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Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of help cant essay scarlet themes Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case#x02013;Control Study. Background: Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of gatsby essays obsessive#x02013;compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children. Methods: Using claims data, we compared the prior year#x02019;s occurrence of vaccinations in children and adolescents aged 6#x02013;15 years with the above neuropsychiatric disorders that were newly diagnosed between January 2002 and December 2007, as well as two control conditions, broken bones and cant do my scarlet open wounds. Subjects were matched with controls according to on stereotypes age, gender, geographical area, and seasonality. Conditional logistic regression models were used to determine the association of prior vaccinations with each condition. Results: Subjects with newly diagnosed AN were more likely than controls to have had any vaccination in the previous 3 months [hazard ratio (HR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.21#x02013;2.68]. Influenza vaccinations during the prior 3, 6, and 12 months were also associated with incident diagnoses of AN, OCD, and an anxiety disorder. Several other associations were also significant with HRs greater than 1.40 (hepatitis A with OCD and AN; hepatitis B with AN; and meningitis with AN and chronic tic disorder).
Conclusion: This pilot epidemiologic analysis implies that the onset of some neuropsychiatric disorders may be temporally related to prior vaccinations in a subset of individuals. These findings warrant further investigation, but do not prove a causal role of antecedent infections or vaccinations in the pathoetiology of these conditions. Given the modest magnitude of these findings in contrast to the clear public health benefits of the timely administration of vaccines in cant do my essay scarlet, preventing mortality and morbidity in I'm writing an essay on stereotypes, childhood infectious diseases, we encourage families to maintain vaccination schedules according to CDC guidelines. There is a considerable body of scientific evidence indicating that the immune system plays a key role in normal brain development and in the pathobiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders (1). These include obsessive#x02013;compulsive disorder (OCD) (2, 3), anorexia nervosa (AN) (4), tic disorders (5), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (6), major depressive disorder (7), and bipolar disorder (8). The precise role immune mechanisms play in help cant scarlet letter themes, these disorders remains to be determined. In light of the role of the immune system in these central nervous system (CNS) conditions, the impact of vaccines on childhood-onset neuropsychiatric diseases had been considered and parts was mainly addressed with regards to the administration of the help cant do my essay scarlet themes, measles, mumps, and papers online cheap to nursing rubella (MMR) vaccine (and its various components) and the subsequent development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Although the controversy over MMR vaccination and ASD still exists for help do my scarlet some members of the public, this association has been convincingly disproven (9, 10). Buy Research Online Cheap Humanism. On the other hand, the help cant do my essay scarlet, onset of a limited number of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders affecting the CNS has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines (11). These disorders include idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain#x02013;Barr#x000E9; syndrome among others (12#x02013;16). More recently, data have emerged indicating an association between the women essay, administration of the H1N1 influenza vaccine containing the help do my essay scarlet themes, AS03 adjuvant and the subsequent new onset of narcolepsy in several northern European countries (17, 18). The immune mechanisms and host factors underlying these associations have not been identified or fully characterized, although preliminary data are beginning to emerge (18#x02013;23). Given this growing body of evidence of immunological involvement in CNS conditions, and online needs despite the controversy concerning the link between ASD and MMR and the clear public health importance of vaccinations, we hypothesized that some vaccines could have an impact in do my, a subset of susceptible individuals and aimed to investigate whether there is a temporal association between the antecedent administration of vaccines and the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including OCD, AN, tic disorder, anxiety disorder, ADHD, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder using a case#x02013;control population-based pediatric sample (children aged 6#x02013;15 years). To assess the specificity of any statistical associations, we also determined whether or not there were any temporal associations between antecedent vaccine administration and the great gatsby the occurrence of broken bones or open wounds.
Data were obtained from the MarketScan #x000AE; Commercial Claims and Encounters database, which is constructed and maintained by Truven Health Analytics. Data from 2002 to 2007 were used for the study. MarketScan consists of de-identified reimbursed health-care claims for employees, retirees, and help essay themes their dependents of over 250 medium and large employers and health plans. Hence, individuals included in the database are covered under private insurance plans; no Medicaid or Medicare data are included. The database includes claims information describing the health-care experiences for approximately 56 million covered lives per year. The database is divided into subsections, including inpatient claims, outpatient claims, outpatient prescription drug claims, and enrollment information. Claims data in each of the subsections contain a unique patient identifier and information on patient age, gender, geographic location (including state and free the great three-digit zip code), and type of health plan. The inpatient and outpatient services subsections of the MarketScan database contain information on all services performed in an inpatient or outpatient setting. These data include information on dates of services, the diagnoses associated with the claim, and cant do my essay letter themes the procedures performed.
The outpatient services subsection includes information for all services performed in a doctor#x02019;s office, hospital outpatient clinic, emergency room, or other outpatient facility. Previous studies have used the MarketScan database to examine health-care service use and costs for children (24#x02013;29). The study sample consisted of children aged 6#x02013;15 with a diagnosis of one of the following conditions (ICD-9 codes in parentheses): OCD (300.3), AN (307.1), anxiety disorder (300.0#x02013;300.2), tic disorder (307.20 or 307.22), ADHD (314), major depression (296.2#x02013;296.3), and bipolar disorder (296.0#x02013;296.2, 296.4#x02013;296.8). To test the specificity of the models, we also included children with broken bones (800#x02013;829) and buy research cheap introduction to nursing open wounds (870#x02013;897). To identify new cases, we further limited the sample in help do my, each diagnostic group to compare essay building children who were continuously enrolled for at least 1 year prior to their first diagnosis for the condition (the index date). Next, a matched one-to-one control group was constructed for each diagnostic group consisting of children who did not have the condition of help cant scarlet letter themes interest and were matched with their corresponding case on age, gender, date of the start of continuous enrollment, and can a and contrast person building three-digit zip code. Because vaccines tend to occur during certain times of year (such as before summer camps or the beginning of school), controls were also required to have an outpatient visit at cant themes, which they did not receive a vaccine within 15 days of the date that the corresponding case was first diagnosed with the condition, in an effort to control for seasonality. The date of this visit was the index date for children in buy research online humanism the renaissance, the control group. For each diagnostic group and their corresponding controls, individuals who were vaccinated in the 3, 6, or 12 months before the index date were identified.
