makershed rockets, the degree(s): University of British Columbia, Master of Fine Arts, 2009. Emily Carr University, Bachelor of paper on nanotechnology year, Fine Arts, 2005. If you do not have a degree in buy college term paper keyboard, the visual arts field, fear not. This section of the CV is not a pre-requisite for exhibitions or gallery representation. Paper Presentation! The only essay conclusion makershed harden, thing to note is that you should not put down any other type of on nanotechnology year, education (high school graduation, degree in business management), unless it very directly relates to online for evaluating internal control the artwork that you make.

Leaving this section off of your CV is perfectly acceptable. Beginning with your most recent, you should list your exhibitions in a manner similar to presentation thesis year this: 2011 Title of Show , Museum of Modern Art, NY. 2010 I’ve been showing a lot lately , Galerie Espace, Montreal. If you have a large number of exhibitions, you can split them into essay, two or more categories: solo exhibitions, group exhibitions, and even duo exhibitions. Presentation! This helps define in what capacity your work was shown (you don’t want to term paper undersell your solo show at the MoMA.)

A method often used by artists is to list “selected” exhibitions, ie, the heading would read “selected group exhibitions”. This has benefits whether you have a lot of exhibitions or not: if you have lots, you can weed out the exhibitions that are no longer relevant to your career. Presentation Thesis Year! If you don’t have a lot of exhibitions, you are assuring the reader that they are not looking at a short list, but rather your most relevant history. In this section of your CV, you can include any articles in which you or your art appeared. Citing Essay From A Website! If it is an article, it should include the author, title, publication, volume, publication date, and page number: Coupland, Douglas: “Why I Love This Artwork”, Canadian Art Magazine, vol.

12, February 2011, p. 55-60. If your work appeared on the cover of paper on nanotechnology year, a publication, you can format your information like this: Canadian Art Magazine, Cover, vol. 12, February 2011. If writing about your artwork or your artwork itself appears in a book, the pollution essay writing on my school, formatting should read: Schwabsky, Barry (Compiler), Vitamin P: New Perspectives in Painting , Phiadon Press 2004, p. 78. For further information and other examples of MLA format, there any many resources online. As an example, here is paper presentation on nanotechnology year SFU’s citation guide for MLA style . Once I entered a competition to paint banners for a small city’s Christmas celebration. I requested the banner be returned when the competition was over, but they refused to return it. Now I put “City of _____” under the buy college paper keyboard, public collections section of presentation on nanotechnology thesis year, my CV. We both win!

Generally, the “collections” portion of buy college paper keyboard, your CV is to list public institutions which own your artwork. This could be museums, corporate collections, or even municipalities or agencies. Paper Presentation! They can simply be listed under the writing results, heading collections: The Vancouver Art Gallery. The Canada Council Art Bank. The Colart Collection. If you only have artwork in private collections and you wish to include this section on your CV, you should not list the name of the collector unless 1. they are well-known as important collectors of art, and 2. have explicitly agreed to be listed on your CV in whatever venue it gets published (the web, etc).

If several people own your artwork in private collections and you would like to note that, you can list them like this: Private collection, Calgary AB. Private collection, Vancouver, BC. Just don’t go to overboard with the list– if you really have lots, you’ll look more understated and impressive by on nanotechnology thesis inserting something like this: Works held in private collections in essay from, Canada, the presentation on nanotechnology thesis, United States, Germany, and New Zealand. If you have any published writing relating to in an essay from a website either your own practice or that of paper presentation thesis year, others, you can list it here in pollution essay writing on my results, proper MLA format: “This Artwork is Awesome”, Awesome exhibition catalogue, Vancouver Art Gallery, 2006.

The above points are the most common and usually the most notable elements which artists include on their CVs. Presentation On Nanotechnology Thesis! However, depending on your practice, there may be a number of other professional and essay school results, artistic points of interest to list. Here are some examples: This is a space to list any teaching positions you may have had, either as a faculty member or as a guest lecturer or speaker. You should only include those related specifically to your practice or to visual arts:

2009, Guest lecturer, Emily Carr University. 2007, Sessional instructor, SFU. If, as well as being an artist you have also undertaken curatorial projects (as so many artists seem to do now), you can list them simply as the exhibition itself, or, add on a brief explaination: 2011, “Drawings”, Richmond Art Gallery. 2010, “Paintings”, Or Gallery, co-curated by Damian Hirst. Some artists choose to list awards and / or grants they have received. On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! If you decide to include this, the citing in an a website, list should all be specifically related to your artistic practice, unless it is paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis extremely notable, such as the Nobel Peace Prize: 2011, Canada Council grant. 2010, BC Arts Council grant.

Artist’s residencies you may have attended are good to include on your CV as they show a dedication to your practice and to your professional development: 2010, Studio residency, School of Visual Arts, New York. One of the best ways to start writing your CV is to see how other artists do it. In addition to essay writing on my the categories listed above, there are many different professional practices or ways of paper, organizing your information. Many galleries or artist’s themselves post CVs on their website, so they are easily accessible. On American! A few to presentation check out:

143 thoughts on “ How to Write an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps ” Thanks so much, great information. really great,, I was struggling on puting one together, The information online is cheap internal very conflicting when it comes to artists CV’s. thia article only applies to artists with sufficient experience and presentation thesis year, various accomplishments such that this article would provide no value, with no usefulness or relevance to artists who are seeking advice on creating a resume. Hi Bradley– I’d be happy to give you other suggestions for your artist CV.

What kind of term paper, artistic experience do you have, and what were you thinking of including on paper presentation thesis year, your CV? What would you reccommend to write in an unexperienced artist?s cv? I don?t even have shown my work in a gallery, do you think it is a must to a website do this? What would be the previous steps to writing a cv? I am interested in paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis, applying for a contest but I always end up not applying because of the cv. Wow.

This blog is such a fantastic resource! I am thrilled to have found it this afternoon! Cheers! If you are creating a resume for an art teacher position, do you still include all the info you pointed out? Or do you create more of a standard resume (objective, job history, etc.)?

Do they want to see if your work has been in galleries, etc? Hi Tanya, I would still use all the citing from, info listed above, but perhaps pare it down to include only the “highlights.” Then you can also include standard employment info from a regular resume, as well as references. Paper On Nanotechnology! Cheers! Thanks for the info. Also, should I put experience first, then the highlights of CV? Also, is their a max for number of pages, because I know on my standard employment resume you shouldn’t have more than 2 pages. Apologies for buy research online for evaluating internal control the delayed reply! I agree experience first and then CV highlights. Paper Presentation Thesis! I’d keep it to 2 pages if possible, but if the position you are applying for is prestigious or highly competitive, they would probably appreciate more information. On American Children! For example, the CVs of paper thesis, many scholars are pages and pages long! If you do not have a formal art degree but have taken collegiate courses, should you include the university and disciplines under Education?

I was originally enrolled in a 4 year art program and buy research cheap for evaluating control, due to a significant change in circumstances had to move and was forced to complete a 2 year general degree. My CV is really short, although I’m working on getting more exhibitions under my belt. Hi Diana, yes, I would include these collegiate courses but keep them brief. I would list the general degree and highlight your original focus on the arts-related courses. What if you have no experience, have taken photography classes and have only shown in student shows? How can you put something together with practically nothing without making it look that way? Hi Lisa, you should list your photography courses under education and your student shows under exhibitions. If anyone owns your work (even if you’ve gifted them a work,) you can list them as a private collection (see step 5.) Those three items formatted nicely with your contact info should give you a decent 1 page CV. Don’t worry if it seems sparse to you, there’s nothing wrong with being an emerging artist!

Also remember most people will look at paper thesis year your artwork before they look at your CV #128521; Thank you for the information – it’s very helpful! One other question – as far as publications is concerned: what if my art appeared in a [student] publication, but wasn’t reviewed? The book appears every spring and consists of of Divorced, photos of various students’ work. Should I put that on presentation on nanotechnology thesis, a CV or leave it out? Hi Lisa, definitely include it. Any time your artwork is published it’s worth including!

A couple of An Essay on American Children of Divorced, questions: I have several exhibitions from the Navy, should they be listed by ship or simply U.S. Navy with home city and paper year, year? I also received a nomination for 2005 Graphic Artist of the Year while in the Navy, which section would you recommend listing this? Hi Michael, for your exhibitions, I think you should list U.S. Navy, the buy college paper keyboard, ship, as well as home city and year.

Someone looking at your CV would probably appreciate as much information as possible. For your nomination (congratulations, by the way!) you can list that under a heading called “awards.” You could format it something like this: 2005, Nomination, Graphic Artist of the Year, US Navy. I hope that helps #128578; Very much so. Thank you! OK, one more question, for multiple awards received in presentation, one year, list year and award individually or as a group under that one year? Hi Michael, there’s no exact right or wrong here, it’s up to best application essay you in terms of what you think visually looks better. You could go like this:

Nominated, Award #1. Nominated, Award #2. Finalist, Award #3. 2005, Nominated, Award #1. 2005, Nominated, Award #2. 2005, Finalist, Award #3. 2004, Winner, Award #4. just saying thank you. i have struggled to find a good reference for paper year creating a cv for an artist, this one is great.

Thank you! I’m glad it helped you. I was wondering whether the tips above applies to those wanting to pursue arts-management courses as well? . I don’t have formal post-secondary arts-related education but have taken part in buy college term keyboard, small-scale and on nanotechnology thesis, major group exhibitions. Hi Yangzheur, I think it depends exactly what you’re tailoring your CV for. Do you mean that you are applying to an arts-management business type of course? If so, look closely at their requirements. Harvard Application Essay! Are they asking for an artist’s CV? If so, the information about would be applicable to you. If they are asking for a resume, and if you feel your participation in the exhibitions are relevant to the focus of the program, you could add those to your resume as professional experience. Presentation On Nanotechnology! I hope that helps!

Thank you. Its good reference to make a CV for an artist. Reblogged this on pollution on my, balladblood and commented: Very helpful for those of us doing their artist C.V’s for paper presentation the first time. Great Advice! My sister is struggling and papers online cheap for evaluating control, I am trying to help in any way. I am not an artist so all the advice helps!

Can I send you her CV so far? Hi Natalie, if you have any specific questions about the paper thesis year, CV or its formatting, please email me at Cheers! Thanks for the information. An Essay On American Children Of Divorced! You have clearly explained how we can write professional resume perfectly. There is one option to create perfect CV is to use resume templates. Thesis! This helps in saving your lot of buy college, time and also helps to make your resume best among all. Wow, This is wonderful. I am trying to take the information from my regular resume and crate a CV for graduate school applications.

Is there a best format for on nanotechnology year grad school applications that combines both work and art? Also, I am challenged by how I should add a competition (the only one I have to put on in an from, the CV) that was through Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18, which is presentation on nanotechnology thesis year a print and web journal. Paper Keyboard! I won a Merit award in student photography and was published (full page) in paper thesis, the magazine. But in addition to that for the same issue, my winning Runner-Up image was posted in the on-line gallery. Here’s what I have written. The formatting did not carry over with a copy and paste function. Please imagine that the essay a website, journal title is underlined not to year include the citing in an from, words, Volume Five, Number Four. Can you tell me if it is correctly entered? This is so awesome! Thank you!

New Talent Merit Winner-Student Photography. Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and thesis, Design, Issue 18. Buy College Paper Keyboard! Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010. 64. Print. Runner-Up-Student Photography. “Online Gallery: CQ 18.” Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18. Presentation! Volume Five, Number Four. Best Harvard Essay! Spring 2010. Forgive if this post hows up twice.

My laptop is being a pain right now. Hi, please forgive me for my delay in paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis year, replying! I think you should choose what elements you need from your work resume and buy research checklist, which from on nanotechnology thesis, your art, and combine them as you see fit based on the requirements of your application. Resumes are CVs are formatted fairly similarly, so if you just keep that consistent it should be just fine to combine the buy college paper keyboard, information that they require into presentation thesis, one document. Regarding your competitions section, you could consider renaming it “Awards.” Even if you technically received runner-up, it still is appropriate. I think your formatting works well. Hope that helps #128578; New Talent Student Photography Award,v The information you’ve shared is very helpful. I will change the section to essay on my Awards,and I’ll change the information as you have suggested above. I really appreciate you!

Thank you very much. When adding shows to your CV, should you separate juried shows from exhibitions? Does it matter and year, how should you separate them? I know that separating solo shows from group shows is done, but I am wondering specifically about juried (and, now that I think about it, un-juried — but that would make it more of just a group exhibition, no?) shows. Thank you. If you want to note that certain shows were juried, I would just put a note at the end of those entries. For example: 2013: “Portraits” at the Downtown Art Gallery (juried) “Landscapes” at West Art Gallery. “Abstracts” and East Art Gallery (juried) I think if you were to separate juried shows into their own section, it could get too confusing for a reader. Hope that helps!

Hi! Thanks so much for this CV advice, v helpful! I have a question aswell. Would you include web-based magazines under “bibliography”? And in buy research papers cheap control, that case, how would you write it?

If you would like to presentation on nanotechnology thesis include web-based magazines or publications on your CV, go ahead. You can list them along with the An Essay on American of Divorced, other items in your bibliography, and just put ” (online) ” or similar at the end of the listing. I’m sure web-based articles and reviews haven’t always been appropriate for CVs, but obviously things are changing. Any important articles and paper presentation on nanotechnology year, reviews, online or otherwise, should be included. Hope that helps! Thanks very much for results your help!

Am struggling with my CV, and realized Ive been in some magazines that have both a paper-based article and presentation on nanotechnology thesis year, the same article online, so just thought I could refer to the online article as it would be easier get a hold of. In that case, you could add “(also available online)”? Perhaps that would make it clear to the reader. Thanks so much for your help with this! If I had a collaborative piece in harvard, a group show in presentation on nanotechnology year, a museum, how do I indicate that I was one of a number of people who produced the An Essay Parents, piece, or do I need to? You could list it like this: 2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (artwork in paper on nanotechnology thesis, collaboration with Andy Warhol and Jackson Pollack) or if you don’t want to list the other artists (there’s too many, or you just want simplicity), you could simply put: 2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (collaborative artwork).

Hope that helps! If you show and sell in artist markets do they go in the Exhibitiions section? Should they be in a separate section ie; Markets. Best Harvard Application! Many of the markets I have done over the past year were juried. Hi Leslie, usually you would not include markets in on nanotechnology thesis, the exhibition section, even if they are juried. You could include them in their own section if you would like to include them on your CV, but I would say only do this if you are submitting your CV for commercial purposes, ie applying to citing in an a website a different market.

Thank you for sharing this information and displaying it in such an easy to follow fashion. Hi mate, do you suggest a cover letter with your cv? Thank you for this, I had done mine like a job CV until I found your post. I do not have a lot of shows on my CV, but I have made the most of it with your advice. Thank you. Hello and paper year, thank you for citing essay a website the information you’ve shared.

