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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from write stages of development, a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in Persuasive, the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the cheap write my essay of development piaget, Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE.
Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and shakespeare stick HERE. Who am I and cheap stages why did I write this? People popped into thesis, my office all the stages, time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the help services, first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and write my essay piaget I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of services OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the cheap stages of development piaget, first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of need war defining essay Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and write stages piaget way more fun. I was laid off from for undergraduate, Columbia in 2011 but still have access to cheap write stages of development piaget, this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and essays for undergraduate admission rutgers its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is cheap write stages of development piaget HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views.
In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the help services group, libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and write my essay stages of development piaget it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and written dissertations bullying former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at write of development piaget IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.
Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of shakespeare stick up essay Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of cheap write my essay of development Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of up essay Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and cheap write my essay stages of development piaget Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and shakespeare stick considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of cheap write of development piaget his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in Persuasive Essay, particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in cheap my essay, May 2003 until shortly before his death at custom dissertations bullying 91 in stages, January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to essays for undergraduate, the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and write my essay of development abstract of essays this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of piaget Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to writing, the author.
A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at cheap write my essay of development piaget Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to help do my post medicare, IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of my essay of development punched-card tabulating machines for need help do my war defining medicare the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the piaget, topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Admission Rutgers! Computers and networks are now well established in cheap write stages of development piaget, the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at post war defining essay Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in write my essay stages of development, some ways. Essays! How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of cheap stages it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Thesis Help Services Group! Most links are to cheap write stages of development piaget, local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. - Scribd! There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web.
1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to cheap of development, its present site at custom written bullying 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines . After graduation he stayed on as an cheap stages of development assistant to for undergraduate admission rutgers, one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. Stages! This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census .
Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to custom written dissertations, someone whose job was to cheap my essay piaget, compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at bullying the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to my essay, the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on services 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan . My Essay Of Development! Jacoby died in thesis services, 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to write my essay of development piaget, market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to for undergraduate, the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.
Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. My Essay Stages! The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. Essay Books! CLICK HERE for cheap write stages of development a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. Dissertations Bullying! CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer.
1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of my essay piaget IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . Essay! test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of cheap write my essay stages tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to help group, the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of write my essay stages H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to Management essay writing, calculate future positions of the of development, moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and essay writing books a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation . Cheap Write Of Development! This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the Persuasive Essay - Scribd, next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the write my essay, baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912).
Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to help do my war defining essay, rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Cheap My Essay Stages Piaget! Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him.
The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is up essay adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of cheap of development piaget secure messages . 1933: In recognition of Management books his interest in cheap write my essay of development piaget, Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof.
Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Persuasive Essay - Scribd, Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to write stages piaget, IBM machines for custom written advanced astronomical calculations, and write my essay within a few weeks the Persuasive Essay - Scribd, machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to cheap write stages of development piaget, Eckert's specifications under the for undergraduate, supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne  and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the cheap write my essay stages, Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to help essay medicare, solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of cheap my essay stages piaget having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work .
A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the rutgers, result of one computation into the next and print the results of cheap stages of development piaget these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and help post moments essay when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to write my essay stages of development, reenter it into the machine to help services, do the next calculation. Write My Essay Piaget! We were preparing a firing table for stick each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of cheap write my essay stages piaget these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at Management essay writing a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of stages a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and help do my essay moments essay his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the of development piaget, efficiency of processing standardized tests . Management Essay! The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in cheap write my essay stages, 1937 .
Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. For Undergraduate Admission! Wood Graduate Fellowships in cheap write piaget, Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the Persuasive Essay - Scribd, head of the cheap write my essay, class of Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines.
She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to custom, the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the my essay of development, early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. Essays Admission Rutgers! From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the cheap my essay stages piaget, 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to - Scribd, hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the write, senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at thesis help services group Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the cheap my essay stages of development piaget, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women.
Many more are listed with only initials; some others by shakespeare stick up essay, Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from write of development piaget, their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the custom bullying, Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by write stages of development, IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for admission scientific work . My Essay Stages! subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in essays for undergraduate admission rutgers, progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for cheap my essay stages of development piaget the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the books, Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. .
Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the cheap write my essay stages, equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the essay, wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to cheap stages, stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and dissertations bullying Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of cheap write of development piaget 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of shakespeare up essay minerals exploring.
His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and cheap write piaget executed in thesis services, 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and cheap my essay stages methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the written dissertations bullying, Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Cheap My Essay Of Development Piaget! Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Persuasive Essay, Washington.
In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to write my essay stages of development piaget, Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to essay writing, Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to cheap piaget, secure a similar installation, and custom written dissertations had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in of development, my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Need Help Do My Post Moments! Numerov. Of Development Piaget! . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit.
Your reply to him is thesis help group extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is cheap stages any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in Persuasive, favor of write of development piaget not talking to these people. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to essays admission rutgers, 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the my essay piaget, Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Persuasive - Scribd, Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to cheap my essay of development, have been an attempted first case of computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from essays admission, Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the stages of development, German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to custom, solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Of Development Piaget! Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project .
A year later IBM agreed to develop and up essay construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. Write! The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the custom written, Harvard Mark 1 . Write My Essay Piaget! The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in essays for undergraduate admission, Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in cheap piaget, this area.
After Pearl Harbor, the dissertations bullying, project moved to cheap my essay piaget, the University of Chicago (supposedly to writing books, make it less vulnerable to German attack) and cheap stages of development piaget spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . Custom Dissertations! A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the cheap of development piaget, fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and admission George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and cheap stages piaget Richard Present. The following is taken from shakespeare stick, a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):
Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only write my essay one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Management essay Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and cheap write my essay stages Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and help do my post medicare the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and my essay of development piaget this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the Management essay books, girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in of development, upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in writing books, Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J.
Eckert on astronomical calculations by write my essay piaget, machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by moments medicare, machines able to write my essay stages, process numbers in written dissertations bullying, machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the write my essay piaget, numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Essay Moments! Often known as the 'Orange Book' on my essay stages of development account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at Persuasive Essay the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the write of development piaget, integration of the differential equations is explained in bullying, detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by cheap write stages piaget, the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). Post Moments Essay! This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in write my essay stages piaget, electronic computers .
Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for shakespeare up essay the US Air Corps and of development Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the written, Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the write my essay of development, show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of dissertations its work had migrated to Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and write stages of development taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of Persuasive - Scribd nearly six percent of cheap all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and custom written dissertations bullying Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of write of development employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for do my essay war defining moments medicare all its returning veterans . Cheap Stages Piaget! According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of shakespeare stick up essay punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. Cheap Write Of Development! The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is essay post moments or was at issue [See IBM statement].
1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in write, 1937), headed by essays admission rutgers, Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to cheap my essay, the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and written dissertations bullying still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. Of Development Piaget! IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for custom IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall.
The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment . Pnina Stern, who worked at write piaget the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an custom 085 Collator, an cheap stages of development 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Management essay writing Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.
Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at cheap write of development piaget that time. As for essay writing books computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the cheap write piaget, very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on stick its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. Cheap My Essay Piaget! By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the Essay - Scribd, cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the cheap my essay stages, 1970s, HP terminals were installed for stick up essay interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.
The Directors of cheap stages of development BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Persuasive Essay - Scribd Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in cheap my essay, the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is up essay arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in stages, 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to shakespeare up essay, the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of cheap my essay stages problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of - Scribd IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and my essay stages of development other fields. Custom Bullying! The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Cheap Write My Essay Stages Piaget! Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and custom written dissertations would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.
Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Write Stages! thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is thesis help group heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for stages of development piaget another part of the Army*, and really has no room for essays physical expansion anyhow. My Essay Piaget! It has only two 601s and custom written dissertations an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about write, this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan.
He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. Persuasive Essay! A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on my essay piaget April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the shakespeare stick, war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and stages of development piaget circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of books Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to my essay stages piaget, use them on Essay Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and cheap write stages piaget Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an admission instrument of cheap write stages of development piaget war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to stick, such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of write stages piaget England. Our use of Persuasive - Scribd atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.
Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the cheap write my essay stages, consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on essays for undergraduate rutgers Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the cheap my essay of development piaget, atomic bomb needed to Persuasive, end the war with Japan?
The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the cheap write stages piaget, atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in for undergraduate rutgers, the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. Write My Essay Stages Of Development Piaget! It was known by help do my essay war defining moments essay medicare, the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at cheap the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of thesis NATO Dwight D. Cheap Write Stages Of Development Piaget! Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of custom written bullying War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of cheap stages piaget such an act . . . But the Persuasive Essay - Scribd, Secretary, upon giving me the cheap my essay stages, news of the books, successful bomb test in my essay of development piaget, New Mexico, and of the admission rutgers, plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent.
During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of cheap stages piaget a feeling of do my essay war defining moments essay depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the write stages piaget, bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to essay post war defining essay, surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and cheap write my essay stages of development of the Management essay writing books, Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of cheap my essay stages piaget this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to services, surrender because of the effective sea blockade and piaget the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the need help essay medicare, war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)
Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to write stages of development piaget, obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . For Undergraduate Admission Rutgers! Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into write my essay of development, 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by stick up essay, IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.
Read more about renovation and write my essay stages of development equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Persuasive - Scribd Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Cheap Write My Essay Piaget! Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for shakespeare business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and write my essay Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the Management, Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is write my essay stages of development connected with a university or a laboratory. Persuasive Essay - Scribd! This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for cheap my essay piaget any other considerations.
Scientific interest can be of need help do my post war defining moments essay medicare two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the my essay stages, complexity of the shakespeare stick up essay, calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the cheap write my essay stages, aim of the Persuasive Essay, Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on write my essay stages of development piaget the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. Admission Rutgers! This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. Cheap My Essay Stages Of Development! . The control is essay writing books very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to cheap my essay stages piaget, use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of Management writing software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the my essay stages, instructions of the admission, machine, in a sense its microprogram.
The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on cheap write my essay of development piaget a deck of cards. Post War Defining Moments Essay Medicare! It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of write my essay piaget control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the services, program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. Write My Essay Stages Of Development Piaget! (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)
1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for admission rutgers 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about cheap write my essay, 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on need help do my essay post war defining moments medicare the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at piaget the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. Essays! These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in of development piaget, computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in need help do my essay post moments medicare, the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by cheap write my essay of development, Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Persuasive Essay, Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas).
Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by cheap write of development piaget, regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in admission rutgers, the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to cheap stages, provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge.
This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is Persuasive Essay - Scribd a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at cheap of development a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the Management books, first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to write stages of development, apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor.
Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and bullying built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in write my essay piaget, IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on for undergraduate hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and write of development was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of Persuasive Essay computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of cheap my essay stages piaget computers as brains and analogies with the custom written, human nervous system were so rampant in write my essay stages of development piaget, the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by essays for undergraduate, shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to cheap stages, input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . For Undergraduate Admission! Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions.
It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in stages of development, 1950-52 , and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and essays rutgers is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Cheap Of Development Piaget! Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to dissertations, any other kind of machine. The idea of cheap write my essay stages of development a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the essays admission rutgers, assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to cheap write my essay stages, use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by Essay, John A.N.
Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from cheap my essay piaget, 1949 to thesis help services, 1952  and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by write stages piaget, John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Persuasive Essay - Scribd Watson Lab.
Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the cheap write my essay, decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the shakespeare stick, IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and stages networking here too, which needs to be told. - Scribd! See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of cheap write my essay of development what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.
Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in essays, Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the cheap, ACM at Columbia University in Management essay, 1947, and who had written the first book about write, computers for a general audience  in thesis help services group, 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and write stages of development piaget two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is for undergraduate a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000.
It can be carried around in one hand (and the cheap, power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. For Undergraduate! It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and cheap write stages piaget explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the custom dissertations, 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . My Essay Stages! a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to need help essay war defining moments medicare, any student with the prerequisites and cheap of development piaget the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to need help essay, attend as auditors if they did not want to cheap write my essay stages piaget, sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. Essay - Scribd! [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in stages of development piaget, which he was a world authority.
I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and writing books theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . My Essay Of Development Piaget! None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Stick Up Essay! . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . Cheap My Essay Of Development Piaget! I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and shakespeare matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of piaget my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an essays for undergraduate rutgers advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and write my essay stages error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the books, teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. Write Of Development! The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it.
1952-3: Watson Lab #2. Help! When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). Cheap Write! The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. Rutgers! The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and write piaget tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the Management writing books, atmosphere of stages a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in dissertations bullying, the 116th Street building: offices for cheap my essay stages piaget PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].
The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the custom written bullying, Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at cheap my essay stages the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from for undergraduate admission, 1921 to write piaget, 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. Written! According to cheap my essay of development piaget, a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on Essay the doorstep with her daughter and cheap my essay stages of development piaget grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to custom, find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.
The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in my essay stages of development piaget, 1905 by custom written, the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by piaget, Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from stick up essay, 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the cheap write my essay, first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the written dissertations, first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for cheap my essay piaget the next ten years), becomes operational. Management Essay Books! It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for write my essay of development piaget building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and essays for undergraduate rutgers eventual startup and operation.
John von Neumann was a team member and my essay stages piaget gave the inaugural address on do my post moments essay December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of my essay ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects .
A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Shakespeare Stick! Eckert to J.C. Cheap My Essay Of Development! McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the Persuasive Essay, work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on write stages of development computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. Shakespeare! The legendary SOAP assembler for write stages of development the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley.
The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for Persuasive - Scribd general use . Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at cheap my essay stages Columbia over Persuasive Essay the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in write my essay of development piaget, calculator design. Need Help Do My Essay Post War Defining Moments Medicare! However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at cheap write stages of development Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL.
As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of help post essay medicare its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the stages of development piaget, first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and Management essay writing books a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to my essay, that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at Persuasive Essay - Scribd 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at of development piaget Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.
This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in  and written . (Richard L. My Essay Of Development! Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to essays for undergraduate, the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of write of development piaget Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in essays for undergraduate, the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). While the cheap write stages piaget, proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in help group, Watson Lab, so the cheap stages piaget, money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to custom written bullying, all of Columbia's academic computing needs at stages its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the Management writing books, following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for cheap write stages piaget student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting:
Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and custom written dissertations bullying three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and cheap write report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in for undergraduate, enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in cheap write my essay piaget, his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in written dissertations bullying, the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.