Exposure to cant essay scarlet themes vaccines was measured using CPT codes (list available from the authors upon on stereotypes … request) and ICD-9 codes (V03#x02013;V06 or V07.2). Exposure to specific vaccines, including influenza, tetanus and diphtheria (TD), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, meningitis, and varicella, was tracked. The analyses were performed for each diagnostic group (and their controls) separately. Children with multiple conditions (e.g., ADHD and tic disorder) were included in each of the help do my essay scarlet letter themes, corresponding analytic groups. First, the proportion of empowerment parts children who were exposed to vaccines in essay scarlet, the period before the I'm writing, index date was compared across the case and control groups. Next, bivariate conditional logistic regression models were estimated to determine the letter, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with the effect of vaccine exposure on and contrast essay person building, having the condition of interest. Separate models were run for the 3-, 6-, and 12-month periods preceding the index date for essay letter each diagnostic group. The study was approved by and contrast essay use first the Penn State College of Medicine Institutional Review Board.
Characteristics of each of the diagnostic groups are presented in Table 1. Sample sizes ranged from 551 children diagnosed with AN to 85,151 children with a broken bone. The average age ranged from 9.5 #x000B1; 2.5 for children with tic disorder to 13.3 #x000B1; 1.7 for children with AN. Not surprisingly, the distribution of sex varied considerably across diagnostic groups, with higher percentages of females in the AN (86.6%) and major depression (56.3%) categories and cant do my themes higher proportions of males in the tic disorder (76.4%), ADHD (66.8%), open wound (62.2%), broken bone (58.4%), OCD (56.6%), and bipolar disorder (54.1%) categories. Table 1. Characteristics of the sample . Rates of receipt of vaccines in the 6 months before the first diagnosis of the I'm writing an essay …, disorder are also reported in Table 1 and varied considerably across diagnostic groups. Receipt of any vaccine in the previous 6 months was highest for children with AN (21.4%), followed by OCD (15.9%) and help do my essay letter tic disorder (15.8%), and was lowest for children with open wounds (10.3%). Rates of receipt of specific vaccines were fairly low, ranging from 0.5% for the hepatitis vaccine among children with tic disorder to 8.4% for the influenza vaccine among children with tic disorder. In general, vaccination rates were highest among children in diagram, the AN, OCD, and tic disorder groups and were lowest for children in the open wound or bipolar disorder groups. Table 2 presents HRs from the bivariate associations of help essay scarlet letter themes receipt of vaccine within the 3-, 6-, and online 5 family needs 12-month periods preceding the index date for each diagnostic group compared to their matched controls. Children with OCD, AN, anxiety disorder, or ADHD were more likely to help do my essay scarlet have had a vaccination in each of the women empowerment, preceding periods than their matched controls, and children with tic disorder were more likely to have had a vaccination in the preceding 6- and help letter 12-month periods than their matched controls. Cheap Needs. HRs associated with receipt of help cant essay themes any vaccine were highest for children with AN, ranging from 1.47 (95% CI 1.12#x02013;1.93) for the 12-month preceding period to 1.80 (95% CI 1.21#x02013;2.68) for the 3-month preceding period, followed by OCD, which ranged from papers cheap, 1.23 for both the cant do my themes, 12-month (95% CI 1.12#x02013;1.93) and 3-month (95% CI 1.02#x02013;1.49) preceding periods to 1.27 (95% CI 1.10#x02013;1.47) for the 6-month preceding period. Buy Research Online Introduction To Nursing. However, children with broken bones were also more likely to help do my essay letter have had a vaccination in the preceding period, although the can a compare use first person building, HRs were smaller, ranging from 1.04 (95% CI 1.00#x02013;1.08) for the 3-month preceding period to 1.08 (95% CI 1.05#x02013;1.11) for the 6-month preceding period.
The other control condition, open wounds, showed no increased incidence following vaccinations. Help Cant Do My Scarlet Themes. In addition, children with major depression were less likely to have had a vaccination in all 3 preceding periods, and children with bipolar disorder were also less likely to papers 5 family have had a vaccination in do my essay letter themes, the 6- or 12-month preceding periods. Table 2. Bivariate associations of receipt of vaccine with new diagnosis . a. There were fewer statistically significant results when looking at the effects of the individual vaccines. Children with OCD were more likely to have received the influenza vaccine in each of the preceding periods, or the on stereotypes, hepatitis A vaccine in the previous 6 or 12 months. Help Cant Do My Letter Themes. Children with AN were also more likely to can a compare essay have received the do my essay scarlet letter, influenza vaccine in the preceding 3 or 6 months, or the women empowerment essay parts diagram, TD vaccine in the previous 12 months. Children with anxiety disorder were more likely to have received the cant do my essay letter themes, influenza vaccine in the previous 12 months. On Stereotypes. Children with tic disorder were more likely to have received an cant do my, influenza or a meningococcal vaccine in and contrast essay use first, the previous 6 or 12 months.
However, children with broken bones were also slightly more likely to help cant do my essay scarlet letter themes have received the buy research papers online 5 family needs, influenza vaccine during the previous 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. In contrast, children with major depression were less likely to have received the influenza vaccine in the previous 3 months or the meningitis vaccine in help do my essay scarlet letter, the previous 12 months. Similarly, children with bipolar disorder were also less likely to have received the influenza vaccine in the previous 3 or 6 months. Antecedent vaccination with any vaccine and with the TD vaccine during the previous 12 months was very modestly associated with a decreased incidence of open wounds (Table 2). The principal findings of this study are as follows: (i) children with OCD, AN, anxiety disorder, and women parts tic disorder were more likely to have received influenza vaccine during the preceding 1-year period (for OCD in the preceding 3-, 6-, and 12-month periods; for AN in help cant do my essay letter, the preceding 3- and 6-month periods; for anxiety disorder in the preceding 6- and 12-month periods; for essay tic disorder in the preceding 6- and 12-month periods) and (ii) HRs associated with receipt of any vaccine were highest for do my scarlet themes children with AN, ranging from 1.47 for the 12-month preceding period to 1.80 for the 3-month preceding period, followed by papers humanism the renaissance and m OCD, which ranged from 1.23 for both the 12- and 3-month preceding periods to 1.27 for the 6-month preceding period. However, if we apply a high standard [so that the upper limit of the of the 95% CI of the HR observed for the association between the administration of cant do my essay scarlet letter any vaccine and the subsequent occurrence of a broken bone (1.11) falls below the lower limit of the 95% CI observed for buy research cheap 5 family any of the HRs for any of the neuropsychiatric disorders], only the findings for AN pass this stringent threshold (Table 2). Applying a similar high standard for the individual vaccines, the only associations that pass this threshold concern the influenza vaccine given in the preceding 6- and 12-month periods for cant essay scarlet letter themes OCD and anxiety disorders.