However, I’m someone who has had a career in producing and promoting the art of others. I recently found my own ‘voice’ and am trying to paper presentation on nanotechnology year establish myself. My work is abstract photography and I’ve been approached for some rather large projects in Saudi Arabia, here in buy research papers cheap for evaluating internal control, Los Angeles and in presentation on nanotechnology, NYC. Best Application! I’ve had an article written on me by a design magazine. On Nanotechnology! I do have work in private collections in London, New York, Jacksonville, Dallas, New Orleans, Provincetown and Los Angeles, as well as shows in a couple of smaller galleries here in buy research papers cheap checklist for evaluating internal, Los Angeles, but I can’t seem to land gallery representation. I’ve created an EMK (electronic media kit) to use to paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis year begin cold submissions to galleries. I just was curious what input or advice you might have for me going forward. I appreciate your time and attention. Robert Madden. I would suggest, if you haven’t already, researching the essay makershed rockets harden, mandates or programs of galleries before submitting. Presentation On Nanotechnology! This could be online, or simply a phone call asking if galleries are accepting submissions, and in an a website, what exactly they are looking for.

Hopefully you can then narrow down the list of galleries you are approaching. Of course, acquiring gallery representation is not easy for anyone. Paper Presentation On Nanotechnology! Stay persistent and keep working on your own projects and exhibitions–good things will happen. Hi dear,Thanks for term keyboard sharing this format,I tried my best to made the most of it with your advise. I have attended some workshops by some well known artists. Should I include this under education or leave it off the CV. Including the workshops would be appropriate in the education section as you suggested. Thank you so much for presentation on nanotechnology thesis year this.

Even the comments under specific questions asked by others has been helpful. I appreciate your efforts. I unfortunately have no formal art training (I can not afford to attend art school) and I am near completion of my first collection (it is a mixed media project that focuses on the use of results, green army men in each piece). I recently discovered a not for paper on nanotechnology profit gallery in my area that are taking submissions. I have a few pieces that I want to buy college keyboard submit, and I have been racking my brain on on nanotechnology year, what to place in my resume since I have not sold any work, presented it anywhere, I have yet to place any work on essay a website, a website. Presentation On Nanotechnology! Could you please assist me? Thank you in advance. I also would like to ask if it is strange for an artist to work on a political body of work (as my toy soldier piece is), and then jump to essay a humorous body of work, and back to something political in nature, and anywhere in between? I can not think of any artist that have done that. On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! I always make notes of buy college paper, ideas for bodies of paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis, works that I’d like to create (many tend to be of a conceptual nature), and I have realised that many of my ideas don’t fit into writing on my school results, a mold that would categorize me as a person making a particular type of work.

I ask this because, at some point, I would like to work on a humorous body of work after I feel ready to move on on nanotechnology year, from this project. The best I can do for your is included in my newest post, which offers suggestions for if you need to write a CV and don’t have much professional experience: Alternatively, depending on what is required of you for your submission, you could include a cover letter indicating that you do not have a CV as you are a new and emerging self-taught artist. In terms of the essay writing on my school, art itself, honesty is always visible. If you make work that matters to you, whether it’s serious or humourous, that’s the best anyone can do. Thank you so much!

Recently I took part in a photo competition organised by a local independent art gallery. I didn’t win first prize but I was one of the runner-up(finalists). Can this be included in my CV? If so under which (specific) category? If am applying for transfer of article ship in any firm where should i mention experience details.In experience column or any other place as the paper presentation thesis year, reason for transfer. What a fantastic resource. Thank you! My issue is that I’ve taken about 10 years off to raise my children, so all of my dates are really OLD!! I’d like not to include any dates on exhibitions or education or anything – what do you think? I feel like I am still emerging, and yet the dates would say otherwise (ie: undergrad in 1985-1991, grad school in best application essay, 1993/94, etc…) How would you include a publication you produce?

I have been publishing and selling a calendar of my mandala art since 1997. Paper On Nanotechnology! Do I include that? How is the best way? You could list them under the heading “Publications” The format beyond that is up to papers checklist internal you, but for an example you could do something like:

1997, “Michael Lukacsko” published by Mandala Art. If there are any essays or authors, you could list them also. Hope that helps! Thank you so Much. You helped me a lot. Thank you for this advice – it helps a great deal to make sense of the paper on nanotechnology thesis, differences between a work resume and an artist CV. I do have one question – is it ok to buy research papers online checklist for evaluating internal mix media on a single CV?

I came from a journalism/print media background and am now doing photography. Can I list my “Images of Men and Women in paper on nanotechnology thesis, Advertising” Pop-Culture presentation and my piece on An Essay Children of Divorced Parents, Lollapalooza on the same CV as my photography exhibit? I would say yes, as long as everything is presentation thesis still relevant to in an essay your practice (which it sounds like it is). Thank you so much for putting this together. On Nanotechnology! It is just what I need to best essay get my CV in on nanotechnology year, working order for gallery applications.

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Anyways, superb blog! First, this information is so very helpful! Many thanks!! Secondly, I’m an emerging artist, so my CV is in essay from, the “sparse” stage. I’ve had two projects in which people commissioned me to create art work for covers. Paper Presentation! One was for a published book of poetry, the best harvard, other was for a music CD.

What title would I list these 2 projects under? I’m truly enjoyng the design and layot of your blog. It’s. a vety easy on on nanotechnology thesis year, the eyes whicdh makes it much more pleasant for school essay conclusion makershed harden mee to come here and visit. more often. Did yoou hire out a designer to create your theme? Quality posts is the crucial to be a focus for paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis year the visitors to go to essay see the site, that’s what this website is providing.

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so I will be able to share my personal experience and thoughts. online. Please let me know if you have any suggestions or tips for brand new aspiring blog. In regards to the education section, I have a multimedia illustrator professional diploma from An Essay, Defense Information School, would it be helpful to list it? I have been an artist for years and I still don’t have a comprehensive cv. I would also advice including links for your online portfolio i you have blogs or a website. It would be useful and convenient for employers if they will just type the on nanotechnology, links and get an idea of what you can do as an artist.

Nice advice! Keep it up! I will try to apply including to links for my future resume drafts. #128578; BTW, good job for this article. Year Round Conclusion Makershed Rockets James Harden! I really enjoyed reading EVERY BIT of advice written herein. For more advice on resume writing, I would like to recommend Hi, Carrie Fox. Year! Thanks for citing in an essay from commenting. I really find the website you have given very useful. Just contacted them a while ago and paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis, they are really great and round makershed rockets harden, awesome.

Thank you once again. Aw, this was an incredibly good post. Presentation On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! Taking the time and actual. effort to make a superb article… but what can I say… I hesitate a whole lot and never seem to get. nearly anything done. Hi, this is the most useful site i have come across for advice on writing an on American of Divorced artists cv– So thank you for year that! I have a question.

I come from a background in Animation, i studied a postgrad in harvard application essay, it, and prior to that a degree in Graphic Design but in paper presentation on nanotechnology year, the last few years i have chucked animation in to round school james harden be an artist. I have several exhibitons, but am wondering if it is ok to put that i occasionally teach with a group of presentation thesis year, kids once a month animation at essay the BFI (British Film Institute), or does this sound unproffesional. Also i have an award from years ago from RSA for a short animation film i made…it is ok to include this in on nanotechnology thesis year, the CV. An Essay On American Children! I also developed a childrens animation series and was creative director at a major tv company in the UK a while ago but am concerned that if i put all this in this CV it will be too long and not sticking to paper presentation thesis the field i am now involved with. I am just checking with you really, I was thinking of putting the awards only and if anyone wanted to know more about my experience as an citing from animator treat it as a seperate subject or CV??

thanks in advance for your advice. I am applying to paper presentation on nanotechnology do an artists fair. Buy College! Regards B. I think if you create a heading on your CV called “teaching” and paper on nanotechnology year, put your BFI experience under, that would sound great. Keyboard! It doesn’t matter that it’s in animation—teaching is a good thing to put on your CV if it’s in paper thesis year, an arts-related field, which this is. I would agree with you that the award should be included, as it is an pollution writing results award you won for paper presentation thesis year a personal creative project. I would also agree that the TV company experience should not be included, as that would be more of a work resume item. I hope that helps. Writing On My! Cheers! that’s great- thanks for that.

One other quick question. On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! I know that nowadays it is essay not compulsory to put your date of on nanotechnology thesis year, birth on a CV- at least that is the case in the UK- due to ageism! would you think that for an artists CV this is necessary though? My thoughts are that it might be needed for say selling something in an auction, or on an artists biography, but why should this be on a CV necesarily….? If it is a necesity could you let me know and i will put it, but I do not agree with it personally! I think it is often done, but not compulsory. Wonderful article! We are linking to this great post. on our site. On American Of Divorced Parents! Keep up thhe grat writing. When someone writes an post he/she retains the thought.

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Thanks for providing this info. I have (finally) joined a gallery that is asking for an artist resume – I have a bio, but this will be my first artist resume. Your outline makes it look like a very doable task. I have one question – the gallery has asked for my website. My site is a with a POD (print on demand) group – I have my own page and only my work is represented.

Would it be ok to round james harden use that site or would it make me look “unprofessional?” I’m not that familiar with POD websites, but it sounds like you are hesitant to share your site because you think it would be unprofessional compared to your representing gallery. On Nanotechnology! If this is the citing in an from a website, case, why not make a new site that is on nanotechnology only your portfolio of works? Thanks for getting back to me, I’ll get to work on that page! Hi! This is my 1st comment here so I just wanted. to give a quick shout out and say I genuinely enjoy reading through your.

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123 essay language Primitive people speak primitive languages. Year? We know, from anthropological research, that there are no primitive people on Earth today; indeed, it may be that the Neandertals were the last truly primitive people. And, there are no primitive languages, either. All languages that we know about, including those that are no longer anyone#8217;s native language (Latin, Homeric Greek, etc.) have all the properties of the so-called modern languages (French, Spanish, Russian, etc.). Even languages that have been reconstructed, such as Proto-Indoeuropean (the parent language of most European languages as well as Persian, Hindi, etc.), show no signs of An Essay primitiveness. They have all the characteristics of so-called modern languages (see below).

Some languages are harder than others. While languages differ from on nanotechnology year one another in just which parts are simple and which are complex, all languages seem to pollution on my results be about paper on nanotechnology thesis year equally complex or difficult to learn in their totality. For example, if we compare English and Russian we find that English nouns are relatively simple, while verbs are rather complex; in in an essay a website, Russian, the nouns are hard and verbs are relatively simple. Language is paper presentation year writing . If we ask a naive English speaker how many vowels English has, the answer is usually five. This is because we tend to interpret any question about language as a question about the writing system. The English alphabet has 5 symbols that are normally used for the representation of vowels. Harvard Application? But the English language has between 10 and 12 basic vowel sounds; this is the answer the paper presentation thesis linguist is interested in.

Language is first and foremost oral; speech as a means of communication has been around for perhaps 200,000 years or more, while writing has existed for only about school 6,000 as far as we know. Paper On Nanotechnology? Many languages, including many Native American languages as well as most of the creole languages of the Caribbean, exist without a written tradition. This in no way diminishes their language-ness. Grammar is a set of prescriptive rules . Term? When we think of grammar, we tend to think of the sorts of rules drilled into us by our language arts and English teachers: Don#8217;t end sentences with prepositions! Don#8217;t use double negatives! When linguists work to discover the paper grammar of a language, they are looking for descriptive rules that model the linguistic patterns which people carry around inside their heads. We follow most of these rules unconsciously.

In most cases no-one ever teaches them to online cheap for evaluating internal us (see below); and, in on nanotechnology thesis, most cases, we cannot articulate them. Harvard? We know how to use our language, but we don't typically know why. The interesting thing is that these rules of our descriptive grammar are frequently far more subtle and complex than anything the language arts teachers tell us about. Ne bith thær nænig ælo gebrowen mid Estum. not be there not-any beer brewed among Estonians. 'There is no beer brewed among the Estonians.' Furthermore, in some languages, like Spanish and Russian, so-called double negatives are the rule, rather than the exception. Thesis? Note the Spanish and Russian expressions for I don't see anything. Spanish: Yo no veo nada. I no see nothing. Russian: Ya ne vizhu nichevo. These are the normal, indeed the only, way of citing essay a website expressing this in Spanish and Russian. If language worked like formal logic, Spanish and Russian speakers would be suffering from a permament case of illogic. Since speakers of paper on nanotechnology thesis Spanish and Russian appear to be normal human beings, we have to in an a website conclude that language does not obey the rules of paper year formal logic.

Thus, the rule against double negatives formulated by Bishop Lowth is best application not a grammar rule, but rather a social rule having to do with what he considered to be the acceptable use of English. Language is pure and presentation, unchanging . As a conservative society heavily focused on written, rather than oral, forms of buy college paper keyboard language, we tend to think that change, in language as in many other things, is bad. A whole industry of language experts such as Edwin Newman and William Safire regularly rant and rave against whatever shift in year, meaning or usage is current. In fact, change in language is constant and the really fundamental changes usually go unnoticed. For example, between Middle and Modern English many English vowels changed their pronunciation, so that words like house and wife, today pronounced [haws] and [wayf], were pronounced as [hu:s] and papers online checklist for evaluating control, [wi:f] by on nanotechnology Chaucer. These sorts of changes, and others, are still going on writing results in English even as we speak. Syntax . Speakers have to know how to combine their words into meaningful sentences that call attention to something and then provide information about thesis it. Again using English as an example, English speakers know how to form yes-no questions from statements like She is in the kitchen (? Is she in the kitchen?) by appropriate movement of is . Semantics . Speakers must know the harvard essay meaning of the words they use. On Nanotechnology Thesis Year? Pragmatics . Buy College Term Paper Keyboard? Finally, speakers must know how to use their language appropriately to accomplish what they want in a given social situation. However, the knowledge native speakers have is mostly unconscious knowledge; they know how to say it, but they (usually) can#8217;t tell you how or why they say it that way. Language as both biology culture.

All normal human children, everywhere, acquire the language of their social setting at about the same pace and in thesis, the same way. They do so without formal training, and citing essay from a website, they do so in paper on nanotechnology year, social and cultural contexts which differ in terms of what kinds of linguistic interactions are supposed to be appropriate between parents/caregivers and infants. These differences do not seem to affect the rate or quality of children's acquisition of language; in a sense, children acquire language in much the same way as they acquire the skill of walking. However, children who are isolated, for some reason, from all forms of linguistic interaction do not acquire language, and if they reach puberty without exposure to buy college term paper keyboard language they may never be able to paper thesis year acquire more than a very rudimentary linguistic ability. By the time they are around 3-4 years of buy research online internal control age, children have mastered some of the paper on nanotechnology year most complex and subtle rules of their language, rules which no teacher of language could ever teach them.

Of course, they still have lots of vocabulary to learn, as well as some of the pragmatic rules of language use in different social situations, and Children, they have to learn to read and write. Paper Presentation On Nanotechnology Year? While the underlying shape of buy college term language is biological, any given language itself is a cultural artifact. Year? The best way to illustrate this is to An Essay take the words for the domesticated animal which English speakers refer to as a dog. All languages have a word for this animal; no language has a word for half-a-dog. This seems to result from a property of the human brain that guides our perception and representation of natural objects in the world, like dogs, which come to us in whole packages (other candidates might be rocks, trees, birds, and so on). At the same time, though, the words we find in different languages. are as different as dog (English); perro (Spanish); anu (Aymara); kelb (Arabic); sobaka (Russian). None of these words has a privileged connection to the animal itself. Each is an arbitrary but conventional answer to the problem of naming these familiar domesticated animals. On Nanotechnology Thesis Year? Infinite use of finite media . Although languages are complex, they are not infinitely complex. The number of application essay rules that anyone needs to know to create sentences in their language is relatively small, and the number of different kinds of sentences is quite small.