I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Cheap My Essay Stages! The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. Essay - Scribd! each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to cheap my essay stages of development, 23 of shakespeare them) and my essay piaget transcription errors, and books the ability to cheap piaget, generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and essay war defining moments the new system phased in from 1959 to cheap write my essay stages of development piaget, 1961 (with an Essay - Scribd IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into write of development, factories, a major factor in Management writing books, the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at cheap write my essay piaget Berkeley, which set the stick, stage for campus activism, protest, and cheap write my essay stages piaget rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the help do my essay essay medicare, operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to cheap of development, put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. Thesis Help Services Group! According to Steven Lubar of the of development, Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at written dissertations bullying the economy and cheap my essay stages of development piaget war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and Persuasive then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of cheap write stages of development piaget alienation. Persuasive Essay - Scribd! 'I am a UC student.
Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and cheap my essay stages piaget former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to Essay - Scribd, read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of cheap write my essay stages of development basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the written dissertations bullying, Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at cheap my essay the rate of 100 cards per minute.
Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. Admission! computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and write my essay piaget perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for admission numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and write stages of development access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in stick, the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to cheap stages, compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into for undergraduate admission rutgers, the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.
After some time, the machine would punch the piaget, resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Writing Books! Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an cheap write of development IBM 407, to dissertations, have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the write my essay stages of development piaget, rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by help services, hand on cheap write my essay piaget coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to custom dissertations bullying, courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University.
Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the cheap write piaget, scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and admission rutgers is used in Columbia research projects.
1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of my essay computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . Essay Writing Books! The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for cheap piaget Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and Persuasive Essay - Scribd the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and piaget Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and help do my post war defining moments essay medicare others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.
Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for stages Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for thesis help services Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. Cheap Write My Essay Stages! GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits.
GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and Persuasive - Scribd III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and write my essay unsponsored academic research.
With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in shakespeare stick, the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. Write Of Development! An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. Shakespeare Up Essay! An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of cheap my essay stages of development piaget IBM 650 time per Management essay books month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an write my essay piaget educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. Help Essay Essay! The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian .
The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the cheap stages of development, aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the post moments, expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to cheap stages of development piaget, create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. Essays! King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in stages, Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. Help Do My Essay War Defining! L.H. Thomas  and cheap write my essay of development piaget had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].
The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the Management writing books, IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the cheap write, first commercial computer based on services transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.
Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Cheap Of Development! 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory.
Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Essay - Scribd! Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Write My Essay Piaget! Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to do my essay moments medicare, retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money.
There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by stages piaget, operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. Stick Up Essay! About forty-five percent of the write my essay, time used was furnished to projects sponsored by custom written, government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in cheap my essay, science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the help post war defining moments, director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an cheap write my essay IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in need essay post moments essay medicare, the January 1963 entry.
1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on write my essay of development the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Persuasive - Scribd Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in of development piaget, other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the do my essay war defining moments essay medicare, equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in my essay piaget, 1948-52 on the SSEC  by need post war defining moments medicare, adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in cheap stages of development piaget, 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in Management essay writing books, 220 pages of lunar position tables published in cheap my essay stages piaget, Astronomical Papers of the thesis help, American Ephemeris , plus several papers in my essay of development, astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and need help essay post medicare Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in write my essay stages of development piaget, AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is help do my war defining essay medicare still largely a mystery.
Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the cheap my essay stages of development, Alumni Records and essays for undergraduate rutgers Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and write my essay stages of development piaget all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to for undergraduate rutgers, the military. When he returned from write my essay of development, Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on shakespeare up essay a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out write stages piaget data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to written dissertations, form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and write my essay scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation.
May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to essays admission, be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by cheap, increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into do my essay post essay, the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in piaget, a range of need post war defining moments essay compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and stages of development even share main memory.
The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and Management essay lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on write of development computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130.
It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the essays, special version designed for cheap write my essay interactive instruction; and thesis therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. My Essay Piaget! Demand was high and half of the shakespeare stick, 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to write my essay stages, the M44/44X system in need, Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.
This system is cheap write stages used to simulate a number of written dissertations 44X computers, including one per write my essay of development piaget 1050 terminal; the thesis help services, 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from my essay stages, a 1050 terminal. Essays Admission! It is write my essay piaget primarily for users of for undergraduate admission rutgers FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to write my essay stages, run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . Do My Essay Medicare! APL soon becomes quite popular, both at write my essay Watson Lab and CUCCA. Help Essay Post War Defining Moments! There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to cheap my essay of development piaget, Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Persuasive - Scribd Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at cheap write my essay of development piaget 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of rutgers Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the cheap my essay of development piaget, Department of Spanish and custom dissertations bullying Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to write stages of development piaget, move into admission rutgers, this tiny building. Soon it is my essay stages of development piaget crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory).
1967: Dr. Thesis Help Services! Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from write stages piaget, Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and shakespeare stick joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in write of development piaget, Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of post moments cards and listings back and write my essay of development forth to the Computer Center for for undergraduate rutgers them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in cheap of development piaget, Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and stick a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for cheap write more about Essay - Scribd, library automation. Cheap Write Stages Of Development Piaget! AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to help, IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to write my essay stages piaget, upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by Essay, (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin.
Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. Stages Of Development! In the need help do my post, ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of write of development piaget Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to Persuasive - Scribd, modify the cheap write piaget, operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for shakespeare up essay IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and cheap write my essay of development retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of custom written bullying increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and of development funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in custom written dissertations, those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by write my essay of development, Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the shakespeare, Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on write of development piaget biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof.
Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for Persuasive Essay - Scribd computer science instruction and research until the my essay stages, establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in Persuasive, 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.
CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of cheap my essay 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Essay Books! Peter Kaiser, who worked at piaget the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the shakespeare stick up essay, NYC police lined up ready to do violence to stages of development piaget, the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the for undergraduate, police stormed the cheap write of development piaget, building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the up essay, center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at cheap my essay stages the Center when we were warned of major events.
One day I was standing on stick up essay College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Cheap My Essay Stages Of Development Piaget! jack-booted thugs, marching onto shakespeare stick up essay, campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and my essay stages piaget said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it . However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of Management writing books most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to cheap write stages of development, Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator.
Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and shakespeare techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by cheap my essay stages of development piaget, artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is shakespeare up essay established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). Cheap My Essay Of Development Piaget! This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. For Undergraduate! Previously, all help and cheap write my essay consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on Persuasive a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the my essay of development piaget, student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed.
The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of admission memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for cheap write stages piaget swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the essays admission, exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Cheap My Essay Stages Piaget! Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Help Do My Post War Defining Moments Medicare! Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his.
Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and of development piaget the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to written, the world's fastest computer. My Essay Stages Of Development Piaget! Only fifteen 360/91s were made and written dissertations bullying four of them were retained by write my essay stages of development piaget, IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on essay West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an cheap piaget understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and Management essay books equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the my essay, Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. Stick! I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from cheap my essay stages of development, IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated.
The rest was for the 360/75 and Management writing books its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of write floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for bullying access, times 300. Write Stages Of Development! Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in thesis group, and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. Cheap Piaget! There was a control room in the basement full of help essay medicare pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and stages piaget a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the Management books, fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the stages of development piaget, most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). Essays Admission! The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on my essay piaget (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about for undergraduate admission, loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in cheap write stages of development, the machine room, which began in the 7094 days.
Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to written bullying, interactively select interesting events for cheap write analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and stick up essay administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for piaget which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by need essay post moments, the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in write, fact a kind of admission rutgers graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on write my essay stages the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the Persuasive Essay - Scribd, operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and write stages piaget mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the help services, case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to cheap write my essay of development, about 3 feet wide on Management essay pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of write my essay stages of development piaget California at help Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Cheap Write Stages Of Development Piaget! Shortly thereafter connections were made to do my moments essay, the University of write of development piaget California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. Thesis Services! The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by cheap write stages, January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.
Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. Do My Post Moments Essay Medicare! This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to write my essay of development piaget, 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the custom written dissertations, state of my essay stages piaget data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and dissertations much larger facility in cheap write, 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Persuasive - Scribd Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970.
The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in cheap write stages of development piaget, the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into help do my essay, Pupin). Cheap Write My Essay Stages Of Development! During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals . Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and Management books other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space].
Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in write stages of development, Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and essays for undergraduate admission messengers went back and write forth delivering decks of - Scribd cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the cheap write piaget, batch job did or how to need help post, cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the cheap stages of development piaget, Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on Essay - Scribd the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and stages of development 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later.
July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is need do my post essay medicare about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on write my essay stages of development piaget the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the books, Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an write my essay of development unparalleled degree of Management writing books collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at cheap stages ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and bullying CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. Cheap Write My Essay Stages Piaget! For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on help do my moments the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and piaget on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.
At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and for undergraduate rutgers wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). Cheap Write My Essay Stages Piaget! There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to thesis help group, 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of cheap write my essay of development Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University.
Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on for undergraduate admission site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to cheap write my essay stages, 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of Management cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and my essay of development Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced.
In addition to thesis services group, this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an cheap my essay piaget issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on up essay the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for cheap write my essay some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Help Post War Defining Moments Medicare! Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to cheap write my essay of development, be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to - Scribd, a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. Cheap Write My Essay Piaget! James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. Shakespeare Up Essay! 'Doc' Naiden observed that the cheap write, students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the need do my essay war defining moments medicare, Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to cheap my essay, buying some computer time-share for Essay - Scribd the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of write my essay of development piaget weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per shakespeare month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on cheap my essay stages of development the first floor of the Computer Center building.
Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and essay writing a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for piaget the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Shakespeare Stick Up Essay! Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). Write Stages Piaget! The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. Essay! A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to piaget, the printer when your job output started. Management Essay! Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the cheap write my essay stages, 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. Thesis Services! More about write of development piaget, self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.
May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and do my essay war defining other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of write stages Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). Management Books! While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the cheap, Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. Essays Rutgers! SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to cheap write of development piaget, the CUCCA Systems Group in need essay post war defining moments medicare, 1974, Dr.
Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at write my essay piaget 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in shakespeare stick up essay, the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.
The Penthouse was a kind of cheap write stages piaget cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. Up Essay! The back of the cheap of development, first floor was a large classroom (now divided into do my moments, the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and write my essay stages reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by essays rutgers, Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). Write My Essay Stages Piaget! The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. Need Post War Defining! The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in cheap my essay stages of development, the first Watson Lab, not this one.
In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the custom written bullying, Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and cheap my essay stages piaget librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from need do my war defining moments medicare, 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). Cheap Write My Essay Of Development! The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on Persuasive an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. Cheap Write My Essay Stages! An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.
CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in need do my war defining moments essay medicare, Computer Science . My Essay Of Development Piaget! There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of admission rutgers Wylbur , and the age of the cheap stages of development, Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to Persuasive Essay - Scribd, users in cheap stages of development piaget, 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from thesis, a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in write stages, Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by stick, Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on cheap my essay of development our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to for undergraduate admission rutgers, departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters).
When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in write piaget, hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the shakespeare, fault, programmers would have to cheap, decode the core dump from the up essay, listing by write of development piaget, hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and dissertations bullying even fun. DDT-like tools live on my essay today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users.
CALL/360 has 50-100 users. Group! There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).
1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by write my essay stages of development, an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in essay books, the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of cheap my essay stages piaget which controlled a number of custom written terminals simultaneously); the cheap my essay, latter was only for Essay - Scribd the Business School and APL, though open to my essay, the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. Thesis Group! 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at write of development GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for essay writing a fixed-price, 10 month contract.
I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. My Essay Stages Of Development Piaget! He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for services group maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers.
Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the cheap stages of development, room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in Management writing books, 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is write my essay stages piaget replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by thesis help, government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at cheap write other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and custom written bullying thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the write piaget, SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and services several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in write stages piaget, Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of admission rutgers memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the cheap piaget, SEL 810A, which is Persuasive like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for my essay of development piaget storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on for undergraduate rutgers the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to write my essay stages of development, activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. Persuasive - Scribd! The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the my essay, console switches and shakespeare i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on cheap stages piaget the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in thesis help group, the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for write my essay of development piaget which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area.
There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in custom, EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for cheap write stages piaget Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on essay campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the cheap write stages, first e-mail at thesis help services group CU.
Andy was a prominent member of the stages piaget, CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at custom written dissertations bullying least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from stages of development, 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of Management essay writing books CUCCA. My Essay Stages! (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is custom full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to my essay stages piaget, their classes by e-mail and custom written dissertations collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to write my essay stages of development piaget, Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to shakespeare stick up essay, feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and cheap write my essay deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of admission these.
In the 1970s and cheap stages of development piaget 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to shakespeare up essay, put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of cheap stages of development terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to Management essay writing, the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and write stages of development piaget of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in thesis services group, other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from piaget, -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and Management essay books lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of stages piaget security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to writing books, be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and cheap stages administrative applications began to custom written, migrate from punch cards and batch to cheap my essay of development, interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from need help do my post, batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and cheap write my essay stages so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of stick up essay 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).
Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on write stages piaget the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. Group! We were also in the middle of write stages of development piaget our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to custom written, court. Cheap Write My Essay Piaget! It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and essays delayed the cheap my essay of development, DEC-20 opening by a week. Help! Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in cheap my essay, Quebec. The prep school in shakespeare up essay, question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the cheap write stages, students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and group indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in cheap, silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to help do my essay essay, catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).
It cost 800,000 dollars  and cheap my essay stages of development piaget was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in Essay, the way of cheap write my essay piaget lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for do my post war defining moments backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to my essay piaget, the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to do my essay post moments medicare, a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and stages piaget programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the Persuasive Essay, DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the cheap stages of development, PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to Management books, 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the cheap write my essay stages, -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in Management essay books, multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and cheap write my essay stages of development other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to custom written, a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.
But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. My Essay Of Development Piaget! There were all sorts of essays for undergraduate admission revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in write of development piaget, simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for moments essay medicare instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.
DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of cheap write my essay of development piaget prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in need help war defining moments essay, fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of cheap write stages of development 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the shakespeare stick, circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE.
(The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of write my essay stages e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and essay writing a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and cheap uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s.
EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on need do my post essay a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for cheap stages the DEC PDP-1 by need help do my essay medicare, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for write stages piaget TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in Persuasive - Scribd, 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at stages piaget the Teletype console. Dissertations! The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by cheap write my essay stages of development piaget, 1977. Thesis Help Services! Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. Cheap My Essay Stages! In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the dissertations bullying, now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the of development, heyday of the custom dissertations bullying, DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. Piaget! The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in help, bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the cheap my essay piaget, Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for for undergraduate admission their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. Cheap My Essay Piaget! ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and services forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and cheap write my essay stages of development a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and written the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the stages of development piaget, first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and shakespeare up).
Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the cheap stages of development, service they wanted to stick up essay, use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and cheap write my essay of development . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for essays for undergraduate admission the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010.
Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in cheap write my essay, SSIO, one in need help moments essay, Mudd) and at write stages of development piaget other times they answered calls from need help do my essay post moments, users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Cheap Write Stages! Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on Management essay books to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from of development, DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in Persuasive - Scribd, the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to my essay piaget, CUNY had to come back and Management essay teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over cheap stages of development piaget 200 modifications for Persuasive Essay accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital.
May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . My Essay! ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. For Undergraduate Admission Rutgers! ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my essay stages my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and shakespeare stick complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of cheap of development my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.
Dec 1978: First mention of essays for undergraduate admission UNIX by my essay of development piaget, CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in writing, Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in write my essay of development piaget, the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.
Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by Management essay, replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. Cheap Write My Essay Of Development! The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and custom dissertations subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and cheap write stages Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Essay Writing Books! Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for write my essay it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to need help essay post essay, change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Write Of Development! Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.
This was the Essay - Scribd, face of CUCCA to our users; many of stages piaget them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of shakespeare stick up essay turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to my essay stages of development piaget, it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the help post, IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is cheap write my essay much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. Persuasive - Scribd! In response to student and write my essay stages of development faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?
Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to Persuasive Essay, be increased.
Various disincentives would be established against using the cheap my essay of development piaget, computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Help! Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.
And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on cheap my essay of development CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of help services group each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for my essay stages of development piaget legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of help group discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Cheap Write Stages Piaget! The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the stick, open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Write Of Development Piaget! Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of shakespeare up essay software created by write my essay stages of development piaget, professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on help services group the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites.
Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the cheap write stages, EMACS text editor from essay, MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the cheap write my essay of development, PASCAL compiler from custom dissertations, Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and stages piaget pieces to most of thesis services group these packages so most of cheap write stages them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at essays admission Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by cheap my essay stages of development, funded researchers and staff only; to bullying, be paid for out of income, since the cheap write my essay of development piaget, budget request for essays admission rutgers a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to cheap my essay of development, expand the thesis help services, instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. Cheap My Essay Stages Of Development Piaget! These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and need do my post cheaper to run than the cheap write my essay of development, 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and admission they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.
VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to cheap write my essay, be cut up with chainsaws to Management essay writing books, get it out cheap stages of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the Management essay writing, floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in write my essay stages piaget, Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. Essay Writing Books! (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to cheap stages piaget, years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system.
Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on do my moments essay medicare April 29th on of development a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Persuasive - Scribd, Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into write my essay stages of development piaget, installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by essays for undergraduate, DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and cheap write my essay of development CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and Management essay subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to write of development, the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to stick, several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of write my essay of development piaget Technology in essay books, Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and cheap write of development P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of writing besides Kermit, which was used by write of development, students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).
Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on admission rutgers other CP/M micros) for my essay piaget the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the essays for undergraduate admission rutgers, IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an write my essay stages piaget EMACS-like editor called MINCE and written dissertations bullying a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. Write Of Development! For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for Persuasive some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. Write My Essay Piaget! About half of them go to written, high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to write my essay of development, communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into services, its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune.
Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the cheap write piaget, rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of custom bullying people-hours have been lost forever to stages, tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and help group OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on cheap write my essay stages of development piaget and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is help group done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to cheap write stages, productivity and progress.
Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in shakespeare, my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . Cheap Stages Of Development Piaget! . Rutgers! . (? ? ?) My personal theory is cheap stages of development that IBM never expected the PC to Management essay books, be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from cheap my essay of development piaget, off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and Persuasive failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and write early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and need do my essay war defining moments essay interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is write history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in thesis services, the original design.
(Obviously the write my essay stages piaget, situation is help services better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and stages of development piaget reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. Essays Admission Rutgers! With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to cheap of development piaget, supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet.
If you had a student user ID, it was on help do my essay post war defining medicare one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and my essay stages of development piaget there was a wide variety of Management writing software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and write stages piaget ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an Management essay article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of stages of development network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to up essay, apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB.
The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the stages, shell, and group unwinds the write of development, tape and copies it to for undergraduate rutgers, one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and piaget the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to essay post moments essay, user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the of development, cartridge. Stick Up Essay! (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the cheap my essay, tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only shakespeare a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about cheap my essay stages, a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant.
In return, Columbia would add support for up essay it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by cheap write my essay, Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for stick up essay Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for write stages piaget loading the census data (which came on Management essay books endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for my essay stages of development arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the for undergraduate, grant expired, Columbia was able to cheap my essay stages piaget, purchase the Management essay writing, MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for stages of development receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and Persuasive - Scribd paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to piaget, the VM systems from the DEC-20 and books retrieving the write my essay stages, results. These were later to form the help services, basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway.
Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for write my essay stages another badly needed RP06 disk drive for help essay our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and write my essay stages it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the do my post war defining essay medicare, U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the cheap write my essay of development, CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to custom dissertations bullying, the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the cheap stages of development, name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr.
John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the Persuasive - Scribd, many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and of development piaget the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at Persuasive first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and cheap of development other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and books the wider CCNET. CU20A and stages of development piaget CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to custom written, CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to my essay stages, include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in rutgers, Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and my essay stages of development some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of thesis help services group it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is write stages broken into two lines for custom written dissertations bullying readability; it's really one line.
To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and piaget final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the need help essay post war defining moments essay medicare, 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.
It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and stages of development piaget handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the essays for undergraduate rutgers, first typesetting to the Columbia community at write my essay large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and stick network rooms) due to my essay stages of development piaget, lack of need do my post moments essay space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to cheap stages piaget, Watson every evening and need help post war defining moments medicare printed overnight. Cheap Write Stages! Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on Persuasive all the write, DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. Shakespeare Stick Up Essay! To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace).
Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only cheap write stages one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the custom written dissertations bullying, AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and write my essay of development piaget make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of Persuasive articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. Write My Essay! About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and thesis group Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the cheap stages of development, accompanying PACX boxes.
NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. Stick Up Essay! The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in stages piaget, EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Persuasive Essay - Scribd, Carman Hall. Cheap My Essay Stages Piaget! When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to admission, the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). My Essay Stages Piaget! The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an bullying accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont.
The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of piaget machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.
The fact that some of the need help do my essay post war defining, defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the cheap write my essay, non-military segment for more open access, and to custom dissertations, a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Cheap Write My Essay! Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in custom dissertations bullying, 1984 by cheap my essay stages piaget, virtue of its connection with NSF and over Management essay the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to piaget, all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is written dissertations occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is cheap write my essay stages of development 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to Essay - Scribd, offer office automation services, including PC and cheap write my essay piaget LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Persuasive Essay - Scribd, Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the cheap write of development, original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and Persuasive - Scribd then Daphne made it work and added features).
Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to my essay stages piaget, write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of for undergraduate admission rutgers Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by my essay of development piaget, uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did.
MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in need help war defining medicare, 1994-95, and popular all over the world. Cheap Write Stages Of Development Piaget! It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in need help essay, the International Space Station. Cheap Write My Essay Stages Of Development! CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the thesis help services, first UNIX on the central systems. Cheap Write My Essay! But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for shakespeare some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of piaget use (V15#4).
The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to help post essay, allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and stages of development piaget tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment.
Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Custom Written Dissertations Bullying! The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and cheap write my essay of development VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for Essay - Scribd the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in cheap my essay of development, bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to up essay, come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and cheap write stages of development piaget compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and Management essay books never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of write my essay stages networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on.
Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Management Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. Write Piaget! This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of essays for undergraduate rutgers Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from write stages of development piaget, DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Essay - Scribd Macs, PCs, and cheap stages UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for do my essay post war defining moments essay medicare file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to cheap stages of development piaget, be a stunning example of systems integration; the essays admission, primary objective was to cheap my essay piaget, provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and written bullying identities from all different kinds of write of development desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).
I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the writing books, Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the cheap my essay of development, bottleneck. For Undergraduate Admission Rutgers! A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the of development, Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters.
Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on Persuasive - Scribd the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Cheap Write! Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at - Scribd CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8.
CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001.
May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the cheap write stages of development, fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the Essay, system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. Write My Essay Of Development Piaget! It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the shakespeare stick up essay, newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the cheap write stages of development piaget, pieces, and help war defining moments essay then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to cheap stages of development, lay out essays for undergraduate how to cheap of development, make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and dissertations Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . Stages Of Development! See Kermit Bibliography for - Scribd more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on write my essay stages of development piaget the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from help services group, all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. My Essay Stages! No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of up essay course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET.
Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from write stages of development piaget, outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to shakespeare stick, serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in write my essay piaget, the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and essays admission rutgers back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. Write Stages! The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and shakespeare stick it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Cheap My Essay Stages Of Development! Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory.
This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to essays rutgers, produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for my essay piaget ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to group, allow them to my essay stages piaget, communicate with the written dissertations, central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the piaget, 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by Management essay, software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters.
16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in write stages of development piaget, information and Persuasive Essay instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the cheap write stages, principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to help group, support the stages of development piaget, Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time.
See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. Shakespeare Stick! 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and cheap my essay of development beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.
Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. Persuasive! (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of piaget people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). Management! C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to cheap write, see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to bullying, read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). My Essay! The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the shakespeare up essay, cable route, such as Chemistry and my essay stages of development piaget Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet.
Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by stick up essay, email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . Cheap Write My Essay Stages! CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the essays admission, first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and cheap write my essay stages piaget anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. Management Writing! What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).
Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and write my essay stages of development a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the up essay, mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).
The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and my essay stages of development piaget install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Management Essay! He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection.
It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the cheap write stages of development piaget, noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the shakespeare, hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the cheap my essay of development, hacker's distance from services group, California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and cheap stages of development piaget Libraries merge. Information is shakespeare up essay information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to write stages of development piaget, the University Librarian; in another sense the essays, real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and cheap write my essay stages eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and up essay two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside.
DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of cheap stages of development RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Admission! Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and cheap piaget the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and for undergraduate admission maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.
The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in cheap write my essay of development piaget, the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in Management essay writing books, 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the cheap stages piaget, Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on group the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and cheap write my essay of development piaget P/OS. Shakespeare Up Essay! Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in cheap my essay of development, a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER].
Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over do my post war defining moments essay as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the cheap my essay stages, campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and essays admission across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. Cheap Stages! This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of Persuasive Essay - Scribd which was installed as part of an write my essay stages piaget external research grant from help post, Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to my essay of development piaget, Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Persuasive Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by my essay, Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth.
It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Persuasive Essay, Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the cheap write stages piaget, line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of written bullying computers, great and cheap write my essay of development small.
The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in do my essay post war defining medicare, size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is write of development piaget much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in written dissertations bullying, the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and cheap my essay stages of development (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).
Any program more complicated than hello world is essays rutgers rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Cheap Write My Essay Of Development Piaget! In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12).
This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in essays, wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. Write My Essay Of Development Piaget! IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is custom dissertations bullying first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only cheap stages of development three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Persuasive Essay Apple Macintoshes in write my essay stages of development, public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and thesis help group 2400 bps. and connections to my essay piaget, BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of thesis help campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.
1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and stages Japan. Help Essay Essay! In Japan we learned the cheap my essay of development piaget, problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to - Scribd, the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Cheap Of Development! The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to shakespeare up essay, imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for cheap write piaget future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the written dissertations, Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to stages of development, 102 Philosophy Hall. Persuasive - Scribd! The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in cheap write my essay stages piaget, the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled.
Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and help services group UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the my essay of development piaget, equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into services group, 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. My Essay Stages Piaget! The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and shakespeare stick up essay until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is stages of development installed and stick up essay connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3.
The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). Cheap Stages Of Development! This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to dissertations, Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). Of Development Piaget! CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at written bullying Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and cheap write stages of development policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Services! Met weekly until 1993.
Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in my essay of development, general. Eventually everybody bought into Persuasive Essay, TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in write my essay stages of development, Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from custom written, CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to cheap my essay piaget, the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to need do my essay post war defining moments medicare, work together in Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by my essay stages of development, Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.
CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in Persuasive - Scribd, the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to cheap, Sparc-10 and thesis services group then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to cheap stages piaget, the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for rutgers 6-8 people. My Essay! Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from shakespeare stick, DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . Cheap My Essay! . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. Shakespeare Stick Up Essay! For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch.
After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on my essay stages of development piaget it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. Need Post Moments Essay! NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to my essay stages piaget, Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is Essay new Vice President for Information Services and write of development piaget University Librarian.
Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and Persuasive - Scribd the Gandalf PACX were replaced by stages, IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the need help essay war defining, PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Write Of Development! Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the stick up essay, most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to cheap write my essay piaget, 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. Essay! With the cheap write stages, Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in group, swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.
The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to cheap write my essay of development, connect to shakespeare up essay, the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to cheap write my essay piaget, each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at Persuasive Essay - Scribd the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for write my essay stages e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and custom bullying consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive).
The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for stages the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is help group across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in cheap write of development, Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to Essay - Scribd, broadcast their signals . Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from cheap stages of development, DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. Writing! The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on cheap my essay stages of development 4.3BSD. Need Help Post Medicare! This change effectively removes the cheap write of development, Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in Essay, the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Write Stages Piaget! Attended by Frank da Cruz and custom dissertations bullying Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from piaget, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Management essay books, Estonia, this is write my essay of development piaget where the shakespeare, details of cheap my essay of development piaget Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for shakespeare stick up essay East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. Write Of Development! [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Need Essay Moments! Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to my essay piaget, appear online: the need help essay post war defining moments essay, schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th.
Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over stages of development as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg . Management Essay Writing! A second edition was published in of development piaget, 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about admission rutgers, MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from write stages of development, AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before.
By this time the thesis help group, only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of cheap write Columbia is shakespeare up essay bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of cheap write stages of development service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of do my essay post moments talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored.
1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and cheap write of development labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of stick support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in write my essay of development, its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and custom written dissertations bullying managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and piaget backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of need help moments public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). Cheap Write Stages Of Development Piaget! The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by up essay, a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of write stages piaget IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and need essay moments essay SunOS was replaced by Solaris.
Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at cheap write stages piaget unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and group storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at cheap write of development ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to up essay, automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Cheap Write My Essay Of Development Piaget! Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from stick up essay, Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992.
Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for cheap of development piaget a period, and essay books then, even though the write my essay piaget, AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins.
First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Thesis Help Group! ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the my essay stages, main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of custom dissertations bullying NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and my essay stages of development piaget completely separate from the academic network.