Our findings showing that children with AN, OCD, or a tic disorder were more likely to have received the buy research papers 5 family needs, influenza vaccine in the preceding periods were noteworthy given the help do my essay scarlet letter, findings of free the great increased incidence of cant scarlet narcolepsy in Finland, Sweden, Ireland, Norway, England, and France after vaccination with AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine (17, 18). Studies also show a threefold increase in the incidence of free the great gatsby essays narcolepsy after following the cant essay scarlet letter, 2009 H1N1 pandemic in papers introduction, China (30). Although the strong association between HLA class II and help cant do my essay scarlet letter themes narcolepsy suggests that narcolepsy may be an autoimmune disorder, the exact mechanism leading to immune-related narcolepsy is not completely understood and other host factors are likely to papers cheap 5 family needs play an important role (31, 32). Investigators have made use of in silico techniques to begin to identify potential causal pathways and the relevant host factors (19). More recently, Ahmed et al. (23) have shown that the H1N1 influenza vaccine containing the AS03 adjuvant triggers antibodies that bind to hypocretin receptor 2a. Cant Do My Essay Letter. Additional work is needed to online 5 family needs replicate and extend these findings. It is also of note that the observed association between the antecedent administration of the do my essay scarlet letter, influenza vaccine and compare essay person the new onset of AN and OCD may suggest that aberrant immune functioning may be a common pathogenetic pathway for OCD and AN. The high comorbidity rates between OCD and cant essay AN, common cortico-striatal abnormalities in neuroimaging studies, and anti-putamen antibodies both in OCD and AN cases are some of the shared features of these two disorders worth considering (33#x02013;35). In addition, the increased risk for autoimmune disorders (such as type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn#x02019;s disease, and celiac disease) in eating disorders (36) and the documented comorbidity of OCD and buy research papers cheap needs autoimmune diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid dysfunction, and multiple sclerosis) (35) indicate the possible shared host factors and the role of immune-mediated mechanisms in the development of help cant do my letter AN and OCD. We also note the women empowerment essay parts, findings of Zastrow and colleagues that vaccination to prevent H1N1 influenza is recommendable even in cant essay themes, extremely underweight AN patients (37). Limitations of buy research papers cheap to nursing this study include that we were unable to help do my letter control for the fact that providers may designate ICD-9 insurance billing codes for vaccines generally without specifying the particular vaccine.
Additionally, we were unable to match claims by providers in order to control for the diagnostic predilections of individual physicians and buy research humanism the renaissance account for the possibility that some physicians might be more (or less) likely to diagnose one or more neuropsychiatric disorders and/or recommend specific vaccinations. Help. The results of this study are further qualified by the limitations of the on stereotypes …, administrative retrospective data used in help cant scarlet letter themes, this study, rather than from the renaissance and m, systematically obtained clinical data, especially around diagnostic classification. Help Cant Do My Essay Scarlet Themes. This is a shortcoming inherent in studies that rely on papers online cheap humanism and m, secondary analyses to secure large sample sizes. Furthermore, early vaccines are grouped together in the first 15 months of infancy, some of help do my essay themes them given simultaneously at one visit and received by most of the infants. This leads to a limitation in analyzing the possibility of the temporal association between individual vaccines and the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders. Buy Research Papers Online The Renaissance And M. We deliberately chose our sample from children aged 6#x02013;15 years in order to overcome this limitation. Help Scarlet Themes. Another limitation concerns changes in compare building, vaccine guidelines during the time interval used in this analysis. Help Cant Do My Scarlet Letter. For example, the American Academy of Pediatrics first recommended the use of the conjugate meningococcal vaccine in can a compare essay use first person building, August 2005 and the varicella booster in April 2007.
As a consequence, the size of the cohorts who received these vaccines is smaller in comparison to other vaccines. Another issue concerns the fact that the influenza vaccination is an annual vaccination using a vaccine specific for a given year to cant essay scarlet protect against women essay, the highly variable influenza virus. Help Cant Scarlet. As a consequence, it is also the most frequently administered vaccine that indeed may well have disproportionately #x0201C;driven#x0201D; the #x0201C;any vaccine#x0201D; findings (Table 1). Given its variability and prevalence, in future studies, it will be important to look year-by-year. Perhaps the largest limitation and potential threat to the study#x02019;s validity has to do with the papers cheap 5 family, fundamental impossibility of detecting a causal relationship within the context of such a case#x02013;control study. Indeed, this provides no more than a relative perspective of the potential risk, as opposed to essay letter themes the absolute risk (the real proportion of individuals who had a vaccination and then developed one or more of the investigated conditions) that might be expected to be reasonably small. Moving forward, our findings require replication in a larger population-based sample, possibly including assessments of various potentially important host factors, e.g., the individual#x02019;s genomic and epigenomic background, the individual#x02019;s microbiome, their history of essay parts antecedent psychosocial stress, infections, as well as other potentially simultaneously administered vaccinations, the differences in vaccine types, and the route of administration (e.g., intramuscular or intranasal administration of influenza vaccine) as different routes of administration may lead to themes a difference in immune responses in the host. It will also be critically important to the renaissance and m determine whether or not newly acquired infectious diseases against which the children were vaccinated may themselves lead to an increased incidence to one or more of cant essay letter themes these neuropsychiatric disorders. In fact, it would not be surprising if the diseases per se represent a stronger risk factor than vaccinations.
The documented increase in buy research cheap introduction, the incidence of narcolepsy following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in China provides a clear example (30). Our earlier epidemiological study documenting a temporally related modest increase in the incidence of OCD, tic disorders, and ADHD following a prior streptococcal infection provides another example (25). Future epidemiologic investigations are needed to address this important question. The present study has the potential to extend our knowledge about the role of the immune system in help cant, some pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. Papers Online Cheap Humanism The Renaissance And M. However, our findings do not demonstrate a causal role of help cant letter vaccination in papers online, the pathoetiology of any of these conditions. Help Essay Scarlet Themes. This is especially important given the clear public health benefits of the timely administration of vaccines in preventing mortality and morbidity (38). Vaccines are among the most successful and cost-effective preventive public health interventions (39). Free Gatsby Essays. Vaccination has led to eradication of smallpox, and we are close to the eradication of poliomyelitis across the world. Since most of the vaccine-preventable diseases are contagious from person to cant essay person, the increase in numbers of vaccinated individuals will decrease the chance of a disease to spread. Proper vaccination not only protects our generation but also protects future generations against epidemics of diseases. It should always be kept in mind that vaccines are crucial for eradicating infectious diseases and preventing the can a use first, higher rates of morbidity and mortality due to infections.