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The social context determines whether the language acquired is English, Russian, or Inuit, etc. Displacement . Unlike most animal vocalization systems, which require that a stimulus be physically present for the vocalization to take place, human language allows us to talk about things that are absent in either space or time, or both. Without this feature, humans would not be able to talk about dinosaurs, or Cleopatra. We can add that this feature also allows us to talk about things that never existed, such as Klingons. Harvard Essay? Without it, we could have neither history or fiction. Openness . Also unlike other animals, which typically have a fixed set of vocalizations, humans can increase the number of expressions at their disposal by inventing words. This feature allows us to add new words to paper our vocabulary such as hard drive , internet , and gigabyte . The analytic model of language includes the notion of linguistic relativism , which suggests that there is no point in trying to rank languages on buy college paper keyboard any kind of scale. All human languages that we have any direct information about appear to contain all the characteristics necessary for language. In this view, there is no qualitative difference between a language and a dialect; the presentation on nanotechnology reasons why a particular variety of speech gets labeled as a dialect instead of as a language must be sought elsewhere. In particular, the reasons are to be found in the political, social, and citing in an from a website, economic value placed on the speakers of the language variety in paper year, question.

The people who wield political, economic, and social control speak the language; those who do not speak the dialect. The realization that languages and dialects are not qualitatively different, and that attitudes toward them really reflect social prejudices, has led some linguists to say that a language is pollution essay a dialect with an army and a navy. For linguists, then, what counts as a language, as opposed to a dialect, is paper presentation socially and culturally negotiated; not determined by some objective linguistic truth. Citing Essay From? Sometimes the negotiation is spectacularly unsuccessful, as when the paper on nanotechnology Oakland (California) school board attempted to declare African American Vernacular English (Ebonics) a language. Citing In An Essay A Website? There was a great public outcry against this, but almost nobody understood the real reason: African Americans in the US do not have an army and a navy; therefore, they are not entitled to have a language. I tend to avoid the difficulty of the presentation on nanotechnology year word dialect by using variety instead. It seems easier and less judgmental to speak of varieties of from English such as British, Australian, North American, or West Indian. We can even talk about varieties of creole English, such as Jamaican, Trinadadian, Barbadian, Belizean, and so on.

Or, we can go in the other direction, and discuss varieties of Romance such as Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian; varieties of Indo-European such as Germanic and on nanotechnology, Balto-Slavic; or even varieties of human language such as Indo-European, Austronesian, and so on. It all depends on what level of abstraction we are interested in. Although from an analytic viewpoint they know a language as well as anyone, speakers of non-standard varieties of language are often assumed by the folk model to writing on my school be language-deficient. In the Caribbean, this manifests itself especially when creole-speaking children get to school and come up against paper presentation thesis year the standard language in an intense way for the first time. Essay A Website? Teachers, who through no fault of their own very often have only on nanotechnology thesis, minimal training, are aware only of the folk model for An Essay Children of Divorced Parents, language. They assume that deviation from standard language forms is evidence for paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis, a lack of language , and that children have no grammar.

The analytic model of language tells us that all normal human children have grammar but that grammar is their own knowledge of their native language, not the rules written down in school books.

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essay turn The Turn of the Screw. A History of Its Critical Interpretations 1898 - 1979. Edward J. Parkinson, PhD. Chapter Three - Apparitionists vs. Non-apparitionists: 1934-1948. Edmund Wilson's famous essay The Ambiguity of on nanotechnology thesis, Henry James, which appeared in the April-June, 1934 issue of Hound and Horn , begins a new chapter in the history of the criticism of The Turn of the harvard Screw . Wilson's assertion that the young governess who tells the story is a neurotic case of sex repression, and the ghosts are not real ghosts at all but merely the governess's hallucinations (385) produced much more of an impact than Kenton's published non-apparitionist arguments ten years earlier or Goddard's unpublished lectures at Swarthmore College, because of Wilson's overwhelming stature as a literary scholar and critic. Cole, for example, says, The modern critical history began with Edmund Wilson's article in paper on nanotechnology thesis 1934. Before that, there were not many interpretations--mostly just uncritical acceptances of its scariness (142). Sidney E. Buy Research Papers Cheap For Evaluating Internal Control! Lind, in his brief survey of the criticism, compliments Kenton for year, her startlingly new interpretation, but then adds, This psychological interpretation received little attention until 1934, when Edmund Wilson, branching off from the Kenton thesis, studied the governess as `a neurotic case of essay on my school results, sex repression', with the paper presentation ghosts as her hallucinations (226). Oscar Cargill in these words summed up a good deal of the critical history:

Until Edmund Wilson designated The Turn of the essay Screw a study in paper on nanotechnology year psychopathology, only three 1 persons had had the citing in an essay from temerity to guess that it was something more than a ghost story. Paper On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! The three attracted no attention, but Wilson stirred up an indignant and vociferous opposition which literally `threw the book at him'--the book, however, being James's own comments on his story. . . In An Essay! (James as Freudian Pioneer 13). In a similar vein, Cranfill and Clark consider Wilson's essay to be by all odds the most widely read, replied-to, or agreed-with of commentaries on the story, if not on presentation thesis, James himself (6). And Sheppard refers to the Freudian camp of critics as Edmund Wilson and essay writing his following (23). Unquestionably, Wilson's article, in the years immediately following its publication, engendered a critical controversy which Kenton's essay had not.

In 1935, Stephen Spender, in alluding to the non-apparitionist approach, refers only to Wilson, not to Kenton (35). Ivor Winters, in 1937, discusses Mr. Wilson's hypothesis without mentioning any other critic, including Kenton; Fagin, in 1941, in attacking the non-apparitionist position, concentrates entirely on Wilson. In 1947, Robert Liddell opens his discussion of the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate by observing, The `hallucination' theory of The Turn of the Screw is best known in paper presentation year the discussion of it by Mr. Edmund Wilson . . . School Makershed James! though he disclaims having originated it (138). In the same year, Heilman, in The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw , concentrated almost his entire fire on Wilson's article, which he termed the scholarly foundation for year, the airy castle of Miss Kenton's intuitions (434). And, finally, Waldock, in 1947, in An Essay of Divorced Parents attacking the non-apparitionist position, devoted his entire attention to Wilson. In presenting his interpretation, Wilson relies on argumentation of three kinds: internal evidence from the story itself; James's statements about the story in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition and his decision to include the tale in the same volume with The Aspern Papers , The Liar , and paper presentation year The Two Faces ; and a consideration of fictional characters in other works by James. Wilson's internal evidence consists mainly of points which had previously been made by Kenton, by Goddard, or by both of them. Wilson differs from his two predecessors by term keyboard, being more consciously indebted to Freud than either of them.

This debt is obvious both from his use of Freud's name in his essay and from his inclusion of obvious Freudian symbology in his discussion of the events of the story. Observe also, he says, from the Freudian point of view, the paper on nanotechnology year significance of the governess's interest in the little girl's pieces of wood and of the fact that the male apparition first appears on a tower and the female apparition on buy research papers cheap for evaluating, a lake (387). His other observations, however, have been made before. Wilson reminds us, first, of the governess's youth, poverty, inexperience, and romantic attraction to the children's uncle as these items of information are presented by Douglas in the prologue. He then cites three examples of on nanotechnology, her proclivity for jumping to conclusions: The boy, she finds, has been sent home from school for reasons into which she does not inquire but which she colors, on no evidence at all so far as one can see, with a significance somehow sinister; she learns that the former governess left, and that she has since died, under circumstances which are not explained but which are made to seem ominous in the same way (386). The governess continues to see the spirits, and the atmosphere becomes more and on American of Divorced more hysterical. Paper On Nanotechnology Year! She believes that the children get up at night to meet them, though they are able to pollution essay writing on my school results, give plausible explanations of their behavior (388). Wilson also points out, as do both Goddard and Kenton, that the paper presentation year first appearance of Quint interrupts her romantic daydreams about the employer.

Also, like Goddard and Kenton, he finds great significance in the fact that only the governess admits to seeing the apparitions. Observe that there is never any evidence that anybody but the governess sees the citing in an from a website ghosts. She believes that the children see them but there is presentation year never any proof that they do. The housekeeper insists that she does not see them; it is apparently the school governess who frightens her. The children, too, become hysterical, but this is evidently the governess's doing, too (387). Wilson, like Goddard, has also considered what is, perhaps, one of the most frequently adduced arguments for an apparitionist interpretation of the story--namely, Mrs. Grose's identification of the paper presentation year specter as the ghost of pollution essay writing on my school results, Peter Quint on the basis of a detailed description given by the governess. Wilson's answer to this argument, however, is different from Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Presentation On Nanotechnology Thesis! Grose has been inattentive to most of the round essay conclusion james harden description and has jumped to a hasty conclusion after hearing that the presentation on nanotechnology thesis year apparition is hatless and dressed in another man's clothes. Instead, Wilson suggests that Quint and the employer may have been similar in appearance, so that the governess, in describing her daydream turned real, might have accurately described Quint. Wilson also reminds us that Mrs.

Grose, whose approbation the governess values so highly, is illiterate and a simple soul (386). An Essay On American Parents! On examining the story's ending, Wilson describes as a gruesome scene the governess's final meal with Miles and her attendant comparison of herself and this pre-pubescent boy to some young couple who, on their wedding-journey, at paper on nanotechnology the inn, feel shy in on my results the presence of the waiter (388). Finally, Wilson suggests that, at the end of the story, the governess has frightened Miles to presentation on nanotechnology thesis, death (389). Next, Wilson turns his attention to James's statements about the story in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition, reminding us of the following points: (1) having designated the story a fairy tale, James adds that the apparitions are of the order of those involved in witchcraft cases rather than of those in cases of best application essay, psychic research, suggesting, in Wilson's view, that the governess is to be seen as an inquisitor or witch hunter; (2) commenting on the charge that the paper on nanotechnology governess is insufficiently characterized, James states that his ironic heart shook for the instant almost to breaking (italics are Wilson's) and makes a distinction between her record of harvard, so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter; (3) James remarks that the presentation year governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, which Wilson interprets to mean the relentless English `authority' which enables her to year round school essay makershed james harden, put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at all to the other people's best interests; (4) in the collected edition . . . James has not included The Turn of the Screw in the volume with other ghost stories but in another volume between The Aspern Papers and The Liar --this last the story of a pathological liar whose wife protects his big lies against the world, behaving with the same sort of deceptive `authority' as the presentation governess in The Turn of the Screw (389-90). Wilson's third line of argument rests on a consideration of broad patterns of buy research papers online cheap checklist internal control, personality and conduct which seem to permeate James's entire canon, demonstrating how easily the governess fits into paper thesis year this Jamesian gallery if we accept Wilson's interpretation of her behavior. We see now, suggests Wilson, that it [ The Turn of the papers for evaluating control Screw ] is presentation on nanotechnology simply a variation on one of James's familiar themes: the in an essay frustrated Anglo-Saxon spinster; and we remember that he presents other cases of women who deceive themselves and others about the sources and character of their emotions (391).

Wilson provides an impressive list of examples of on nanotechnology, such women: Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians whose Lesbian passion which is so successfully disguised as a zeal to papers checklist internal control, advance the cause of Feminism that the strong-willed spinster is paper year herself entirely in the dark leads her to discourage Verena Tarrant from marrying; the essay conclusion makershed james unmarriageable heroine of The Marriages who, much attracted to an attractive father and obsessed by the memory of a dead mother, breaks up her father's marriage and then remains serene in paper presentation thesis the conviction that, by ruining the happiness of her father, she has been loyal to her duty to pollution essay writing results, her mother; the amusing Francie Dosson of The Reverberator , who, though men are always falling madly in love with her, seems never really to paper year, understand what courtship and marriage mean and is apparently quite content to go on all her life eating marrons glaces with her father and sister in year school conclusion james the parlor of the Paris hotel; and, finally, the pathetic Milly Theale of The Wings of the Dove , who wastes away in Venice and whose doctor recommends a lover (391-3). These women, moreover, have their counterparts among James's male characters who have a way of missing out on emotional experience, either through timidity and caution or through heroic renunciation; for example, the hero of The Beast in the Jungle , who is finally crushed by the realization that his fate is to be the man in the whole world to whom nothing at presentation on nanotechnology year all is to happen; the cagy Mr. Wentworth of The Europeans , so smug and secure in his neat little house, deciding not to buy research online checklist for evaluating internal control, marry the paper presentation on nanotechnology agreeable baroness who has proved such an upsetting element in the community; or the weary Lambert Strether, of The Ambassadors , who comes to Paris too late in life (393). However, Wilson finds even more significant than these relatively straightforward cases those portrayals in which the effect is ambiguous. While acknowledging that James is buy research papers online checklist control often deliberately ironic and that the element of paper year, irony . . . is often underestimated by his readers, Wilson suggests, nevertheless, that there are stories which leave us in internal doubt as to whether or not the paper on nanotechnology thesis author knew that the pollution essay on my school results heroes would seem unsympathetic.

He cites as one example Bernard Longueville of paper presentation year, Confidence , wondering whether James intended this character to round school essay conclusion makershed, be a sensitive and on nanotechnology thesis year interesting young man or a prig in the manner of Jane Austin. He calls our attention to Flickerbridge , a story in which a young American painter decides not to marry a young newspaper woman . Papers Checklist Control! . . because he is presentation thesis year afraid she will spoil by publicizing it a delightful old English house connected with her own family in which he has greatly enjoyed living without her. This sounds ridiculous, but Wilson terms it a miscue, stating categorically, We know that James intends it to year round essay conclusion rockets harden, be taken seriously (393-4). The Sacred Fount is one of the presentation year most interesting examples of year essay james, such ambiguity. While Wilson does not doubt James's disapproval of the protagonist, he discerns an ambiguity in James' own mind as to the precise nature of this narrator's shortcoming: The man who wanted to get the Aspern papers was fanatically inquisitive and a nuisance; but many of paper thesis year, James' inquisitive observers who never take part in the action are presented as highly superior people. James confessed to being this sort of person himself (397). The narrator's problem, suggests Wilson, is an inability to understand and An Essay of Divorced accept his own sexuality. Wilson dismisses the paper presentation narrator's theory that the younger couple have been invigorating the older couple with their youth. This theory seems obviously academic: older people feed young people with this vitality as often as younger people feed older ones--and evidently James does not mean us to accept it (395).

Instead, Wilson proposes that sexual love was the sacred fount to which the narrator had no access and year round school essay conclusion harden the fear of which finally devastates the narrator so that he can never again . . Paper Presentation On Nanotechnology! . In An! quite hang together, as he puts it, after his rebuff at the novel's end. The lesson, according to Wilson, is. that the sacred fount from thesis year, which his friends had been drawing their new vitality was love rather than youth. He himself has no access to it and consequently does not understand it. But they have the in an essay from forces of life on their side and when they find that he is presentation on nanotechnology becoming a nuisance, they are able to frighten him away even when they are lying to him (396). Wilson considers The Sacred Fount to be a sort of companion-piece to The Turn of the Screw , pointing out that the former work was written shortly after the latter and suggesting that, in the former, the speculations of the narrator are supposed to characterize the narrator as the apparitions characterize the governess (394-5).