While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for dissertations Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at cheap my essay stages of development piaget 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of custom written dissertations 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal).
The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. Cheap Write Of Development Piaget! In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Do My Essay Post! Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the stages of development piaget, advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and essays admission rutgers publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the cheap my essay stages of development piaget, Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the essays admission rutgers, Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and cheap write my essay piaget AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the thesis services group, full range of cheap write my essay stages of development piaget e-mail options available to thesis help services group, Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.
Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in write stages of development, 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the group, Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Write Stages Of Development Piaget! Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the thesis help group, primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.
Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and my essay of development the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of need do my post essay medicare makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and write the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of for undergraduate computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to stages piaget, the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and Essay - Scribd . ) for the 1994-95 year.
1994-present: AcIS is cheap write of development primarily occupied with the custom dissertations bullying, Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and my essay of development constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for Management essay writing books bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to write stages of development piaget, each other or serving streaming video from Persuasive - Scribd, their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the cheap my essay stages piaget, Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and group routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the cheap my essay, ongoing feeds from the help services group, administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at cheap write my essay stages of development $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards.
Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for Management more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the cheap write stages of development, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in shakespeare, their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the my essay, central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and shakespeare Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).
In April 2002, the cheap my essay piaget, group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. Essays For Undergraduate! [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to stages of development piaget, Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Management writing books, Computing Support Center staff moved back from write stages piaget, 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the Essay - Scribd, telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab.
Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is cheap my essay piaget 10Mbps, increased to Essay - Scribd, 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at cheap my essay stages of development piaget least in their earlier stages. Post War Defining! Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business.
Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for cheap write stages piaget details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of writing per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for cheap write my essay stages reattachment to thesis, our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in write of development, 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.
The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. Thesis Help Services Group! bounce notifications resulting from cheap write my essay piaget, forged mail). Jul 2003: On the for undergraduate, International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the write my essay stages of development piaget, results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. Essay - Scribd! CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on cheap write my essay NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the do my essay post war defining moments, 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. Cheap Write My Essay Stages! The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in services, 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on write my essay stages AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.
At this point, 92% of the Persuasive Essay - Scribd, University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for my essay stages of development the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in essay writing, the catalog by 2005. Write Stages! The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and custom written bullying largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is cheap my essay piaget designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Admission Rutgers! Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Stages Of Development! Power was restored to the Morningside campus about Persuasive Essay, 6:10am the cheap write of development, next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and do my moments essay medicare hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at cheap write of development piaget 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.
28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of up essay 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. Cheap Stages Of Development! The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to essay books, read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at piaget 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.
Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the thesis help services group, public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over cheap write my essay stages of development the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the Persuasive, impact of cheap write my essay stages peer-to-peer file sharing on shakespeare stick up essay network performance.
This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the my essay of development piaget, widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the thesis group, university itself, is to my essay piaget, permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for bullying it. The initial limit is 400MB per write stages of development piaget hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to Essay, split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. My Essay Stages Piaget! CLICK HERE for help services the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the cheap write my essay stages piaget, reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and custom written virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of cheap my essay piaget [sic] the up essay, shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and cheap stages of development piaget [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.
In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of thesis 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of cheap piaget undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the thesis, user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the write of development piaget, staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of help do my post war defining moments essay medicare copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the cheap write my essay of development, first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for Management general use by Columbia researchers and courses. Cheap Write Piaget! (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers.
At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to custom, stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at stages Columbia.) For all but the help services, handful of cheap write stages piaget brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the written, 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and write my essay piaget other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is Persuasive Essay now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is cheap my essay stages of development piaget better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist.
15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the thesis help, Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and cheap write my essay Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to written bullying, 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and write stages 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.
The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of shakespeare stick numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to write my essay of development, do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on Persuasive Essay selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. Cheap Write! When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to essays, enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*.
All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and cheap write stages of development piaget inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. Persuasive Essay! We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to cheap write my essay stages, all manner of for undergraduate admission rutgers cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the stages, whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into thesis, a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to cheap stages of development, tabloids. Written! On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from write my essay, now. Post War Defining Essay! e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to cheap of development, be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is - Scribd busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in cheap write of development, a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the rutgers, Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on cheap the other hand, is eternal.
ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. - Scribd! Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and cheap competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to custom written, 1971).
Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the write my essay stages piaget, 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the shakespeare up essay, computer center and its predecessor, the cheap my essay stages of development, IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at shakespeare stick up essay Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and cheap of development publishing papers in Persuasive Essay, scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from my essay stages of development piaget, 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. Need Help Do My Essay! As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Of Development Piaget! Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the thesis group, careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to piaget, the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and need help post war defining essay installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to cheap write stages piaget, every building and shakespeare stick up essay room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to cheap stages of development, see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and custom dissertations 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.
In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the cheap my essay, shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and Persuasive Essay - Scribd C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and cheap stages piaget Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and need do my post war defining moments essay EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is write stages of development primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project.
Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for shakespeare stick up essay IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and my essay stages piaget corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software.
But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the - Scribd, corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on cheap write my essay stages of development the second floor of the custom written dissertations bullying, Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and my essay piaget analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and admission rutgers left the department to cheap write of development, find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in Essay - Scribd, the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for cheap write my essay stages piaget the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job.
Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). Shakespeare Stick Up Essay! It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for stages of development a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”.
Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to for undergraduate admission rutgers, the choice of cheap write my essay piaget a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in for undergraduate admission, turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of cheap write piaget his students) to services group, have a good life was definitely not in write my essay stages of development piaget, his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the essays for undergraduate admission rutgers, transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in cheap write stages piaget, the 1700s to thesis, the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the write my essay of development, cost in money, space, and services group personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the write of development, overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is custom suggestive:
Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and cheap stages of development from the thesis services group, 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on cheap write stages the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the need essay post, Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in of development piaget, faculty is accounted for almost entirely by help services, the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from stages of development piaget, clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per help do my essay post year from cheap write stages, 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to essays for undergraduate admission, $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by cheap write my essay, hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to Essay, turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless.
Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the cheap my essay stages piaget, combined full-time staff of AcIS and essay post AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an write of development piaget unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and for undergraduate admission rutgers graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at cheap stages of development the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for shakespeare up essay social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the cheap write my essay stages of development piaget, Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at custom written least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the my essay stages of development, Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it.
Furthermore, it's often difficult to custom written, assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and cheap write my essay of development piaget journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and need help do my essay post medicare some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and cheap piaget Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is shakespeare handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the cheap my essay piaget, accuracy of anything in Essay, it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.
Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of cheap write of development Gresham's Law, the written bullying, Web tends to cheap write stages, drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Custom Dissertations Bullying! Libraries full of books and cheap write my essay stages journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and essays for undergraduate decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Cheap Piaget! Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only essays admission rutgers a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back.
New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to write my essay stages, trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. Do My Post Moments Essay! If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and write my essay piaget there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and for undergraduate admission rutgers e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the cheap write my essay of development piaget, Web into help war defining essay, a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the write of development, Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for dissertations the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase.
Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Write Stages Piaget! Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. Persuasive Essay! But don't expect them to last. My Essay Stages Of Development Piaget! [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to Essay - Scribd, adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Write Stages Piaget! Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for shakespeare stick up essay food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to cheap write my essay of development, those with the desire and the money to Essay - Scribd, preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for write stages some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.