However, care should be taken to ensure that children scheduled to receive vaccinations are in good health and that recommended precautions are taken at the time a vaccine is to be administered. These findings provide preliminary epidemiologic evidence that the onset of some pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric disorders, including AN, OCD, anxiety disorders, and tic disorders, may be temporally related to prior vaccinations. Each of these conditions is etiologically heterogeneous, and host factors likely play an important role in a small subset of vulnerable individuals. However, these findings, even if replicated in future studies, do not prove a causal role of vaccination in the pathoetiology of any of these conditions. Do My Essay Scarlet Themes. Indeed, antecedent infections may also increase the risk of developing one or more of buy research online cheap 5 family needs these disorders in vulnerable individuals.
Finally, given the modest magnitude of these findings and the clear public health benefits of the timely administration of vaccines in preventing mortality and morbidity in childhood, we encourage families to cant essay scarlet maintain the currently recommended vaccination schedules while taking all necessary precautions as documented by the Centers for empowerment essay Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/vac-admin/contraindications.htm). Data were obtained from the MarketScan #x000AE; Commercial Claims and Encounters database, which is constructed and maintained by Truven Health Analytics. DL, RK, BR, and JL designed the study and wrote the protocol. SG commented on the protocol. DL undertook the statistical analysis. BR, DL, and JL wrote the help cant do my letter themes, first draft of the manuscript. All the online 5 family, authors commented on the manuscript.
All the authors contributed to and have approved the final manuscript. JL has received support from the NIH (salary and research funding), Tourette Syndrome Association (research funding), Grifols, LLC (past research funding), and Klingenstein Third Generation Foundation (medical student fellowship program). He receives book royalties from John Wiley and Sons, McGraw Hill, and Oxford University Press. The other authors declare no conflict of interest. The reviewer ML and handling Editor declared their shared affiliation, and the handling Editor states that the process nevertheless met the standards of a fair and help essay scarlet objective review. The authors would like to express their thanks to Ivana Kawikova, MD, PhD, for her edits and guidance in preparing this article. This research was funded by donations from RK, BR, and papers online cheap to nursing Linda Richmand. 1. Leckman JF, Vaccarino FM. Editorial commentary: #x0201C;what does immunology have to do with brain development and neuropsychiatric disorders?#x0201D;.
Brain Res (2015) 1617:1#x02013;6. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.052. 2. Teixeira AL, Rodrigues DH, Marques AH, Miguel EC, Fontenelle LF. Scarlet Letter Themes. Searching for the immune basis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Papers Cheap The Renaissance And M. Neuroimmunomodulation (2014) 21(2#x02013;3):152#x02013;8. doi:10.1159/000356554. 3. Williams KA, Swedo SE. Help Do My Scarlet Letter Themes. Post-infectious autoimmune disorders: Sydenham#x02019;s chorea, PANDAS and beyond. Brain Res (2015) 1617:144#x02013;54. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.071. 4. Omodei D, Pucino V, Labruna G, Procaccini C, Galgani M, Perna F, et al. Immune-metabolic profiling of anorexic patients reveals an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory phenotype.
Metabolism (2015) 64(3):396#x02013;405. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2014.10.025. 5. Martino D, Zis P, Buttiglione M. Gatsby. The role of immune mechanisms in Tourette syndrome. Do My Essay Scarlet Letter Themes. Brain Res (2015) 1617:126#x02013;43. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.04.027. 6. Cheap Introduction. Verlaet AA, Noriega DB, Hermans N, Savelkoul HF. Nutrition, immunological mechanisms and dietary immunomodulation in ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry (2014) 23(7):519#x02013;29. Help Cant Do My Scarlet Letter Themes. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0522-2. 7. I'm Writing An Essay. Lotrich FE. Cant Essay. Inflammatory cytokine-associated depression.
Brain Res (2015) 1617:113#x02013;25. Online Cheap And M. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.06.032. 8. Maletic V, Raison C. Help Cant Do My Letter Themes. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder. Front Psychiatry (2014) 5:98. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00098. 9. Kalkbrenner AE, Schmidt RJ, Penlesky AC. Environmental chemical exposures and autism spectrum disorders: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care (2014) 44(10):277#x02013;318. doi:10.1016/j.cppeds.2014.06.001. 10. Papers. Taylor LE, Swerdfeger AL, Eslick GD. Vaccines are not associated with autism: an evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.
Vaccine (2014) 32(29):3623#x02013;9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. 11. Karussis D, Petrou P. The spectrum of post-vaccination inflammatory CNS demyelinating syndromes. Autoimmun Rev (2014) 13(3):215#x02013;24. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2013.10.003. 12.
Pellegrino P, Carnovale C, Perrone V, Pozzi M, Antoniazzi S, Clementi E, et al. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis onset: evaluation based on vaccine adverse events reporting systems. PLoS One (2013) 8(10):e77766. Essay Themes. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077766. 13. Pellegrino P, Carnovale C, Pozzi M, Antoniazzi S, Perrone V, Salvati D, et al. On the relationship between human papilloma virus vaccine and autoimmune diseases.
Autoimmun Rev (2014) 13(7):736#x02013;41. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.054. 14. Perricone C, Ceccarelli F, Nesher G, Borella E, Odeh Q, Conti F, et al. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) associated with vaccinations: a review of reported cases. Immunol Res (2014) 60(2#x02013;3):226#x02013;35. doi:10.1007/s12026-014-8597-x. 15. Free The Great Gatsby. Prestel J, Volkers P, Mentzer D, Lehmann HC, Hartung HP, Keller-Stanislawski B, et al. Risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome following pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccination in Germany. Cant Do My Themes. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf (2014) 23(11):1192#x02013;204. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Humanism The Renaissance And M. doi:10.1002/pds.3638. 16.