And, in The Turn of the Screw , Wilson finds the same ambiguity, pointing out, even as he argues forcefully for his hallucination theory, that nowhere does James unequivocally give the thing away: everything from beginning to end can be taken equally well in either of two senses (389). This last observation would appear to be confirmed by the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate, which, ninety years after the online cheap checklist for evaluating internal control story's publication, still continues. The genesis of this ambiguity, suggests Wilson, lay in James's inability to come to terms with his own sexuality. And here we come to Wilson's fourth line of argumentation. By examining James's biography and tallying other events with the chronology of his literary productions, Wilson attempts to demonstrate that, just as the governess, as Wilson interprets her, fits easily into thesis year James's gallery of pollution essay writing school, characters, so she and the other Jamesian characters Wilson discusses are understandable products of thesis year, a man like James and complement other elements in his biography to elucidate his psychological profile. Wilson divides James's writing career into pollution school three major periods, as do many other critics. In the first period, according to Wilson, James. gives his clearest and most elaborate criticism of life. Presentation Thesis! It is the only period in which his heroes and heroines are really up to buy college paper keyboard, anything in particular, have professions, missions, practical aims.

Politics figure prominently in paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis all of them (402). This period includes, of course, The Bostonians , The Princess Casamassima, and The Tragic Muse . This period of pollution writing school, novel writing ended in bitterness, Wilson suggests, because of disappointment over his fiction's lack of popularity. Wilson considers particularly important the failure of The Bostonians , which seems to have embittered James . Presentation Thesis Year! . . and . On American Children Parents! . . may also have made him timid, so that he afterwards stepped more carefully when he approached such subjects as that of The Turn of the Screw . In his revision of this essay for publication in The Triple Thinkers , Wilson would expand on thesis, his discussion of in an, James's problems with his public, suggesting that his characters' inability to consummate romantic attachments was a major reason for the failure of much of his fiction and also his plays, such as Guy Domville (106-9). James then turned to the theater, an on nanotechnology thesis art form for which he had no talent. Devastated by the collapse of his theatrical career, James entered a new phase, Wilson contends, of which the most obvious feature is a subsidence back into himself. In the works of this period-- The Turn of the Screw , The Sacred Fount , What Maisie Knew , and rockets harden In the Cage --Wilson finds a strange diminution in. the Jamesian central observer through whose intelligence the story is usually relayed to paper on nanotechnology, us. This observer is no longer a complete and interesting person more or less actively involved in the events, but a small child, a telegraph operator who lives vicariously through the senders of telegrams, a week-end guest who seems not to exist in any other capacity except that of week-end guest and round essay rockets james harden who lives vicariously through his fellow visitors.

The lonely governess of The Turn of the Screw takes an active part in the proceedings, but in a left-handed and equivocal way. In all of paper presentation, these literary works, the observer has become simplified, even infantile. The people who surround him or tend to take on the diabolic value of the specters of The Turn of the Screw , and this diabolic value is almost invariably connected with their concealed and only guessed-at sexual relations (403). Then, Wilson maintains, a recovery of sorts occurred, and in pollution essay school The Ambassadors , The Wings of the Dove , and The Golden Bowl , a positive element reappears as Americans come back into the picture and score morally off an Italian prince, a charming French lady and a formidable group of middle-class English people who are shown in a disagreeable light as greedy, unscrupulous, and preoccupied mainly with keeping up dreary social positions (404). The main recipients of this Jamesian ambiguity of treatment, Wilson suggests, are Americans of a certain type, of whom James was one. The type is the cultivated American, like Henry James himself, who lives on an income derived from some form (usually left extremely vague) of presentation on nanotechnology thesis year, American business activity but who has never taken part in paper the achievements which made the income possible (398). Here, Wilson locates at paper thesis year least some of James's problems in his particular historical and sociological milieu, and this opens the door to An Essay Children of Divorced, a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights. Wilson points out James's rootlessness--he had travelled so much from thesis year, his earliest years that he had never had any real roots anywhere (401)--and suggests that much of his life and art can be understood as a search for fulfillment in America and Europe and citing in an essay from a website a disappointment with the limitations of paper on nanotechnology thesis year, both societies. For these Americans, Wilson maintains, the industrial background is there.

Like sex, we never get very close to it; but its effects are a part of the picture. It is for those things of which that background has starved them that James's Americans come to Europe and citing from a website it is their inability to find in paper presentation on nanotechnology other societies something which their own society has never supplied them that it is at the bottom of their most poignant disappointments (406). This insight into the effects of social conditions on individual psychology is applied directly to the governess when Wilson refers to. the poor country parson's daughter, with her English middle-class consciousness . and the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at year round school makershed james all to the other people's best interests (390). The governess's English nationality does not deter Wilson from including her in thesis the same category with the foregoing American types. He points out that James did not write about Americans during that period which produced The Turn of the Screw but states that even when James's heroes and heroines are English they assimilate themselves to these [American] types (399).

Wilson makes this parallel even clearer in his revision of the essay for The Triple Thinkers , referring to James's portrayal of. all that was magnanimous, reviving, and warm in the Americans at the beginning of the new century along with all that was frustrated, sterile, exclusively refined, depressing--all that they had in common with the Frederic Moreaus and with the round school essay conclusion james harden daughters of poor English parsons (118). The conflicts in James's psyche, according to Wilson, explain both his evasive answers to questions about thesis year The Turn of the Screw in his correspondence (396) and his special resentment toward Flaubert which seems to on American Children Parents, have been particularly inspired by L'Education Sentimentale . Paper Presentation On Nanotechnology! Terming Frederic a perfect young man out of Henry James, Wilson offers this pithy interpretation of James's antagonism: It seems to me clear that James, because his own attitude toward this type was ambiguous, could not stand Flaubert's having settled Frederic's hash by setting him down to the debit side of civilization (309-400). Were we to consider only Wilson's first two lines of argument--his internal evidence from the story itself and his comments on James's statements about the story and his decision to include the novella in year school conclusion rockets james harden Volume 12 rather than elsewhere in the New York Edition--we might hastily conclude that Wilson's essay has been overrated because of the reputation of its author. In the first place, although Wilson tells us that the governess is sexually attracted to the employer and later to Miles and presentation on nanotechnology thesis that the buy college term keyboard ghosts are in some way caused by this attraction (he reminds us that the governess first sees Quint while in the middle of a daydream about the employer), he does not offer a detailed explanation as to why these problems cause the governess to presentation on nanotechnology year, need these particular ghosts with their distinctive characteristics. We may, on pollution writing school, this point, contrast Wilson's essay with Goddard's, recalling Goddard's detailed explanation of paper on nanotechnology, how the governess's need to perform some heroic and self-sacrificial service for the employer and her incomplete information about past happenings at Bly combine to year harden, form a deadly psychodrama. We also do not find in Wilson's essay those detailed and convincing answers to apparitionist arguments that we have examined in Goddard's essay. Wilson's answer to the problem posed by Mrs.

Grose's immediate identification of the apparition based on the description given by the governess--his suggestion, namely, that the employer and Quint physically resembled one another--seems a most unlikely coincidence and certainly one for which we find no evidence in the text. Wilson's interpretations of James's statements about the story in the Preface to the New York Edition, while interesting and paper year plausible, are certainly not so cogent as to best essay, be beyond all question. As was pointed out in the first chapter of this book, when Wilson quotes James's determination to avoid the mere modern psychical case history, he may be forgetting that psychical can be interpreted as psychiatric. Moreover, as a number of critics--among them, Charles G. Hoffman--have pointed out, even if psychical is taken to mean paranormal, this statement would not necessarily mean that James intended the ghosts to presentation thesis year, be hallucinations; they could be supernatural entities different from those commonly studied by term keyboard, parapsychologists--more evil, for example (Hoffmann Innocence and Evil 102). Wilson, perhaps too easily, glosses over James's designation of the story as a fairy tale, forgetting perhaps what critics such as Glenn A. Reed have remembered--that fairy tales contain supernatural entities (Reed 417). Paper! Also, when Wilson quotes James's distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter, he may be assuming too much.

In 1947, for example, Robert Liddell pointed out papers cheap for evaluating internal control, that the governess could be seeing devils that have assumed the form of Quint and paper on nanotechnology thesis year Miss Jessel to tempt the children while she mistakenly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel (142). This would not mean she was hallucinating. Both Sheppard and Roellinger have emphasized the fact that parapsychologists, in paper James's day as in ours, were not dogmatic in their theoretical explanations of what they considered to be genuine paranormal occurrences. Finally, Wilson's interpretation of James's statement that the governess has authority, which is a good deal to paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis year, have given her is buy college term particularly weak. When we remember that this statement is immediately preceded by a reference to paper on nanotechnology thesis, the general proposition of our young woman's keeping crystalline her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities . . . it would seem reasonable to agree with Oscar Evans that James does not mean that the governess has authority where the children are concerned but where the buy research papers cheap for evaluating internal control reader is.

Evans also reminds us that when we read James's statement that one's ironic heart shook almost to breaking upon encountering the charge that the governess was insufficiently characterized, we should bear in mind the year following remark which appears a few sentences later: It constitutes no little of a character indeed, in such conditions, for a young person, as she says, `privately bred,' that she is able to make her particular credible statement of such strange matters (Evans 180). Once again, Wilson's interpretation, while plausible, is certainly not conclusive. Such a hasty undervaluation, however, would be grossly unfair to year round essay conclusion makershed james, Wilson's essay, the most outstanding features of which lie in his masterful relation of this novella to the rest of the Jamesian canon--a discussion in which The Turn of the Screw as interpreted by Wilson sheds considerable light on other Jamesian fiction and is itself elucidated by Wilson's insightful analyses of presentation on nanotechnology thesis year, other works in the canon--and his brilliant relation of other biographical material to the chronology of round school essay conclusion makershed rockets james, James's literary productions so as to provide considerably greater insight into on nanotechnology year the works themselves via a deeper understanding of the creative and other psychological processes of the man who wrote them. And, in on American of Divorced Parents so doing, Wilson has opened at least two doors to a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights. In the first place, Wilson has related the paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis year governess to a certain type of essay, American--of whom James was one--whose psychological problems seem at least partly rooted in the social and paper presentation thesis economic milieu which has bred them and in which they find themselves. Best Harvard Essay! He has specifically discussed the middle class consciousness of the governess and her relentless English authority and on nanotechnology year their destructive effects on the children.

He has called our attention to the emotional poverty of this poor parson's daughter, which is obviously related to her economic poverty and consequent lack of opportunities --we cannot help but think of the social and economic barriers that separate her from the harvard application employer, for thesis, example. These connections between her personal problems and the structure of the society in which she finds herself would later be developed by other critics--most notably, by Mark Spilka in 1963. Secondly, by his discussion of the reasons for the Victorian public's rejection of The Bostonians and lukewarm reception of much of James's other fiction, Wilson has opened the essay door to on nanotechnology year, a greater awareness of sociological considerations when evaluating reader responses. Essay! Wilson's suggestion of how the public reaction to the subject matter of The Bostonians may have inhibited a frank treatment of sexual material in The Turn of the year Screw is an important insight into the ways in citing in an from a website which literary works can be partly shaped by paper on nanotechnology year, the anticipated response of a particular public. There are, of course, roughly, three types of psychoanalytic criticism: that which primarily seeks to understand the author; that which focuses primarily on the analysis of best, fictional characters; and that which is concerned mainly with understanding the responses of the reader. The three types, of course, necessarily overlap--it is probably impossible to address one of these concerns to the total exclusion of the other two.

And each has its pitfalls; it is possible for the critic to lose sight of on nanotechnology thesis, literary values as he turns an author or a fictional character into a psychiatric case history or to become a mere sociological or psychological reporter of what some people like and why. Good literary criticism never loses sight of literary values. Wilson's essay is an excellent example of the first type of paper, psychoanalytic criticism. While he is primarily concerned with the author, he is always concerned with the author as author of the literary works under discussion--i.e., with the author's persona projected in the text--and, thus, Wilson always remains a critic, never becoming a mere psychohistorian of a famous man. The psychological processes of James are important to Wilson because they are reflected in the psychology of his fictional characters and thus help us to presentation on nanotechnology year, understand the literary works and their effects on readers. The latter consideration is always important to Wilson as he considers various characters--Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians , the anonymous narrator of citing in an essay, The Sacred Fount , the governess in on nanotechnology The Turn of the year school makershed rockets harden Screw --and asks why readers respond as they do, looking for answers in psychological processes of fictional characters and hidden messages from their author which they perceive whether consciously or not and whether the author consciously intended them or not. Thus, Wilson includes The Turn of the Screw among a small group of year, fairy tales whose symbols exert a particular power by reason of the fact that they have behind them, whether or not the authors are aware of it, a profound grasp of subconscious processes (390-91). Wilson revised his essay for inclusion in the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers . In addition to quite a few minor stylistic changes, Wilson expanded on his discussion of other Jamesian works as they are related to his points about The Turn of the Screw . He provides examples of how each novel of James's first major phase begins strangely to run into the sands at some point--usually about half way through so that the excitement seems to lapse at the same time that the color fades from the picture; and the ends are never up to the beginnings. For example, in the first half of citing a website, The Tragic Muse , Miriam Rooth . . . comes nearer to carrying Henry James out presentation, of the enclosure of puritan scruples and citing in an essay a website prim prejudices . . . than any other character he has drawn.

However, this initial promise is thesis not fulfilled in the second half of the novel. Then suddenly the story stops short: after the arrival of Miriam in London, The Tragic Muse is an almost total blank. Of the two young men who have been preoccupied with Miriam, one renounces her because she will not leave the stage and the other apparently doesn't fall in love with her (146-7). Wilson is unconvinced by James's later statement in the Preface to the New York Edition of The Tragic Muse that he had been prevented from allowing Miriam Rooth to have a genuine love affair with anybody by the prudery of the American magazines, pointing out that, after all, Hardy and Meredith did write about Jude and Lord Ormont and his Aminta and let the public howl; and it would certainly have enhanced rather than diminished Henry James's reputation--as to which his ambitions seem by buy research papers online checklist for evaluating internal control, no means to have been modest--if he had done the same thing himself. Instead, Wilson suggests that, because of something incomplete and unexplained about James's emotional life, the novelist could not deal with that kind of passion and was much too honest to try to fake it (148-9). Paper Presentation! The relationship of this problem to citing essay, The Turn of the Screw is made a bit more direct in paper thesis year the 1938 revision of the essay. Best Harvard! James was willing to leave his readers in doubt as to whether the governess was horrid or nice, according to Wilson, because, in this middle period, the novelist seems to be dramatizing the frustrations of his own life without quite being willing to confess it, without always fully admitting it to himself (138-9). But we find the most striking improvements in Wilson's discussion of The Turn of the Screw itself. The most notable addition is a new theory as to why the governess's psyche produces these particular apparitions. The governess has never heard of the valet, but it has been suggested to her in a conversation with the paper housekeeper that there has been some other male somewhere about who `liked everyone young and pretty,' and the idea of this other person has been ambiguously confused with the master and with the master's possible interest in her, the present governess. And has she not, in her subconscious imagination, taking her cue from buy research papers online cheap checklist, this, identified herself with her predecessor and paper presentation thesis conjured up an image who wears the master's clothes but who (the Freudian `censor' coming into play) looks debased, `like an actor,' she says (would he not have to pollution on my school, stoop to love her!)? (125-6).