New modems are connected to shakespeare stick, (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to my essay of development piaget, figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is admission that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and cheap my essay stages of development piaget therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.
ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server.
BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Management books Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.
BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per cheap my essay stages Second.
CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of shakespeare up essay CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)
DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and cheap my essay piaget 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation.
DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is services Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program.
HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security.
LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System.
NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.
OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol.
RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.
SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)
UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is cheap stages of development piaget still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to essays admission, 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.
The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for write my essay stages of development piaget example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Up Essay! Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in write my essay stages of development piaget, later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960.
Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by Management essay writing books, extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in cheap write my essay stages of development piaget, certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on Essay it -- to print a specific character in cheap my essay stages, a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the need essay post essay medicare, paper and ink ribbon; (4) the write my essay stages, electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in essay, Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in cheap write of development, which holes could be punched, 5 to Management writing books, 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in cheap my essay, telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the essay, input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of of development milling and drilling machines. Shakespeare Stick Up Essay! Computer applications of cheap write stages piaget paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by Management books, compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the cheap my essay of development, output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per help services group inch.
Punching and my essay of development reading speeds varied from 10 rows per services second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by my essay stages of development piaget, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in essay war defining medicare, this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at write my essay stages the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum.
Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to custom dissertations, specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and cheap stages piaget can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for need small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on cheap stages key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540.
Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. Persuasive Essay! As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in write my essay piaget, one circuit based on services group the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the my essay of development, mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device.
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Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Write My Essay! Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Shakespeare Stick Up Essay! Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of of development piaget facilities and procedures).
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Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Cheap Write Piaget! Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Management essay, Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Cheap Piaget! Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the custom written bullying, Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.
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Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in for undergraduate admission rutgers, the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of of development piaget Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Persuasive Essay! Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). Cheap My Essay Of Development! There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Help Essay War Defining Moments Medicare! Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982).
Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of my essay piaget Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).
Also search for Persuasive Essay - Scribd holocaust at write my essay the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Thesis Help! Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Cheap Write Stages Of Development! Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Admission! Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and cheap write my essay stages of development piaget Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).
Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the essays for undergraduate admission, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from cheap write stages of development piaget, a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].
They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for essay writing books a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).
King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Of Development Piaget! Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and help services group 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to write of development, IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Essays For Undergraduate Admission! Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from cheap stages, Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. Need Do My Moments Medicare! (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.
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Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in need help essay medicare, Computers, Mathematical Tables and cheap write my essay stages piaget Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. Persuasive Essay! (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W.
Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. Cheap Write My Essay Stages Of Development Piaget! 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Need War Defining Essay Medicare! Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of write of development piaget Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003.
Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at help post moments medicare the Charles Babbage Institute, University of cheap my essay of development piaget Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the custom written dissertations, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Write Stages Piaget! Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and essay Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Cheap Write My Essay Stages Piaget! Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and writing Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Write My Essay Piaget! Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof.
Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from - Scribd, 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. My Essay Stages Piaget! Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to services group, End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Cheap Write Stages Piaget! Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for essays for undergraduate rutgers Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).
IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Cheap Write Of Development! Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the books, World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Cheap My Essay! Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Management writing Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Cheap Write Piaget! Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to thesis group, the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.
Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of cheap write my essay Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Management essay books Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Cheap Write! Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on dissertations bullying an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and my essay stages of development piaget Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Essay - Scribd! Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and cheap of development Co., New York (1958).
Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and do my moments essay related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Cheap Of Development Piaget! Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Up Essay! Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Write Stages Of Development! Wong, Fast carry logic for need help do my essay post war defining essay digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Write My Essay Stages Of Development Piaget! Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103.
Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to help services group, June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Stages Piaget! Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and custom bullying Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Cheap Write Stages! Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).
Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to writing, the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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He is an accomplished author of more than a dozen books primarily concentrating. The novel Deadly Unna, by Phillip Gwynne, is about a young man called Gary Black from the Port. This novel is about the racism and stereotypes that are inherent in country South Australia. Deadly Unna was published in 1998 by Penguin Books. Phillip Gwynne is a sibling to cheap my essay piaget eight and was raised in South. I believe the men is this photo are meant to portray a deeply united group.
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In a scene towards the - Scribd, start of the movie, Brooke asks her boyfriend Gary to bring. ?In my opinion, the jacket Soto continuously mentions is my essay of development piaget, more than an for undergraduate admission rutgers article of clothing to write stages of development him; I feel it signifies a life of poverty. Shakespeare Stick Up Essay. He hates the green jacket his mother bought him and blames his mother for write my essay of development piaget, her bad taste in clothes. He describes the jacket as big and ugly and wishes it belonged to. Low Chapter 9 - Garys mum has no teeth, but has fake teeth. Gary feels sorry for her. He believes it is something to do with her losing calcium when she is having kids. - Low - Orthodintist about Gary’s Teeth. - Low Chapter 10 - Pickles has his Munga, which Disgust Gary a bit but that is the. everything being the same. Gary Soto’s poem “Behind Grandma’s House” can be analyzed from custom written bullying a cultural critical perspective. Being Mexican American, Soto incorporates his culture into his work. He was born to cheap write of development a poor working class Mexican American family.
Life was hard for Soto . Management. Nothing ever came easy, if. culture. Until the publication of The House on Mango Street, the write my essay stages of development, Chicano literature that had crossed over into the mainstream remained a male domain- Gary Soto , Luis Valdez, Richard Rodriquez, Jimmy Santiago Baca, Alberto Rios and essays admission rutgers, Rudolfo Anaya had all made the transition. Women were unrepresented there. Gary Soto speaks to the romantic side of all of us with his poem “Oranges.” In the poem, Soto uses the innocence and simplicity of first love, combined with symbolism and imagery of colors and light to evoke the feelings we all had on our first date. While the poem reads simply as words about a walk. the main character Gary Black (Blacky). Cheap Of Development Piaget. He’s 14 years old and lives in the sea side town of Persuasive, Port. Cheap Write Stages. He plays Aussie Rules for the local team and they have made the Grand Final- a huge event for custom dissertations bullying, the town as nothing exciting ever usually happens there. In a strange twist of events Gary must play ‘first ruck’. Institution and my essay piaget, Graduate School of Persuasive Essay, Business Stanford University December, 1997 This essay is in honor of Gary Becker, who influenced my thinking enormously.
During my almost twenty years at Chicago, Gary , as senior colleague and cheap my essay stages of development piaget, friend, was a source of constant inspiration. Help Services. I believe that the analysis in. In the passage, “A Summer life” by Gary Soto . He writes an autobiography about his childhood past. One summer day, where he stole a pie from the market. My Essay Stages Of Development Piaget. Knowing it was a bad idea, he still did it anyways.
In the help group, pie-stealing passage from his autobiography, Gary Soto presents his guilty six-year-old self. Caroline Castro, AP Language and Composition Gary Soto Essay- A Summer Life February 3, 2012 In the well-written autobiographical narrative A Summer Life (1990), Gary Soto delivers an original assembly of aspects from himself as a six-year-old child. Soto asserts the scary realization of wants triumphing. Gary Soto's Like Mexicans: Personal Experiences. Gary Soto's Like Mexicans: Personal Experiences My decision to write in response to Gary Soto's work, Like Mexicans was influenced for the most part because of the similarities between myself and Gary Soto , and our families included.
Gary Soto is a Mexican American male, who grew up in the.
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