Rinaldi M, Perricone C, Ortega-Hernandez OD, Perricone R, Shoenfeld Y. Immune thrombocytopaenic purpura: an autoimmune cross-link between infections and vaccines. Lupus (2014) 23(6):554#x02013;67. doi:10.1177/0961203313499959. 17. Heier MS, Gautvik KM, Wannag E, Bronder KH, Midtlyng E, Kamaleri Y, et al. Incidence of narcolepsy in Norwegian children and adolescents after vaccination against H1N1 influenza A. Sleep Med (2013) 14(9):867#x02013;71. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.03.020. 18. Help Cant Do My Essay Letter. Partinen M, Kornum BR, Plazzi G, Jennum P, Julkunen I, Vaarala O. Narcolepsy as an autoimmune disease: the role of H1N1 infection and vaccination.
Lancet Neurol (2014) 13(6):600#x02013;13. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70075-4. 19. McGarvey PB, Suzek BE, Baraniuk JN, Rao S, Conkright B, Lababidi S, et al. In silico analysis of autoimmune diseases and genetic relationships to buy research papers vaccination against infectious diseases. Help Cant Do My Essay Scarlet Letter. BMC Immunol (2014) 15:61. doi:10.1186/s12865-014-0061-0. 20. Nguyen XH, Saoudi A, Liblau RS. Empowerment Diagram. Vaccine-associated inflammatory diseases of the cant do my scarlet themes, central nervous system: from signals to causation. Curr Opin Neurol (2016) 29(3):362#x02013;71. doi:10.1097/WCO.0000000000000318. 21.
H#x000E4;ggmark-M#x000E5;nberg A, Zandian A, Forsstr#x000F6;m B, Khademi M, Lima Bomfim I, Hellstr#x000F6;m C, et al. Autoantibody targets in vaccine-associated narcolepsy. …. Autoimmunity (2016) 49(6):421#x02013;33. doi:10.1080/08916934.2016.1183655. 22. Help Do My Essay Themes. Vogel G. INFLUENZA. Narcolepsy link to buy research papers cheap pandemic flu vaccine becomes clearer. Science (2015) 349(6243):17. doi:10.1126/science.349.6243.17. 23. Ahmed SS, Volkmuth W, Duca J, Corti L, Pallaoro M, Pezzicoli A, et al.
Antibodies to influenza nucleoprotein cross-react with human hypocretin receptor 2. Help Do My Scarlet Letter Themes. Sci Transl Med (2015) 7(294):294ra105. Free The Great Gatsby. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aab2354. 24. Leslie DL, Martin A. Health care expenditures associated with autism spectrum disorders. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med (2007) 161(4):350#x02013;5. doi:10.1001/archpedi.161.4.350. 25. Leslie DL, Kozma L, Martin A, Landeros A, Katsovich L, King RA, et al. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection: a case-control study among privately insured children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry (2008) 47(10):1166#x02013;72. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825a3d. 26. Shimabukuro TT, Grosse SD, Rice C. Medical expenditures for cant essay scarlet letter children with an autism spectrum disorder in a privately insured population.
J Autism Dev Disord (2008) 38(3):546#x02013;52. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0424-y. 27. Buy Research Cheap 5 Family. Zhou F, Shefer A, Kong Y, Nuorti JP. Do My. Trends in and contrast essay person, acute otitis media-related health care utilization by privately insured young children in the United States, 1997-2004. Pediatrics (2008) 121(2):253#x02013;60. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-0619. 28.
Cortes JE, Curns AT, Tate JE, Cortese MM, Patel MM, Zhou F, et al. Rotavirus vaccine and health care utilization for diarrhea in U.S. children. N Engl J Med (2011) 365(12):1108#x02013;17. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1000446. 29. Leung J, Harpaz R, Molinari NA, Jumaan A, Zhou F. Herpes zoster incidence among insured persons in the United States, 1993-2006: evaluation of impact of varicella vaccination. Clin Infect Dis (2011) 52(3):332#x02013;40. doi:10.1093/cid/ciq077. 30. Han F, Lin L, Warby SC, Faraco J, Li J, Dong SX, et al. Narcolepsy onset is seasonal and increased following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in China.
Ann Neurol (2011) 70(3):410#x02013;7. doi:10.1002/ana.22587. 31. Billiard M, Seignalet J, Besset A, Cadilhac J. HLA-DR2 and narcolepsy. Essay Scarlet Letter. Sleep (1986) 9(1 Pt 2):149#x02013;52. 32. Koepsell TD, Longstreth WT, Ton TG.
Medical exposures in youth and the frequency of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a population-based case-control study in genetically predisposed people. J Sleep Res (2010) 19(1 Pt 1):80#x02013;6. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2009.00756.x. 33. Harel Z, Hallett J, Riggs S, Vaz R, Kiessling L. Antibodies against human putamen in women empowerment parts, adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord (2001) 29(4):463#x02013;9. doi:10.1002/eat.1043. 34. Kirvan CA, Swedo SE, Snider LA, Cunningham MW. Antibody-mediated neuronal cell signaling in essay letter themes, behavior and movement disorders. J Neuroimmunol (2006) 179(1#x02013;2):173#x02013;9. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.06.017. 35.
Toufexis MD, Hommer R, Gerardi DM, Grant P, Rothschild L, D#x02019;Souza P, et al. Disordered eating and food restrictions in children with PANDAS/PANS. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol (2015) 25(1):48#x02013;56. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0063. 36. Papers Online Introduction To Nursing. Raevuori A, Haukka J, Vaarala O, Suvisaari JM, Gissler M, Grainger M, et al. The increased risk for autoimmune diseases in patients with eating disorders. PLoS One (2014) 9(8):e104845. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104845. 37. Zastrow A, Schnitzler P, Eckerle I, Herzog W, Friederich HC.
Immunogenicity and safety of H1N1 vaccination in anorexia nervosa #x02013; results from a pilot study. Int J Eat Disord (2012) 45(1):146#x02013;9. doi:10.1002/eat.20908. 38. Andre FE, Booy R, Bock HL, Clemens J, Datta SK, John TJ, et al. Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide. Bull World Health Organ (2008) 86(2):140#x02013;6. Help Scarlet Themes. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.040089. 39. Fine P. Science and society: vaccines and public health. Public Health (2014) 128(8):686#x02013;92. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2014.06.021. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, obsessive#x02013;compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder, tic disorder, vaccination, influenza, meningococcus.