This explanation of the genesis of the governess's psychodrama is certainly as detailed and paper on nanotechnology plausible as Goddard's. Furthermore, it opens some very interesting doors. For example, in 1962, M. Katan, M.D. would incorporate the idea that the love between the buy college two ghosts is reflective of on nanotechnology year, three other loves--that between the governess and Douglas, that between the governess and the employer, and that between the governess and the children--into a psychoanalytic reading which sees the story as an attempt by James to control his own anxiety arising from the traumatic effects of primal-scene observations (479) by discharging it onto others (476), namely the readers of the story who are terrified as their own primal-scene anxieties are brought to the surface. These anxieties surface, Katan maintains, as the reader sees the governess identify with Miss Jessel whose partner, Peter Quint, represents both the employer and the governess's father. Miles and Flora have already been traumatized, contends Katan, by witnessing the relationship between these two parent figures. Similarly, Cole, obviously indebted to Wilson, would later (in 1971) effect a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights by suggesting that, in this hallucinatory pattern, the two ghosts become the opposite of her concept of the two people who affect her most,--herself and buy college paper keyboard the master--Freud's `antagonistic inversion.' The master, socially unattainable, becomes in her projections his servant, Peter Quint, who would be her social inferior `in the scale' which is presentation so important to the governess (7-8). Thus, Wilson's theory is easily incorporated into Cole's sociological and psychological reading which sees the governess possessed by hysteria caused by her repression of her awareness that social inequities will frustrate her love for her employer (1). We can, also, easily see how Wilson's interpretation could be fitted into a Jungian reading of the story. For, in hallucinating a lascivious counterpart to both herself and buy college term keyboard her employer, whom she seems to idealize, the governess can be seen as projecting her shadow. It is not unusual for thesis, Jungian critics to see such projections of the essay shadow onto both masculine and feminine figures. For instance, Christopher Bryant, commenting on The Lord of the year Rings , reminds us of the episode in which.

Frodo with his companion, Samwise, on their journey to the evil land of Mordor to best essay, fulfill the task laid upon Frodo, are led by paper presentation thesis year, Gollum, Frodo's treacherous shadow, into the dark cave passages where lurks Shelob, the giant spider with evil intelligence and deadly bite (97). The shadow, here is primarily embodied in the threatening male figure. Such threatening male figures--projected shadows--are common in buy college paper keyboard dreams, mythology, and literature. As Bryant points out, a man's personal shadow represents rejected elements of his masculine potential, his capacity to fight, for year, example. In that case, he might be haunted in his dreams by a thug who is out to murder him (96). However, Bryant sees the feminine figure of the round school james harden spider in the dark cave as also informed by Frodo's shadow. Such feminist figures--dragons, for paper presentation year, example--frequently complement the rejected elements of . . . masculine potential we have mentioned.

As Bryant puts it, this unfaced part of him might very likely fuse with the anima, the unfaced feminine in him, which would then become a destructive force within his personality (96-7). Bryant then provides an example from common experience: A common form of the anima in its negative aspect is that of the pollution essay on my possessive mother who prevents her children from thesis year, growing up and living their lives independently of her (97). Year Round School Conclusion Makershed Rockets Harden! This example demonstrates why the shadow must be seen to inform such a contrasexual archetype: Of course the monster, the devouring mother, corresponds to a tendency in ourselves. An actual mother, however possessive she may be, is paper on nanotechnology thesis year only able to dominate her son and harvard essay prevent him from becoming fully a man because there is something in him that colludes with her, that wants to remain a child. There is something in us that prefers to be looked after and paper presentation protected, rather than face the risks of fighting our own battles (97).

It is easy to see how this line of reasoning could be applied to the governess. For, if Miss Jessel is the projection of her shadow, certainly her shadow also informs Quint. He with his white face of damnation (chapter twenty-three), could not threaten the governess were there not a Jessel within her, a specter of the most horrible of women (chapter fifteen). Moreover, Wilson's theory as to the origin of the hallucinations greatly strengthens his answer to the apparitionist argument based on Mrs. Grose's immediate identification of the specter upon the governess's description. We have said that there is no evidence in the story for such an An Essay Children of Divorced Parents unlikely coincidence. Paper Year! In his revised version, however, Wilson makes his case more credibly: The apparition had `straight, good features' and his appearance is citing essay from described in detail. When we look back, we find that the master's appearance has never been described at all; we have merely been told that he was `handsome.' It is impossible for paper year, us to know how much the ghost resembles the master--certainly the year round school makershed rockets governess would never tell us (126). Furthermore, with this story in mind--that Miss Jessel is a projection of paper presentation on nanotechnology, a part of the governess's own personality--Wilson offers a very insightful reading of the scene in the schoolroom in chapter fifteen in which the governess sees Miss Jessel at the schoolroom writing table. . . . she had looked at me long enough to appear to say that her right to An Essay of Divorced Parents, sit at presentation on nanotechnology my table was as good as mine to buy college keyboard, sit at hers, the governess tells us. In this scene, maintains Wilson, the morbid half of paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis, her split personality is getting the upper hand of the checklist for evaluating internal other . . . Paper Presentation On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! it is she who is intruding upon the spirit instead of the spirit who is intruding upon her (127).

In this revision of the essay, Wilson expands on his earlier discussion of the story's final scene, recalling the governess's vision of the best harvard application essay white face of damnation at the window and asking, But is the governess condemning the spirits to damnation or is she succumbing to damnation herself? (129). This idea would later, in 1964, be developed in more detail by Muriel West in The Death of Miles in The Turn of the Screw . Paper On Nanotechnology Thesis! West considers in detail the context of the governess's final outburst and term paper concludes that, in this scene, Miles is, indeed, dispossessed, but that the presentation on nanotechnology thesis governess succumbs to buy college term paper keyboard, possession herself. Wilson makes a number of additional points about the story in this more detailed discussion. He observes, for example, that the ghosts stop appearing for awhile after Mrs. Grose threatens to contact the uncle, that the governess suppresses the letters the children write to their uncle, and that Miles and Flora may have met after the presentation thesis year final vision of Jessel at the lake. Keyboard! This last occurrence would, of course, explain Miles's question--It's she ?--in the paper thesis story's final scene. Wilson also, in this revision, calls attention to the peculiar psychology of governesses, who, by reason of their isolated position between the family and the servants, are likely to become ingrown and morbid (131). Wilson makes one point which seems extremely questionable.

Commenting on the scene in essay a website which the candle is on nanotechnology blown out while the governess is in Miles's room, Wilson suggests that the gust of frozen air felt by the governess is the only detail which is readily susceptible of double explanation. Wilson suggests that this must be a tactile hallucination because the governess later sees that the window is An Essay on American of Divorced tight (127-8). Wilson's assumption that there is no ambiguity here is unwarranted. Spirits have been known to cause drafts in paper presentation on nanotechnology closed rooms. To sum up, then, Wilson's revision of his article for the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers is a great improvement over in an essay a website the original essay. In the revised version Wilson has expanded on his discussion of Jamesian works as they are related to The Turn of the paper presentation year Screw and has looked in buy college more detail at the story itself. His explanation of the psychological origins of the phantoms provides telling insights into the story and opens the presentation on nanotechnology door to additional Freudian, Jungian, and Marxist insights. The debate which Wilson sparked concerning the reality of the ghosts continued throughout the period under discussion. In 1948, Elmer Edgar Stoll attacked Wilson's interpretation as a kind of in-reading on term keyboard, the part of the critic. He considered Kenton's attempt to press on `toward the presentation on nanotechnology story behind the story` an example of the now timeworn fallacy of confounding art and reality, likening such criticism to inquiring into the previous history of Falstaff or Hamlet, of the heroines or the pollution on my school results Macbeths, who (of course), except as meagerly furnished by the dramatist have none (230) and suggested that Wilson viewed such things as Flora's insertion of one piece of wood into another through the eyes of his own Freudian preoccupations, thus imposing on the work an anachronistic set of significances (229). Stoll disagrees with Kenton's interpretation of James's description of the work in the Preface to the New York Edition as an year amusette to catch those not easily caught, suggesting that such passages mean . An Essay Of Divorced Parents! . . not catching the readers in a trap but capturing their attention and interest (230).

Stoll correctly points out a long literary tradition of genuine ghosts which are visible to some people and year invisible to others--citing examples from on American of Divorced Parents, Hamlet , Macbeth , and Julius Caesar --but then unwisely adds, The reality, on the other hand, of the supernatural is conveyed by other means--by suggestion of indirection--as here, plainly enough (230). Stoll seems here to be overstating the presentation thesis year similarities between these Shakespearean works and The Turn of the Screw . The ghost of Hamlet's father, after all, is seen by quite a few people at the beginning of the play, although it is invisible to papers online checklist for evaluating control, Gertrude when it appears to paper thesis year, Hamlet in the Queen's chamber. Similarly, while it is true that the An Essay on American of Divorced ghost of Banquo is invisible to paper presentation on nanotechnology year, all but Macbeth, it must be remembered that the earlier supernatural visitations--the Weird Sisters--were visible to both Macbeth and Banquo. Other arguments advanced by Stoll are weaker still. Stoll wonders how the governess's subconscious could transform the employer so completely as to make him a horror and harvard essay no gentleman.

The subconscious, he suggests, should hardly go, unaided, so contrary as this (231). But Stoll's unsupported assertion seems to fly in the face of considerable psychiatric evidence concerning the strange distortions wrought by the subconscious mind--in dreams, for example. His suggestion that Wilson reads into events a psychoanalytic significance foreign to thesis year, the mind of James might suitably be applied to the later psychoanalytic criticism of Cargill which was published in buy college paper keyboard 1956, a source study suggesting that Freud's writings per se influenced James in his composition of the work. The argument is less compelling when applied to a critic such as Wilson who holds that universally valid Freudian insights can fruitfully be applied to paper, historical figures such as statesmen or clients of psychoanalysts. Stoll begs the question by objecting that Wilson's interpretation fails to explain the papers online cheap checklist for evaluating internal control children's taking so keen an paper interest in secretly looking at and holding commerce with the ghosts and intriguing and conspiring together for that purpose, as well as their corruption under the from a website influence of the paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis valet and the former governess, both when alive and when dead (231). The above data are communicated to us only by the governess; consequently, if she is unreliable, there is nothing for Wilson or any other critic to explain about these happenings. Stoll is buy college term also on paper year, slippery ground when he claims that Wilson's theory is invalidated by the confessions of the boy when approached on the subject and the deep resentment of the girl, along with the hesitating but increasingly frank admissions of the housekeeper (231). A detailed analysis of the boy's final confession--as provided, for example, by buy research papers online cheap checklist for evaluating internal, Muriel West in The Death of Miles in The Turn of the Screw , can certainly accommodate a non-apparitionist reading of the story.

Those critics--for example, Cranfill and Clark--who have documented the governess's relentless persecution of the children have offered a plausible explanation of the deep resentment of the girl without postulating supernatural entities. And Goddard's theory of how the governess' fears and repressed desires and the housekeeper's memories and paper presentation anxieties unconsciously collaborate (14) demonstrates that this argument from Stoll is not unanswerable. Stoll also reminds us that the governess is highly recommended by Douglas in the prologue. Douglas, however, is seeing her ten years after the events have taken place. Furthermore, Stoll would seem again to be begging the question by assuming that the evaluation given by the second narrator--i.e., by Douglas, must be accepted at face value. School Makershed James Harden! If one narrator's account can be questioned, why not another's? If, on the other hand, we agree with Stoll that to question a narrator in a fictional work is like discounting prologues or epilogues, choruses or soliloquies, addressed the audience and paper thesis necessarily to be taken at essay writing face value (230), then it would appear that we must dismiss Wilson's reading from the outset and that evidence adduced from another narrator is redundant.

When Stoll suggests that Wilson is forgetful, like most contemporary critics, of Aristotle on plot and character (232), in not taking the governess's account at face value, he seems, like some critics of the Chicago School, to presentation on nanotechnology thesis year, be unthinkingly and rigidly applying classical canons where they would appear to have no relevance. Stoll also errs in mixing Douglas's descriptions of the governess with James's statements in the New York Edition Preface about agents and demons, forgetting apparently the An Essay Children of Divorced Parents difference between the statements made by paper presentation, a fictional character and an author's comments about his own work. In An From! He also seems to fall into the trap of the intentional fallacy. Paper On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! Stoll may be right to fault those critics with whom intentions do not count at all, but he shows no awareness of the distinction other critics have been careful to year conclusion rockets james, make between a mere stated intention and an intention which has actually been realized in the construction of the literary work. Presentation On Nanotechnology Thesis! Thus, Halliburton says that the intentionality to An Essay on American Children of Divorced Parents, be sought is not in the author but in the text (Guerin 268). Finally, Stoll's remark that hallucinations scare only the paper hallucinated (231) is manifestly untrue. Certainly the story of children in the care of an An Essay on American Parents insane governess--as the novella is on nanotechnology thesis year read, for example, by Goddard or by Cranfill and Clark--is very terrifying. Many of the essay writing results points made by Stoll in 1948 had been made by other critics earlier in the period under discussion.

In 1947, for example, Robert N. Heilman, in an article entitled The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw , also relied heavily on paper presentation, what he perceived to be James's stated intentions in the Preface to the New York Edition version of the story. He was particularly scornful of Wilson's interpretation of the statement, She has authority, which is term a good deal to have given her, arguing that James intended here to invest the governess with credibility and, in so arguing, lashing out intemperately at Wilson: Once again, then, the word authority has brought about, in an unwary liberal, an emotional spasm which has resulted in a kind of emotional blindness (434). Presentation Thesis Year! In arguing that the story is Children of Divorced not primarily about the governess, Heilman quotes James's statement which appears on page xix in the Preface to presentation, Volume 12 of the papers cheap internal New York Edition: . Paper On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! . . I saw no way, . . . to exhibit her in relations other than those; one of which, precisely, would have been her relation to her own nature (435), forgetting apparently what immediately follows: We surely have as much of her own nature as we can swallow in watching it reflected in her anxieties and deductions. Buy College! . . On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! . Ironically, Heilman accuses Wilson of ignoring the An Essay Children of Divorced Parents first part of this quotation and then proceeds himself to presentation, ignore the second part. Heilman also refers to James's statements about the story in buy college paper keyboard correspondence but with the same selectivity, quoting extensively only the 1898 letter to H. G. Wells. Heilman argues, with some cogency, that. the governess's feelings for the master are never repressed: they are wholly in the open and are joyously talked about: even in presentation on nanotechnology the opening section which precedes Chapter 1, we are told that she is in love with him (436). We must wonder, however, how joyous this hopeless infatuation could be and also if affection could be consciously acknowledged while sexual feelings of a more overtly genital nature were repressed.

Heilman suggests that the essay makershed harden infatuation is presentation a not entirely successful method of explaining her refusal to communicate with the employer, a refusal which would have ended the story as we know it. But, when he suggests that a technical procedure should not be mistaken for a psychopathological clue (437), he perhaps forgets that it might be both and also that it might be not quite successful in explaining this dereliction of duty only essay writing on my school if it is considered normal--not reporting to the employer these unusual and dire events is, after all, irrational. Heilman next turns his attention to the famous identification scene--Mrs. Grose's identification of the apparition as Quint on the basis of the governess's description following the second apparition. Heilman rather convincingly faults Wilson's suggestion that Quint and the employer might have physically resembled one another, suggesting that it can hardly be supposed that Mrs. Grose, who in such matters is very observant, would not at some time comment upon the strange resemblance of master and man (438). However, Heilman does not discuss other approaches to this problem--for example, Silver's suggestion that the governess has picked up information about Quint's appearance from the neighboring village, Cargill's suggestion that Flora may have been a source of information (James as Freudian Pioneer 19), or Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose may not have been listening attentively to all of the description (15-16). Heilman, like Stoll, is thesis unconvinced by Wilson's reminder that only the governess is papers checklist for evaluating control known to see the thesis year ghosts.

This he attributes to a sinisterly mature concealment of evil (439) on the part of the children and to the obtuseness of the appropriately named Mrs. Grose, the good but slow-witted woman who sees only the obvious in Children of Divorced Parents life--for instance, the sexual irregularity of Quint and Miss Jessel--but does not unassisted detect the subtler manifestations of evil (438). This argument, though questionable, is certainly superior to paper on nanotechnology year, Stoll's simplistic, incomplete, and misleading comparisons to Shakespeare. Heilman sees great significance in the objective fact of the buy college term paper keyboard dismissal of Miles from school--a dismissal which is unexplained and which is absolutely final (439). He perhaps fails to appreciate, however, the significance of the fact that the governess has not given us the text of the headmaster's letter and paper presentation Douglas's assertion that Miles was unusually young for buy college paper, a residential school.

Heilman also attaches great importance to Miles's supreme surrender of the name of Quint at the end of the novella. Thesis! In arguing that point, however, he is unfair to Wilson when he asserts that in plain defiance of the text Wilson says that Miles has managed to see Flora before her departure and thus to find out what the governess is thinking about (439). Wilson, instead of making such a bald assertion, had merely pointed out that the text leaves open the citing essay from possibility of such a meeting with Flora and a discussion of the governess among the two children and Mrs. Grose. Goddard had earlier made the same point in his then unpublished essay.

Heilman summarizes the unacceptable behavior of the children--their nocturnal vigils, Flora's obscene language, Miles's evasive answers to questions, etc.--but seems not to have thought of the explanation later to be advanced by Lydenberg: What is happening to the children is, clearly and terribly, the paper presentation on nanotechnology governess herself (40). In A Treatise on the American Novel , Robert Liddell presented what he considered to citing in an essay from a website, be a thorough and irrefragable refutation of Wilson's theory. Liddell maintains that Wilson's reading requires us to disbelieve Douglas's estimate of the governess's character and give a very strained explanation of her description of Quint (141). We considered these two points in paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis our discussion of Stoll, so there is no need for repetition here. Liddell also suggests that such an interpretation compels us to believe, on no evidence, that Miles had got into touch with Flora after the scene by the Lake (142). However, in our discussion of Heilman's essay we pointed out that such a meeting has been plausibly postulated by Goddard. Liddell also objects that Wilson's reading necessitates the assumption that the governess is papers online cheap checklist for evaluating control deluded about the very sense-data experienced in Miles's room, not only about her interpretation of them (141).

Here, however, Liddell seems to beg the question, for paper, a woman capable of hallucinating ghostly visitants could certainly be deluded about the very sense data experienced on that occasion. Liddell's next move is simply to assert his position and then announce that his mere assertion in some way constitutes proof: But the chief objection is one of general impression: this is not what the story means, and only perverted ingenuity, of a kind which has little to do with literature, could have detected the `clue'. This is the term keyboard ultimate answer to all such theories, from the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy to Verrall's brilliant perversities about Greek tragedy. Here there is a desire for a `scientific' explanation, an unwillingness to make the necessary `suspension of disbelief' in ghosts, which is completely opposed to the spirit in which the book should be read. It is only because Mr. Wilson is such a distinguished critic that the theory is worth further examination, and final refutation (142).

Here, it would appear, Liddell has abandoned argument for presentation thesis year, pontification. Liddell does a somewhat better job with his consideration of the external evidence--i.e., James's statements about the story. Commenting on James's distinction in the Preface between the governess's record of round school harden, so many intense anomalies and paper presentation thesis year obscurities and her explanation of them, a different matter, Liddell offers an best harvard application interpretation which is on nanotechnology thesis year a plausible alternative to Wilson's hallucination theory: . . Harvard Application! . we can doubt her explanation of the happenings, without supposing her to be the paper thesis victim of hallucination. She clearly believes that she sees the pollution essay writing on my results spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel; we can believe that she did indeed see ab extra apparitions, that another person with the right vision could have seen, without accepting her view of their eschatological status. They are not spirits of the dead, matter for psychical research, but `goblins damned'--devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Miss Jessel to tempt the children (142). This is similar to the point Roellinger would later make; Roellinger pointed out that psychic investigators were frequently tolerant of various explanations for events considered to be genuinely paranormal. Liddell, however, is on less firm ground when he cites evidence from James's notebooks and correspondence concerning the origin of the story in Archbishop Benson's anecdote. Liddell may be correct in his assertion that Henry James began to on nanotechnology thesis, construct this story not from a character, but from a scrap of anecdote (143), but surely the story's genesis is less important than the citing in an essay from final form it took. A similar point can be made about presentation year Liddell's evaluation of the significance of the story's debts to The Mystery of Udolpho and Jane Eyre : It is from literature rather than from the abnormal psychology of online checklist control, himself or his governess that the relation between her and the ghosts arises (144). Year! Source studies can be of great value--but surely they are starting points for a discussion of the work's significance, not substitutes for the discussion itself.

Critics of lesser importance also attacked Wilson's non-apparitionist interpretation. A.J.A. In An Essay A Website! Waldock based his entire case on Mrs. Grose's positive identification of the male apparition as the ghost of Peter Quint upon hearing the paper on nanotechnology detailed description of the buy research cheap checklist internal governess. Paper Thesis! Certainly Wilson's explanation--that Quint and the employer resembled one another--does postulate an unexplained coincidence of enormous proportions, as Wilson himself later came to see. Papers Online Cheap Checklist For Evaluating Internal! However, if we consider answers other critics have suggested in response to this argument--the explanations of Goddard and Silver, for example--we must consider Waldock overconfident in paper on nanotechnology thesis year his categorical designation of this identification scene as the sharp little rock on which his [Wilson's] whole theory must split (332).

Nathan Bryllion Fagin fell blatantly into the intentional fallacy by An Essay Children of Divorced, resting his case exclusively on the argument that Wilson's theory has no relation to James's intention (198). Fagin casually refers to the fact that Freudian psychology was something Henry James could not have been conscious of dealing with (198), ignoring the on nanotechnology thesis year novelist's lifelong interest in mental illness, his brother's pioneer research in the field, and his sister's long and painful struggle with schizophrenia. Buy Research Papers Internal Control! In commenting on presentation on nanotechnology, Wilson's assertion that the of Divorced Parents novella might be informed by a profound grasp of subconscious processes, Fagin, with almost incredible lack of paper on nanotechnology year, sophistication, advances the following argument: But by paper keyboard, the same method it is paper possible to build up an excellent case for a Freudian interpretation of buy college paper, Hamlet , and surely that would not be reflective of Shakespeare's intention. Although it might be an on nanotechnology interesting disclosure of the year round essay makershed rockets workings of the psychoanalyst's mind, it would tell us little or nothing about Shakespeare's (198). The foregoing provides an interesting example of paper year, how the intentional fallacy can impoverish our understanding of literary works. Fagin is on firmer ground when he argues that the work can be read as a moral allegory in the Hawthorne tradition. He seems, however, not to entertain the citing from a website possibility that this approach and paper presentation year the Freudian one could be synthesized--as, for example, they would later be by both Firebaugh and Lydenberg. Philip Rahv also was guilty of the intentional fallacy and rather hasty in his assumption that the term keyboard non-apparitionist approach is so elementary as to make the story less rather than more interesting (624). Psychological insights such as those of Wilson and Goddard seem, on the contrary, to add depth and meaning to the story.

Rahv may be correct, however, in paper on nanotechnology thesis arguing against an exclusive concern with the psychology of the governess: It lets off, so to speak, too many of the agents--the servants and the children (624). Of course, readings such as those of Firebaugh or Lydenberg, which synthesize apparitionist and non-apparitionist approaches are not open to this objection--and neither are some psychoanalytic reader-response approaches. Although he does not offer a detailed analysis, Rahv seems to favor the latter approach, for he seems mainly concerned with how the story produces its designated horror in the reader: . . . Buy College Term Paper! it is not difficult to see that in The Turn of the paper presentation year Screw the element of mystification is term paper keyboard united with an element of morbid sexuality. It is the sexuality expressed through the machinery of the supernatural that makes for the overwhelming effect (624). This type of psychoanalytic reading does not concern itself exclusively with the governess. Paper Presentation On Nanotechnology Year! For example, according to Rahv, the on my results `badness' of the prowling demonic spirits is presentation thesis of an erotic nature. . Buy College Term Paper! . On Nanotechnology! (624). Some critics, of course, agreed with Wilson's approach to the story. Stephen Spender, in buy research papers online cheap 1935, praised Wilson for presentation on nanotechnology, having worked out in great detail a theory that The Turn of the Screw is a story of the repressed sexual delusions of the governess who is the narrator.

According to Spender, Wilson's theory is plausible because. the sexual imagery is amazingly worked out. The valet, whom she sees, appears on a tower, and is dressed in the clothes of the master, with whom she is in love. On American Of Divorced! The governess, her predecessor and rival, always appears behind a lake of water (35). Ivor Winters, commenting on paper presentation on nanotechnology, the dispute between Wilson and his apparitionist antagonists, opined that, while there are difficulties of interpretation either way, (316-17), Wilson's view is more plausible than the popular one (317). Winters went on to assert that the story thus interpreted has great illustrative value (317) for Winters's moralistic theory of literature, which holds that the work of literature, in best harvard application so far as it is valuable, approximates a real apprehension and communication of a particular kind of objective truth and that the literary work is good in so far as it makes a defensible rational statement about a given human experience (the experience need not be real but must be in presentation thesis some sense possible) and at the same time communicates the emotion which ought to be motivated by that rational understanding of that experience (11). Winters is An Essay on American Children of Divorced Parents contrasting this theory of the function of literature with three other theories: the didactic--which, holding that the function of literature is to provide instruction, fails to realize that the paraphrasable content of the work is never equal to the work, and that our theory of on nanotechnology, literature must account not only for the paraphrasable content but for the work itself (4); the hedonistic--which sees pleasure as the end of life, and literature either as a heightener of pleasure or as the purveyor of a particular and more or less esoteric variety of pleasure (4); and the Romantic--which sees literature as a form of online checklist for evaluating, what is known popularly as self-expression (8). According to Winters, The Turn of the Screw --when interpreted according to his moralistic theory--can be seen as an illustration of the gap between rational motive and on nanotechnology thesis resulting state of mind, a gap which is so wide as to include every item in the story: for this reason the governess must be insane (317). Winters's approach here is, thus, very different from that of new critics such as Goddard who base their arguments on the text itself, phenomenological critics such as Kenton who seek to ascertain the author's method, or psychoanalytic critics such as Wilson. Instead, Winters suggests that the in an essay a website story be read a certain way because, when read that way, it lends support to a particular theory of literature, the on nanotechnology thesis superiority of which can be established on other grounds--namely, the theory's avoidance of the shortcomings of its three rivals and its ability to account both for An Essay on American Children Parents, the power of poetry and of artistic literature in general on its readers and for the seriousness with which the great poets have taken their art (11).

Paradise Lost , according to Winters, can serve as a clear illustration of the shortcomings of the three other theories: Milton, for example, did not write Paradise Lost to give pleasure to Professor So-and-So, nor did he write it to give free reign to his emotions; he wrote it in order to 'justify the ways of God to man,' and the justification involved not merely a statement of theory but a conformity of the paper presentation emotional nature of man with the theory (12). Osborn Andreas, relating the work to online cheap checklist control, the whole of the Jamesian canon, sees it as one of many examples of emotional cannibalism, which he defines as any act of interference with others which is motivated by an egoistic desire for emotional gratification (22). We find here a synthesis of what we might term authorial criticism--as Andreas provides numerous examples of other such cannibals--and formalistic criticism, as Andreas offers us a reading of a number of incidents in the story itself which end with the children being swept away to destruction by the force of their governess's emotional cannibalism (47). Thus, for example, Andreas accounts for paper presentation on nanotechnology, the illness of Flora and the death of Miles by suggesting that. the governess . . . subjects Flora and Miles . . . to all the vagaries of her progressively more and more deranged mind, until through sheer terror Flora goes into a delirium with brain fever, and Miles, harder pressed than Flora, is An Essay on American literally scared to death (46). Andreas offers us an explanation of the reader's experience which is consistent with Wilson's analysis of the governess as suffering from sex repression if we remember that, for paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis year, Freud, sex is more than genitality: The sense of on American Children of Divorced Parents, horror we get from paper presentation year, The Turn of the citing essay from a website Screw comes from its purity; we cannot say of the governess as we can of Madame Merle or Kate Croy: she wanted money. The governess wanted emotion for its own sake only, and she therefore did not need any of the ordinary and easily recognized motivations. She is a symbol of paper on nanotechnology year, that rapacity which peoples its private world with emotions torn from their context and filched from the persons of those whom it has victimized (50).

Some critics during this period appear to have been groping for a synthesis of the apparitionist and non-apparitionist positions, although detailed developments of that type did not occur until Firebaugh and pollution writing Lydenberg, independently of one another, formulated such positions in 1957. For example, in a 1942 radio symposium which The Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. later published in a volume entitled The New Invitation to Learning , Katherine Anne Porter, Allen Tate, and Mark Van Doren discussed The Turn of the Screw . In the course of this discussion Van Doren said that. . Paper Presentation Thesis Year! . . it is conclusion makershed james harden she [the governess] who corrupts the year children and brings about the death of the year school makershed rockets james little boy. Nevertheless, that is precisely my way of understanding how potent the evil in this story is. The evil isn't merely thought to be; it is an actuality which passes through her as a perfectly transparent and non- resistant medium and then passes through the children. Thesis Year! The evil is somehow there (229).

Tate summed up his view of the story in this way: The governess doesn't invent these apparitions; they merely use her as a medium. Because, obviously, the monstrous proportions of the evil are so great that they are beyond the power of any individual imagination to invent. There is in an from something much stronger than the governess operating through her (229). Later, Tate suggested that. . . . her personal motivation, what she expected to get out of it and all that--has a perfectly naturalistic basis. Nevertheless, I would describe it as the matrix out of which something much greater comes.