Citation: Leslie DL, Kobre RA, Richmand BJ, Aktan Guloksuz S and Leckman JF (2017) Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of can a essay use first building Children and help essay themes Adolescents: A Pilot Case#x02013;Control Study. Front. Psychiatry 8:3. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00003. Received: 19 August 2016; Accepted: 04 January 2017; Published: 19 January 2017. Ashok Mysore, St.
John#x02019;s Medical College Hospital, India. Rajshekhar Bipeta, Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, India. Om Sai Ramesh Vallamkonda, Lady Hardinge Medical College, India. Copyright: #x000A9; 2017 Leslie, Kobre, Richmand, Aktan Guloksuz and buy research cheap Leckman. Help Cant Do My Essay Scarlet Letter. This is an open-access article distributed under the buy research online cheap 5 family needs, terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in help do my essay scarlet, this journal is parts, cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni. Died: 13 December 1048 in scarlet letter Ghazna (now Ghazni, Afganistan) Click the picture above. to buy research humanism the renaissance see six larger pictures. Other work which al-Biruni undertook as a young man was more theoretical. Before 995 (when he was 22 years old) he had written a number of short works. One which has survived is his Cartography which is a work on cant do my scarlet map projections. As well as describing his own projection of a hemisphere onto a plane, al-Biruni showed that by the age of papers to nursing 22 he was already extremely well read for do my scarlet, he had studied a wide selection of map projections invented by others and he discusses them in free the great gatsby essays the treatise. The comparatively quiet life that al-Biruni led up to this point was to come to a sudden end. It is interesting to speculate on how different his life, and cant do my essay, contribution to scholarship, might have been but for the change in his life forced by the political events of 995. The end of the 10 th century and buy research cheap 5 family, beginning of the 11 th century was a period of great unrest in the Islamic world and there were civil wars in the region in help do my essay letter which al-Biruni was living. Khwarazm was at this time part of the Samanid Empire which ruled from women empowerment parts diagram Bukhara.
Other states in the region were the Ziyarid state with its capital at Gurgan on essay themes the Caspian sea. An Essay On Stereotypes? Further west, the Buwayhid dynasty ruled over help do my the area between the online cheap, Caspian sea and the Persian Gulf, and over Mesopotamia. Another kingdom which was rapidly rising in cant essay letter themes influence was the Ghaznavids whose capital was at Ghazna in Afghanistan, a kingdom which was to play a major role in buy research introduction al-Biruni's life. The Banu Iraq were the essay letter, rulers of the introduction to nursing, Khwarazm region and Abu Nasr Mansur, al-Biruni's teacher, was a prince of that family. In 995 the rule by the Banu Iraq was overthrown in a coup. Al-Biruni fled at the outbreak of the civil war but it is less clear what happened to his teacher Abu Nasr Mansur at this stage. Help Cant Do My Themes? Describing these events later al-Biruni wrote [',' E S Kennedy, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).',' 1]:- After I had barely settled down for a few years, I was permitted by the Lord of Time to go back home, but I was compelled to participate in can a compare person building worldly affairs, which excited the help cant do my themes, envy of fools, but which made the wise pity me. Exactly where al-Biruni went when he fled from Khwarazm is unclear.
He might have gone to can a compare use first person Rayy (near to where the city of Tehran stands today) at this time, but certainly he was there at some time during the following few years. He writes that he was without a patron when in Rayy, and lived in poverty. al-Khujandi was an astronomer who was working with a very large instrument he had built on the mountain above Rayy to observe meridian transits of the cant scarlet letter, sun near the solstices . He made observations on 16 and 17 June 994 for the summer solstice and 14 and 17 December 994 for the winter solstice. Free? From these values he calculated the obliquity of the ecliptic , and the latitude of Rayy but neither are particularly accurate. Al-Khujandi discussed these observations, and his large sextant, with al-Biruni who later reported on them in his Tahdid where he claimed that the aperture of the sextant settled by about one span in the course of al-Khujandi's observations due to the weight of the instrument. Cant Do My Essay Themes? Al-Biruni is almost certainly correct in women empowerment essay pinpointing the cause of al-Khujandi's errors. Since al-Khujandi died in 1000, we can be fairly certain that al-Biruni spent part of the time between 995 and 997 at Rayy. He must also have spent part of help scarlet this time in Gilan, which is bordered by the Caspian Sea on the north, for around this time he dedicated a work to the ruler of Gilan, ibn Rustam, who had connections with the Ziyarid state. We know certain dates in al-Biruni's life with certainty for he describes astronomical events in can a and contrast use first building his works which allow accurate dates and places to be determined. His description of an eclipse of the moon on 24 May 997 which he observed at Kath means that he had returned to his native country by this time. The eclipse was an event that was also visible in Baghdad and al-Biruni had arranged with Abu'l-Wafa to observe it there.
Comparing their timings enabled them to calculate the difference in help cant do my letter themes longitude between the cities. We know that al-Biruni moved around frequently during this period for by 1000 he was at Gurgan being supported by Qabus, the ruler of the Ziyarid state. He dedicated his work Chronology to essay parts diagram Qabus around 1000 and he was still in Gurgan on 19 February 1003 and essay themes, 14 August 1003 when he observed eclipses of the moon there. We should record that in the great gatsby the Chronology al-Biruni refers to seven earlier works which he had written: one on the decimal system, one on the astrolabe , one on essay letter astronomical observations, three on astrology, and papers cheap humanism the renaissance and m, two on history. By 4 June 1004 al-Biruni was back in his homeland, for on that day he observed another eclipse of the moon from Jurjaniyya. Ali ibn Ma'mun had ruled over Khwarazm and help cant scarlet themes, he remained at the court when his brother Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun succeeded him as ruler. Both the Ma'mun brothers married sisters of the ruler Mahmud from the powerful state at Ghazna which would eventually take control of Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun's kingdom. Both Ali ibn Ma'mun and Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun were patrons of the sciences and women empowerment essay diagram, supported a number of top scientists at their court. By 1004 Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun was ruler and he provided generous support for al-Biruni's scientific work. Not only did al-Biruni work there but Abu Nasr Mansur, his former teacher also worked there, allowing the pair to renew their collaboration. With Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun's support al-Biruni built an instrument at Jurjaniyya to help cant do my essay scarlet themes observe solar meridian transits and buy research cheap the renaissance, he made 15 such observations with the instrument between 7 June 1016 and 7 December 1016.
Wars in the region were to help essay scarlet letter themes disrupt the scientific work of al-Biruni and 5 family, Abu Nasr Mansur and eventually both left Khwarazm in about 1017. Mahmud was extending his influence over help do my scarlet letter the region from his base in free Ghazna and made a demand of cant do my scarlet letter Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun in 1014 to have his name inserted into the Friday prayers. This was a signal that he wanted an end to Ma'mun's rule and he was making a bid for the region to come under his control. After Ma'mun had at least partially agreed to Mahmud's demands, he was killed by his own army for what they considered to be an act of treachery. Following this Mahmud marched his army into the region and gained control of free Kath on 3 July 1017. Both al-Biruni and Abu Nasr Mansur left with the victorious Mahmud, perhaps as his prisoners. Help Cant Do My Essay Themes? There follows a strange period during which there is evidence in compare essay use first building al-Biruni's own writings that he suffered great hardships but he also seems to have been supported by Mahmud for some scientific work.
Some reports that Mahmud was cruel to al-Biruni may have some basis despite the limited patronage al-Biruni received from the do my essay scarlet, ruler. Some dates and places from buy research 5 family this period can again be deduced from descriptions of astronomical events recorded by help essay themes, al-Biruni. He was in Kabul on introduction to nursing 14 October 1018 but, despite having no instruments with which to cant do my letter themes observe, he was able to gatsby essays make an observation with an ingenious instrument he made from materials at hand. Cant? At Lamghan, north of Kabul, on 8 April 1019 he observed an eclipse of the sun, writing [',' Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Empowerment Essay? ',' 2]:- . at sunrise we saw that approximately one-third of the sun was eclipsed and that the eclipse was waning. Between 1018 and 1020, supported by Mahmud, al-Biruni made observations from Ghazna which allowed an accurate determination of its latitude. On 17 September 1019 there was a lunar eclipse observed by al-Biruni from Ghazna and [',' Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica. ',' 2]:- He gives precise details of the exact altitude of various well known stars at the moment of first contact. The relationship between Mahmud and al-Biruni is interesting. It is likely that al-Biruni was essentially a prisoner of Mahmud and was not free to leave. However Mahmud's military excursions into India meant that al-Biruni was taken to that country, and there can have been few experiences that al-Biruni would have enjoyed more.
He may have wished for help cant scarlet themes, better treatment from Mahmud but al-Biruni's scientific work certainly benefited. From around 1022 Mahmud's armies began to have success in taking control of the buy research online cheap introduction, northern parts of India and in cant do my 1026 his armies marched to the Indian Ocean. Al-Biruni seems only to and contrast use first person building have been in the northern parts of India, and help scarlet, we are uncertain how many visits he made, but observations he made there enabled him to determine the latitudes of buy research online introduction eleven towns around the Punjab and the borders of themes Kashmir. His most famous work India was written as a direct result of the studies he made while in that country. Can A And Contrast Building? The India is a massive work covering many different aspects of the country. Al-Biruni describes the religion and help cant do my essay themes, philosophy of India, its caste system and marriage customs. He then studies the Indian systems of writing and numbers before going on to examine the geography of the country. The book also examines Indian astronomy, astrology and I'm writing an essay, the calendar. Al-Biruni studied Indian literature in the original, translating several Sanskrit texts into Arabic.
He also wrote several treatises devoted to certain aspects of Indian astronomy and cant essay letter themes, mathematics which were of particular interest to him. Al-Biruni was amazingly well read, having knowledge of Sanskrit literature on topics such as astrology, astronomy, chronology, geography, grammar, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, religion, and weights and measures. See [',' A M Shastri, Sanskrit literature known to al-Biruni, Indian J. Online Cheap? History Sci. 10 (2) (1975), 111-138, 159.',' 65] for further details. Mahmud died in 1030 and he was succeeded by do my essay scarlet, his eldest son Mas'ud, although not before a difficult political situation in which the papers online humanism the renaissance, two sons of Mahmud each tried to cant do my essay scarlet themes follow their father as ruler. Free The Great? Clearly al-Biruni was unsure who would succeed for he chose not to give a dedication in his India which appeared at this time.
Better to have no dedication than to choose the wrong one! Mas'ud proved to be a ruler who treated al-Biruni more kindly than his father had done. Help Cant Do My? If al-Biruni had been a virtual prisoner before, he now seems to empowerment diagram have become free to travel as he pleased. Mas'ud was murdered in cant essay letter themes 1040 and succeeded by his son Mawdud who ruled for eight years. By this time al-Biruni was an old man but he continued his enormous output of scientific works right up to buy research online cheap the time of his death.
The total number of works produced by al-Biruni during his lifetime is impressive. Kennedy. Help Do My Themes? writing in [',' E S Kennedy, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).',' 1], estimates that he wrote around 146 works with a total of about 13,000 folios (a folio contains about the same amount as a printed page from a modern book). We have mentioned some of the works above, but the range of al-Biruni's works cover essentially the whole of science at his time. Buy Research Papers Cheap? Kennedy writes [',' E S Kennedy, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).',' 1]:- . his bent was strongly towards the study of observable phenomena, in nature and in man. Within the help cant do my essay scarlet themes, sciences themselves he was attracted by buy research papers online cheap to nursing, those fields then susceptible of do my scarlet letter themes mathematical analysis. We have mentioned al-Biruni's astronomical observations many time above. It is can a compare and contrast essay person, worth noting that he had a better feel for errors than did Ptolemy. In [',' O Sheynin, al-Biruni and the mathematical treatment of observations, Arabic Sci. Philos. 2 (2) (1992), 299-306.',' 66] the letter themes, author comments that Ptolemy's attitude was to select the observations which he thought most reliable (often that meant fitting in with his theory), and not to tell the reader about buy research online cheap 5 family needs observations that he was discarding.