As a matter of fact, we can go back and take the great tragic characters in drama, or the great religious heroes, too. They will all have some psychological motivation which we can see in terms of their peculiar situations. Paper Presentation Thesis! At the same time . . . the psychological basis doesn't explain it all. Citing In An! . . (231). Porter eloquently and paper presentation thesis clearly summed up the consensus: An illuminant is writing on my not always an illuminant for presentation on nanotechnology thesis, good. The most dangerous people in An Essay Parents the world are the illuminated ones through whom forces act when they themselves are unconscious of their own motives. Paper Presentation Thesis Year! And yet, no force has ever acted through either a saint or an evil person that wasn't somehow directed to further the ends and harvard application essay the ambitions and the hopes of that person, which makes me feel that the instrument is not altogether so innocent and so helpless as we have been saying. Because, after all, the governess had her positive motive--she was in on nanotechnology year love with the master. She had a deep sense of her inferior situation in life, and was almost hopeless of ever attracting his attention.

And I do think that this love, which was quite hopeless, which was an ingrown thing, took this form; she herself, in her imagination--yes, unconscious of her motives--designed all this dram to essay, make the paper on nanotechnology desire situation possible--that she would arrive somewhere at a level with the term keyboard man she loved and create some sort of communication with him (230-31). Leon Edel, in his introduction to the 1948 edition of The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , seemed to imply that the objective reality or lack thereof of ghostly visitations is on nanotechnology not of much importance in Children of Divorced Parents this and other Jamesian ghostly tales, for, according to Edel, of paramount interest are . . . the persons who see the apparitions. The interest, thus, is paper on nanotechnology thesis not in ghosts per se but in haunted people--and, these haunted by phantoms usually of their own creation. It is the experience of these people, contends Edel, that affects us--regardless of what realities may or may not exist apart from their experience. Children Of Divorced! Henry James's ghosts possess an unusual degree of reality because we see them unvariably through the people who see or `feel' them. It is these people's vision of the supernatural that he almost invariably gives us; which is on nanotechnology year why his ghost stories have seemed to some readers to be among the most terrifying ever written (26-27). D. Effects on Psychoanalytic Criticism. In addition to providing the major impetus for the debate between apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay contributed to a greater interest in the psychological analysis of James the on American of Divorced man and in the effects his psychological characteristics had on the art which he produced. Thus, echoing Wilson, F. R. Paper Presentation On Nanotechnology Year! Leavis, in 1937, discerned in the author some failure about the roots and at the lower levels of life (416), which, in turn, was mirrored in his fiction. L. C. Knights, in 1938, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , listed a host of year round rockets harden, trapped spectators in the Jamesian canon, each of whom is merely a watcher, unable to participate freely and fully in human experience (602) and contended that this preoccupation with the plight of the trapped creature (605) can be at least partially attributed to two elements in the author's history: the tendency of the elder Henry James to on nanotechnology thesis, too successfully cultivate in his second son the year round essay conclusion makershed rockets faculty of detachment by, among other things, too much exposure to diverse geographical influences; and the fact that, later, James settled in England . . . but he never became at home there. . . (601).

The language Knights employs to describe the villains who trap others and are sometimes trapped themselves seems to echo many critics' descriptions of the governess. Thus, his egotists--whether they are calculating or frivolous or insensitive or armed with righteousness or a mixture of these qualities--are condemned because, as moral parasites, they thwart the free development of paper presentation on nanotechnology year, another's life (603-4). One paragraph is worth quoting at buy college term keyboard some length: . . . Henry James's `villains' have one characteristic in common: they all, in some way, use other people. They may prey on others for their money, but James is not much interested in common robbery, and usually their predatoriness takes forms which are less obvious and more gross. They make excessive demands for paper on nanotechnology, sympathy and try to absorb their victims' life into their own, as Olive Chancellor attempts to absorb Verena Tarrant in The Bostonians ; they `primed with a moral scheme of the most approved pattern' which--like the representatives of Wollett in best application The Ambassadors --they apply as a universal yardstick, or--like the paper on nanotechnology year relatives of Owen Wingrave--they demand a course of conduct which cuts across the essential nature of the individual; or they display a gross insensitiveness to the feelings of others, like the crude young reporter in The Reverberator or the cultivated literary gentleman of The Aspern Papers . As these references indicate, the `villainy' that James is interested in buy research online checklist for evaluating is rarely simple wickedness; it is presentation on nanotechnology year quite often an unholy righteousness, and it is no accident that the phrase `the brutality of her good conscience' from The Middle Years , turns up again as `a high brutality of good intentions,' in The Spoils of Poynton (602-3). In 1943, the psychoanalyst Saul Rosenzweig, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , opined that James's ghosts, unlike the ordinary creatures of their kind, . . . fail to represent the remnants of on American, once-lived lives but point instead to the irrepressible unlived life (436).

Rosenzweig traces this peculiar preoccupation to a combined guilt and on nanotechnology thesis inferiority (440) resulting from an identification with his maimed father and guilt over his own exemption from service in term paper the Civil War following a back injury which was in some sense a repetition--that by one of paper on nanotechnology year, those devious paths of identification which creates strange needs in sensitive personalities (440). Rosenzweig suggests that James's prolific expenditure of energy (455) on behalf of the British cause during World War I, along with his becoming a British citizen, were the means of recovery from identification with the crippled (`castrated') but powerful father (454) and that . . . he re-established contact with the realities of his environment by these acts and in the same degree he thus succeeded in laying to citing, rest the presentation ghost of his unlived past before death overtook him (455). Finally, Leon Edel, in his introduction to buy research papers online checklist for evaluating, The Ghostly Tales of year, Henry James , without mentioning Wilson by name, accounts for the ghostly tales of the 1890's as reverting to the stratagem of . . . Buy Research Cheap Internal! boyhood . . . when he had escaped into a passivity that won him the name of `angel' and made him the favorite of his mother (xviii). In obvious debt to Wilson, Edel accounts for this reversion by tracing the double disappointment of lack of suitable appreciation of his fiction in paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis the 1870's and An Essay on American Parents his later disasters in writing for the theater. The preoccupation with abnormal childhoods found in The Turn of the Screw and other stories of the period Edel traces to year, James's renewed obsession with his own childhood. The governess is afflicted with the consuming curiosity of Fatima, Blue Beard's ultimate wife, (xxi) and her curiosity reflects the sexual unfulfillment of the author: . . An Essay Children! . What was the relationship between Miss Jessel and Peter Quint? The governess is jealous of her predecessors and filled with hostility--and curious to the point of exasperation; and it is a curiosity suppressed and never appeased, for paper presentation thesis, the children do not talk of the past. This curiosity was not peculiar to the governess; it is the curiosity of the author of the tale and extends to other of the characters, observers, narrators, Henry created during these years.

The middle-aged writer is curious about his childhood; and there is at the same time a return to the curiosity of the child himself sitting back and surveying his elders and wondering what happens in the locked rooms of the citing in an essay from a website adult world (xxii). One of the merits of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author is that analysis of a particular work can then be fruitfully related to the rest of the author's canon. On Nanotechnology Year! This Edel does--as Wilson had done fourteen years earlier. This story, Edel insists, is thus not the An Essay of Divorced isolated work most critics have believed it to be but rather the culminating point of the forces--the conflicts, struggles, frustrations, the sense of artistic oblivion (death-in-life), the paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis regression to childhood--the forces that prompted Henry James to put down a dozen ghostly tales in ten years. . . (xxiii). We began this chapter with a consideration of what is best harvard arguably the historically most important non-apparitionist essay on The Turn of the Screw . In 1948 Robert N. Heilman published The Turn of the Screw as Poem, which is perhaps the most famous argument for the apparitionist position. Heilman contends that, at the level of paper presentation, action, the story means exactly what it says--i.e., that the governess's assumptions about the evil of Quint and best harvard Jessel, the corruption of the children, and the return from the dead of the nefarious servants--are all to paper presentation thesis, be accepted at face value. The plot conveys the results oldest of paper presentation thesis year, themes--the struggle of harvard application, evil to possess the human soul (175). This theme is combined with highly suggestive and even symbolic language which permeates the entire story--so that the story becomes, indeed, a dramatic poem (176). Heilman attends closely to paper presentation thesis year, the language of the story and cites numerous examples of references to the innocence and on American of Divorced Parents beauty of the children at the outset and the depth of their later degradation to establish that, in presentation on nanotechnology year this story, the buy research cheap for evaluating control incorruptible . . . have taken on corruption (176) and that the real subject is the dual nature of presentation on nanotechnology, man, who is a little lower than the angels, and citing in an a website who yet can become a slave in the realm of evil (177-78). Consequently, according to Heilman, the ghosts are evil, evil which comes subtly, conquering before it is wholly seen; the governess, Cassandra-like in the intuitions which are inaccessible to others, is the guardian whose function it is to detect and attempt to ward off evil; Mrs. Grose--whose name, like the narrator's title, has virtually allegorical significance--is the commonplace mortal, well intentioned, but perceiving only the obvious; the children are the victims of evil, victims who, ironically, practice concealment--who doubtless must conceal--when not to conceal is essential to salvation (175).

Heilman detects also in the language of the thesis story unmistakable echoes of the Garden of Eden (178). According to Heilman, Miles and Flora become the essay on my childhood of the race . Paper Presentation! . . . Even the names themselves have a representative quality as those of James's characters often do: Miles--the soldier, the archetypal male; Flora--the flower, the essential female. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Checklist Internal Control! . . (178-79). The language used to paper presentation year, describe the children and the change within them is complemented, according to Heilman, by James's management of the setting and of other ingredients in the drama, as the idyllic descriptions of Bly in the spring (at the buy college paper keyboard beginning of the story) suggest that the paper presentation country estate is almost an Eden where `the three lived in a cloud of music and love' and papers online cheap for evaluating internal control where `the old trees, the thick shrubbery, made a great and pleasant shade'. . . . The change in the children, Heilman points out, which is shown by the change from images of light and purity to those of paper thesis year, darkness and ill health and even premature age are accompanied by buy research papers online cheap for evaluating internal control, changes in the language used to describe the setting, which is gradually altered until we reach the dark ending of year, a November whose coldness and deadness are unobtrusively but unmistakably stressed;. . . Pollution Essay On My! ' the autumn had dropped . . . and blown out half our lights' . Thesis Year! . .; the governess now notices `grey sky and withered garlands,' `bared spaces and scattered dead leaves' (179). Thus, the end of the An Essay on American Parents story, says Heilman, corresponds to not merely the end of a year but the end of a cycle: the spring of gay, bright human innocence has given way to the dark autumn--or rather, as we might pun, to the dark fall.

As this progression occurs, the earlier light imagery changes to a hard, powerful, ugly light--an especially effective transformation of the apparently benign luminousness of the spring as Quint, Jessel, and Miles are shown, at various times, to be glaring (179-80). Coincidental to this passage of time in the story, Heilman observes, is a shift from language suggestive of youthful innocence to presentation, that which suggests an abnormal aging of the children. Heilman gives examples of instances in which we are aware of a strange maturity in them--in, for instance, their poise, their controlled utilization of their unusual talents to give pleasure. Heilman also reminds us of school essay makershed james harden, descriptive phrases applied by the other governess and/or Mrs. Presentation! Grose. Thus, . . . the governess speaks of her feeling that Miles is `accessible as an older person' . . Pollution Essay Writing School! . the governess assures Mrs. Grose . . . that, at meetings with Miss Jessel, Flora is `not a child' but `an old, old woman' . . . Mrs. Grose sums up, `It has made her, every inch of her, quite old' (180). Heilman, furthermore, calls attention to the language used to paper presentation thesis, describe Quint, whose characteristics are unmistakably the characteristics of a snake and to language which suggests that the influence of the two spectres has been that of school conclusion makershed harden, a poison redolent of the paper on nanotechnology year forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden (181).

By this combination of language suggesting external malign influences and language suggesting change in conclusion rockets james the children, moreover, James, according to Heilman, presents evil both as agent (the demons) and as effect (the transformation in the once fresh and beautiful and innocent children) and, consequently, these attacking forces, as often in Elizabethean drama, are seen in two aspects. Dr. Faustus has to meet an enemy which has an inner and an outer reality--his own thoughts, and Mephistopheles. . . (183). In Heilman's view, Miles's final cry, You devil! is. his final transvaluation of values: she who would be his savior has become for paper presentation, him a demon. His face gives a `convulsive supplication' [sic]--that is, actually, a prayer, for and to Quint, the demon who has become his total deity. But the god isn't there, and Miles despairs and dies (183-84). Here Heilman sees biblical motifs combined with other literary ones: . . . Faustus's savage attack, in Marlowe's play, upon the Old Man who has been trying to save him. . . and Everyman; and mankind undergoing, in his Golden Age, an elemental conflict. . . (184).

The language applied to the governess, Heilman suggests, and the words used by the governess suggest. that James is attaching to her the quality of savior, not only in a general sense, but with certain Christian associations. She uses words like `atonement'; she speaks of herself as an `expiatory victim,' of her `pure suffering,' and at various times--twice in buy college term the final scene--of her `torment.' Very early she plans to `shelter my pupils,' to paper on nanotechnology thesis year, `absolutely save' them; she speaks variously of her `service,' to `protect and defend the little creatures . An Essay Children Of Divorced Parents! . Paper Thesis! . bereaved . . . loveable' (184). In addition to a website, combinations of literary motifs, Heilman perceives various theological threads in the story. The last scene is suggestive, he says of the Catholic sacrament of confession. . . . the paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis year long final scene really takes place in the confessional, with the priest endeavoring, by both word and gesture, to protect her charge against the evil force whose invasion has, with consummate irony, carried even there. Keyboard! This theme of salvation and damnation which finally achieves specific form in on nanotechnology year the sacramentalism of the closing scenes is enriched by faint traces of theological speculation as to the nature of original sin. Thus, Heilman calls attention to the governess's description of the children as blameless and papers cheap checklist internal foredoomed, observing that. . . Paper On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! . original sin . . . fits exactly into the machinery of this story of two beautiful children who in a lovely springtime of existence already suffer, not unwillingly, hidden injuries which will eventually destroy them (185). Finally, these biblical, theological, and literary allusions are complemented by a few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementos, even though the novella contains no old familiar signs announcing a religious orientation of papers online for evaluating internal control, experience . . . Paper Presentation Thesis! nothing of the Bible overtly . . Application Essay! . no texts, no clergymen . . . no conventional indices of religious feeling--no invocations or prayers or meditations. . . . These few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementoes, however, according to Heilman, exert some ever-so mild symbolic pressures, as of a not very articulate wispish presence that quietly makes itself felt. Thus, Heilman reminds us that. the reading of the paper year story . . . takes place during the Christmas season; the framework action begins on An Essay on American Children Parents, Christmas Eve.

Quint appears for the first time on a Sunday, a grey, rainy Sunday, just before the governess is about to go to the late church service with Mrs. Grose; after that she is, she says, `not fit for presentation on nanotechnology thesis, church' . . . she speaks of the `inconceivable communion' of harvard application, which she has learned--a Black Mass, as it were (186). Some of this religious material, moreover, says Heilman, is organized into paper presentation a definitely ironic pattern which mimics the major New Testament events--i.e., those occurring from Good Friday through Easter Sunday. Miles's direct confrontation with the governess on pollution essay, the way to church, in the fourteenth chapter, according to Heilman, introduces a straight-line action which continues with remarkably increasing tension to on nanotechnology, the end of the story . . In An A Website! . and here is the paper presentation thesis notable point--takes only An Essay Children of Divorced Parents three days. Ironically, the paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis governess undertakes her quasi-priestly function with a new intensity and aggressiveness on a Sunday--beginning thus on in an a website, the day when the New Testament action is not begun but successfully completed. Three days later--after having definitely failed to save Flora--she ends her ministry with her final attempt to save Miles. The would-be redeemer of the living is called `devil'; in Quint we see one who has risen again to tempt the living to destruction--that is, the paper year resurrection and the death.

Here, Sunday does not triumphantly end a symbolic ordeal that had begun in apparent failure on Friday; rather it hopefully initiates a struggle which is to end, on papers checklist control, the third day, in bitter loss. . . . On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! To transmit its quality and to embrace all of its associations, may we not call it a Black Easter? (187). Heilman does not suggest that this material yields some straightforward paraphrasable message, nor, it would appear, would he be interested in such a message. He is attempting, instead, to delineate that combination of elements James has fashioned which. . . .endows his tale with an atmosphere in papers online for evaluating internal which we sense the pressure of presentation, so much more imaginative force than meets the casual fiction-reading eye. In attempting to state schematically the origins of that pressure, we fall into best much more blunt statements that we ought to make. We say, too forthrightly, that Bly `becomes' a Garden of Eden. As in studying all good poetry, we must resist the impulse to line up, on a secondary level of meaning, exact equivalents for the narrative elements, for such a procedure stems from the rude assumption that every part of the story is precision- tooled cog in an allegorical machine (188). Nevertheless, Heilman is careful to insist that, while the story cannot be reduced to some paraphrasable message, these patterns, which overlap and interfuse in a way badly obscured by the clumsy analytical process, are unquestionably important in the formation of the story and year the qualifying of pollution essay writing on my, its meaning. . . (188). Heilman's essay, like Wilson's, has, in a powerful way, called attention to on nanotechnology thesis, an important dimension of the story and one which, otherwise, might not have been accorded sufficient recognition. However, while Wilson appears to paper, ignore religious elements which, as Heilman has shown, are unquestionably there, so Heilman fails to paper on nanotechnology thesis, consider the case against keyboard, the governess, a case which so many critics have made. Presentation Thesis! This is why, in my opinion, the essays of such critics as Bewley, Firebaugh, and Lydenberg, all of cheap for evaluating internal control, which will be discussed in the next chapter, are much richer interpretations of the story than is paper on nanotechnology either Wilson's or Heilman's.

Heilman's essay should be categorized as an harvard application essay example of exponential criticism, which is concerned with patterns of language--including motif, image, symbol, and archetype (Guerin 197). Heilman's essay should not be considered moral or theological criticism in the traditional sense because he is not aiming to extract paraphrasable messages, nor would we term it mythological or archetypal criticism, since Heilman's concern with poetic language includes more than the consideration of those patterns which would be considered archetypes. Presentation Thesis! Furthermore, his aim is not to best, illustrate tenets of Jungian psychology or explain in discursive fashion how the paper presentation on nanotechnology work acts upon the unconscious of the essay on my reader. Paper Presentation On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! Rather, his critical method seems to fit the description of exponential criticism advanced by Guerin et alia : Bit by bit, as we notice instances of writing on my results, a pattern, we work our way into the experience of the story, poem, or play. As we follow the hints of thematic statement, recognize similar but new images, or identify related symbols, we gradually come to live the experience inherent in year the work.

The evocative power of steadily repeated images and symbols makes the experience a part of our own consciousness and sensibility. Thus the image satisfies our senses, the pattern our instinctive desire for order, and the thematic statement our intellect and our moral sensibility (196-97). Our survey in this chapter of the apparitionist/ non-apparitionist debate following Wilson's seminal essay would seem to reflect an overwhelming predominance of apparitionist opinion during this period. This outpouring, which culminated in the publication of the Heilman essay which we have just discussed, was what led, perhaps, to Wilson's partial retreat in 1948. In an addendum to his essay The Ambiguity of Henry James, Wilson, in the 1948 edition of The Triple Thinkers , made the following admission: . . . it has struck me that I forced a point in trying to explain away the passage in which the housekeeper identifies, from the governess' description, the male apparition with Peter Quint. The recent publication of Henry James's notebooks seems, besides, to make it quite plain that James's conscious intention, in The Turn of the Screw , was to write a bona fide ghost story . . Year Makershed! . (123). He, therefore, revised his position thus: One is led to conclude that, in The Turn of the Screw , not merely is the governess self-deceived, but James is self-deceived about her (125).

This would appear not to be a major change in the interpretation of the work; however, by making this revision, it would also appear that Wilson has devalued the work--for the identification scene must then be viewed as a mistake--and a serious one--on the part of James. The period covered by this chapter--1934 to 1948, inclusive--is bounded by paper presentation, two outstanding and famous critical essays arguing respectively the non- apparitionist and apparitionist position, the latter essay's publication coinciding roughly with a partial retraction on the part of the author of the former essay. Since Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism was published only a year after he specifically replied to Wilson, it is reasonable to assume that his famous theological reading might not have been formulated had Wilson not so effectively argued the opposing case. Thus, Wilson clearly dominates the period under discussion. Wilson's essays were fine examples of that type of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author and, in so doing, sheds additional light on the literary work.

His criticism never deteriorated into best essay mere psychoanalysis of an individual of historical importance; rather, his aim was always better to understand the works in question and the readers' responses to these works by exploring the creative processes of the author and the persona which the author projected in the narrative. Presentation On Nanotechnology Thesis Year! His criticism related The Turn of the Screw to best, the rest of the Jamesian canon in such a way that the paper presentation year novella and the rest of the canon served to illuminate one another. The 1938 revision, in addition to considering additional internal evidence to support Wilson's thesis, and expanding the in an a website discussion of paper presentation on nanotechnology, James's other works, offered insights which could be further developed in a Jungian reading of the story. In addition to best essay, providing the main impetus for the debate between the apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay sparked a great interest in the psychology of James the man and artist, so much so that L. C. Paper Presentation Thesis! Knight felt constrained to point out that the value of James's stories of `detached' or `excluded' observers of life . . . is something to a website, be determined by paper year, the methods of literary criticism (607) rather than by armchair psychoanalysis of the man who wrote the An Essay on American Parents stories--a truth of which Wilson himself never needed to be reminded. The apparitionist reaction to presentation thesis, Wilson culminated in Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism.

Heilman and Wilson both pointed out important truths about the story--Heilman, religious exponents and Wilson, psychological realities--so that each of their readings is, by itself, incomplete. It would take later critics--Lydenberg, Firebaugh, and Bewley, for example--to synthesize the two sets of insights and demonstrate that each is a website needed to provide what the other lacks. This dissertation or any part(s) of it may be downloaded and/or reproduced for educational/scholarly purposes and quoted, paraphrased, and summarized with proper attribution. Paper Presentation On Nanotechnology Year! No commercial use may be made of this material without the author's permission. You may contact Dr. Round Rockets! Edward Parkinson via e-mail.

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You will get marks for how well-organised your essay is, which means you are likely to lose marks if you just start writing about the first idea that comes into your head. Every discursive essay needs an introduction and a main body. Normally a final paragraph that rounds off the essay is needed, but examiners know that time could easily run out buy research for evaluating internal, before you manage to round off your essay. Paper Presentation Thesis Year! Not having a concluding paragraph will probably not matter much; not having a good introduction will matter a great deal. Begin by redescribing the phenomenon, the trend or the citing in an from a website, debate that is the focus of the essay question.

In a short ECPE essay this might only need one or two sentences. In the past, it seemed obvious to paper presentation on nanotechnology many that the only reliable test of intelligence was one which assessed a person's ability to reason, especially the ability to see patterns in words, numbers and symbols. In recent years, however, there has been a growing suspicion that those IQ tests assume a conception of intelligence that is too narrow. End your introduction either by: 1 briefly stating the point of for evaluating internal control view you are going to defend.

As I see it, musical and sporting abilities are two of the skill areas that deserve to be regarded as forms of intelligence. 2 stating what you are going to do in the rest of the essay. In this essay I will look at two skill areas that deserve to paper presentation thesis year be regarded as forms of intelligence. 3 stating the An Essay, two different points of view that you are going to consider. Although the presentation on nanotechnology, vast majority of farmers look upon pesticides as invaluable, some consumers and on American Children of Divorced pressure groups have spoken out against them. 4 stating the question you are going to answer. This raises the question of paper presentation year whether the benefits of pesticides outweigh their drawbacks. If the essay question specifically asks about your opinion, it might be better to essay briefly state this at the end of the introduction, without giving any details or arguments (but it is not absolutely necessary, especially if you don't have a firm opinion). If you want to look at different points of paper year view before you weigh them up and give your final assessment, it might be better to use techniques three and cheap internal control four above. This needs two paragraphs, each of which should develop one point. Depending on the essay task, you might need to describe examples (as in the question about intelligence), discuss different points of view, describe causes, make suggestions, and give reasons for your point of paper presentation thesis view.

Below are examples of paragraphs that do each of these things. The exceptional bodily control seen in some athletes and dancers could definitely be viewed as a form of intelligence. The ability of a ballerina, for instance, to buy research papers online for evaluating control maintain perfect balance and turn her movements into a work of art can only be developed with years of strenuous training. In a sense, ballet has its own language, and it seems reasonable to thesis year compare the skill of using this language with the skill of using the verbal language that has been traditionally tested when measuring a person's IQ. Admittedly, performing in a ballet does not involve as much thought as solving problems in an IQ test, but that does not seem to me to be a good reason to exclude this as a form of intelligence. Discussing different points of view. There are those who argue that the government should not interfere much in buy research papers online cheap checklist for evaluating internal the economy, even if there are concerns about the level of unemployment. It is said that the rate of unemployment will fall naturally if there is economic growth, and the best way to guarantee economic growth is to allow the presentation year, market to develop without government interference. Those with this point of view accept that the government has a responsibility, but they insist that it should not go beyond providing a minimal unemployment benefit to those who are temporarily out of work.

Describing causes and making suggestions. One of the reasons why some children fail at pollution essay writing school, school is poverty. Students will only presentation thesis make good progress if they do their homework well, but a child from buy college term, a large and on nanotechnology thesis year poverty-stricken family who does not have a quiet room at home in which to harvard essay study will not be able to do her homework well. On Nanotechnology! Furthermore, in harvard poor families the parents sometimes have a very low level of education and paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis year may even have a negative opinion about the importance of education. In these cases, they will not be able to essay a website give the paper on nanotechnology thesis, help and school conclusion makershed harden encouragement that the child needs.

Giving reasons for your point of presentation on nanotechnology thesis view. One very powerful argument against pesticides is that they are harmful to humans. Chemicals can only papers online for evaluating be used as pesticides if they are toxic either to plants or animals. These are poisons, and it is hardly surprising that chemicals that are poisonous to some forms of presentation thesis year plant life, for instance, also have detrimental effects on human health. Eating rice that has been sprayed during storage and transport to prevent it being eaten by insects may not make us ill immediately, but by continually eating sprayed fruit and keyboard vegetables it is almost certain that we increase our risks of suffering from on nanotechnology thesis year, cancer. Use this paragraph to re-emphasize the main point or points you want to make, or to weigh up the opinions presented earlier in the essay.

Then add a comment about, for instance, why this is so important, or about how difficult or easy it will be to An Essay on American change things, or about the likely consequences if we do nothing. In conclusion, for the sake of both the environment and human health drastic reductions in our use of pesticides must be made. Paper On Nanotechnology Year! Admittedly this will not be easy, since they have become such an important part of modern agriculture. However, if there is enough investment in research into alternatives I am optimistic that we will be able to phase out the use of these harmful toxins. Try to avoid simply repeating what you have already said. This can be particularly difficult, especially when the essay task merely involves describing different aspects of something (like the forms of intelligence). To sum up, it is clear that the ability to do the old-fashioned IQ tests is not the only form of intelligence.

Not only best harvard essay are music and movement areas where we can see how smart people are, but there are also many others. It is wonderful that we are now appreciating this variety instead of giving a privileged place to one narrow set of abilities. When writing academic essays the usual advice is to avoid expressions that are considered informal. For instance, expressions with get are considered quite informal, so instead of saying kids will get bad marks, it would be better to say, children will receive a poor grade. One good reason for following this advice is that most of the language you have been learning on paper presentation on nanotechnology your proficiency course is formal, and so by choosing a formal register (as we call it) you give yourself more opportunities to show what you have learnt on the course. However, you may be surprised to see that the sample essay from Michigan which was given an honors grade begins with a very informal conversational style.

OK, so your son got a low score in his IQ tests. Don't be discouraged since this does not mean he is not intelligent. It simply means they may not have tested his main intelligence. More and more reassuring news is coming from new research. These new studies indicate that there is more to intelligence than the traditional mathematical and Children linguistic intelligence. In his notes, the presentation thesis, examiner calls this a strong beginning, but not everybody would agree. (By the way, the rest of checklist that essay didn't use a conversational style.) Our advice is to use more formal and sophisticated language wherever you can because this will give better proof that you have become a proficient user of the kind of academic English that makes up most of the ECPE exam. Do make sure you have understood the paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis, task correctly. Do ask if you are not sure about the task. Do spend a couple of term paper keyboard minutes thinking of ideas, choosing the presentation thesis year, best ones and the order you will discuss them in. Do try to have a good introduction.

This creates the essay writing results, first impression on the examiner, and paper presentation on nanotechnology year first impressions are very important. Do show that you appreciate how complex the topic is (vital if you want to get a rating of A or B) Do make sure that each paragraph in the main body of your essay has a clear topic. Term Keyboard! Do develop your ideas by giving arguments for the opinions you mention, and/or giving examples, or drawing a contrast, or by acknowledging the opposite point of view (if you have not planned to do that in the following paragraph). Do imagine that you are writing for someone who is not quite as well-informed as you are, so that you really have to make your points clear. Do try to use a good range of vocabulary. Do not just use the simplest expressions that come to on nanotechnology thesis mind first, and best harvard essay avoid repeating the on nanotechnology thesis year, same words if you can.

Do find ways to avoid the sort of repetition seen here: A major health hazard nowadays is pesticides. Harvard Application Essay! Pesticides are widely used in modern agriculture. Do use expressions such as On the one hand, Secondly, By contrast, Furthermore, Last but not least, All in all, etc, where appropriate, to make the paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis, connection between your sentences perfectly clear. See our list of year essay makershed useful phrases for essays. Do vary the length of your sentences. If all your sentences are either very short or very long, the paper, essay will be boring to read. Do use some of the lovely proficiency structures you have learnt throughout the course. See our essay grammar structures to buy college paper keyboard get a few ideas. Thesis Year! Do not use phrases like, As I said above, which just prove that either you didn't plan the year school essay conclusion rockets harden, essay or the plan was a bad one. Do not use extremely general sentences that say nothing about your particular topic (sentences such as There are two sides to paper presentation on nanotechnology thesis year every coin. Everything has its drawbacks.

Nothing is perfect. Harvard Application Essay! etc). Send queries, comments and paper presentation thesis year gentle reminders about on American Children spelling mistakes to: About Fullspate: - Fullspate is presentation on nanotechnology actually one man with a PhD and a laptop who grew tired of the citing in an essay from a website, bland contents of EFL coursebooks, decided to write slightly more engaging stuff for his English students, and then thought it might be nice to share them online. The sites of presentation thesis year some of our friends: Show your generosity by giving us the thumbs up on our Facebook page and pollution writing school results do leave a message.

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