Al-Biruni, on the other hand, treats errors more scientifically and when he does chose some to be more reliable than others, he also gives the discarded observations. He was also very conscious of rounding errors in calculations, and always attempted to essay letter observe quantities which required the minimum manipulation to produce answers. One of the can a compare essay person building, most important of al-Biruni's many texts is Shadows which he is thought to do my themes have written around 1021. Rosenfel'd has written extensively on this work of al-Biruni (see for example [',' B A Rosenfel#8217;d and the great gatsby, L G Utseha, Some mathematical discoveries in al-Biruni#8217;s #8217;Shadows#8217;, J. Hist. Arabic Sci. 4 (2) (1980), 332-336.',' 52], [',' B A Rozenfel#8217;d, Some questions on the mathematics of variable quantities in al-Biruni #8217;s treatise on shadows (Russian), Istor.-Mat. Issled. Cant Do My Essay Scarlet Themes? 23 (1978), 226-230, 358.',' 55], and [',' B A Rozenfel#8217;d and L G Uceha, al-Biruni#8217;s astronomical treatise on shadows (Russian), Istor.-Astronom. Issled. 14 (1978), 303-314.',' 59]). The Great? The contents of the work include the Arabic nomenclature of shade and help cant do my essay themes, shadows, strange phenomena involving shadows, gnomonics, the history of the tangent and secant functions, applications of the buy research papers online cheap introduction to nursing, shadow functions to the astrolabe and to other instruments, shadow observations for the solution of various astronomical problems, and the shadow-determined times of Muslim prayers.
Shadows is an extremely important source for our knowledge of the history of mathematics, astronomy, and physics. It also contains important ideas such as the idea that acceleration is connected with non-uniform motion, using three rectangular coordinates to help essay scarlet define a point in compare and contrast 3-space, and scarlet letter, ideas that some see as anticipating the introduction of polar coordinates. And Contrast Use First Building? The book [',' B A Rozenfel#8217;d, M M Rozhanskaya and Z K Skolovskaya, Abu#8217;l-Rayhan al-Biruni (973-1048) (Russian) (Moscow, 1973). ',' 5] details the mathematical contributions of al-Biruni. These include: theoretical and practical arithmetic, summation of series, combinatorial analysis, the rule of three, irrational numbers, ratio theory, algebraic definitions, method of solving algebraic equations, geometry, Archimedes' theorems, trisection of the angle and other problems which cannot be solved with ruler and compass alone, conic sections , stereometry, stereographic projection , trigonometry, the sine theorem in the plane, and solving spherical triangles. Important contributions to geodesy and geography were also made by al-Biruni. He introduced techniques to measure the help cant do my, earth and distances on it using triangulation. He found the radius of the buy research papers introduction, earth to be 6339.6 km, a value not obtained in the West until the 16 th century (see [',' K Norhudzaev, al-Biruni and the science of geodesy (Uzbek), in Collection dedicated to the 1000th anniversary of the birth of al-Biruni (Tashkent, 1973), 145-158.',' 50]). His Masudic canon contains a table giving the coordinates of six hundred places, almost all of which he had direct knowledge. Not all, however, were measured by al-Biruni himself, some being taken from a similar table given by al-Khwarizmi.
The author of cant do my essay themes [',' P G Bulgakov, al-Biruni and free the great essays, al-Khwarizmi (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of scientists of the medieval East (Tashkent, 1977), 117-122; 140.',' 27] remarks that al-Biruni seemed to realise that for places given by cant themes, both al-Khwarizmi and Ptolemy, the value obtained by al-Khwarizmi is the more accurate. Al-Biruni also wrote a treatise on time-keeping, wrote several treatises on the astrolabe and describes a mechanical calendar. He makes interesting observations on the velocity of light, stating that its velocity is immense compared with that of sound. He also describes the Milky Way as. . a collection of countless fragments of the nature of nebulous stars. Topics in physics that were studied by al-Biruni included hydrostatics and made very accurate measurements of specific weights.
He described the ratios between the densities of gold, mercury, lead, silver, bronze, copper, brass, iron, and tin. Al-Biruni displayed the empowerment parts, results as combinations of integers and numbers of the form 1/ n , n = 2, 3, 4, . , 10. Many of al-Biruni's ideas were worked out in discussions and arguments with other scholars. Help Letter? He had a long-standing collaboration with his teacher Abu Nasr Mansur, each asking the other to undertake specific pieces of work to support their own. He corresponded with Avicenna, in papers online cheap 5 family needs a rather confrontational fashion, about the nature of heat and light. In [',' I M Muminov (ed.), al-Biruni and Ibn Sina : Correspondence (Russian) (Tashkent, 1973).',' 4], eighteen letters which Avicenna sent to al-Biruni in answer to questions that he had posed are given.
These letters cover topics such as philosophy, astronomy and physics. Al-Biruni also corresponded with al-Sijzi. The paper [',' Kh F Abdulla-zade, al-Biruni#8217;s letter to Abu Said (Russian), Izv. Akad. Nauk Tadzhik. SSR Otdel. Fiz.-Mat.
Khim. i Geol. Nauk (3)(89) (1983), 16-19.',' 10] contains a letter that al-Biruni wrote to al-Sijzi (translated into help, English in [',' A Sayili, in Beyruni#8217;ye Armagan (Ankara, 1974), 169-207.',' 63]) which contains proofs of both the plane and spherical versions of the sine theorem. Al-Biruni says were due to his teacher Abu Nasr Mansur. Finally we should say a little about the personality of this great scholar. In contrast with the works of many others, we find out a lot about al-Biruni from his writings. Despite the fact that no more than one fifth of his works have survived, we get a clear picture of the great scientist. We see a man who was not a great innovator of original theories, mathematical or otherwise, but rather a careful observer who was a leading exponent of the can a essay use first person, experimental method. He was a great linguist who was able to read first hand an amazing number of the treatises that existed and he clearly saw the development of science as part of a historical process which he is always careful to help cant do my essay scarlet letter put in proper context. His writings are therefore of great interest to historians of science.
It appears clear that, despite his many works on buy research papers 5 family astrology, al-Biruni did not believe in the 'science' but used it as a means to support his serious scientific work. A devout Muslim, he did write religious texts to suit his patrons particular sect. He shows no prejudice against different religious sects or races, but he does have strong words to say about various acts they committed. Help Cant Do My Scarlet Letter Themes? For example the Arab conquerors of Khwarazm destroyed ancient texts - what sin could be worse than that to the scholar as dedicated to learning and can a and contrast essay person building, history as was al-Biruni. Cant Do My Letter? On the Christian faith al-Biruni considered the doctrine of forgiveness, writing in India [',' E S Kennedy, Biography in Dictionary of buy research papers Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).',' 1]:- Upon my life, this is a noble philosophy, but the people of this world are not all philosophers. . And indeed, ever since Constantine the Victorious became a Christian, both sword and whip have been ever employed. An indication of the sarcasm that he employed against those he saw to be foolish we give the reply that he made to a religious man who objected to the fact that an instrument which al-Biruni was showing him to determine the time for prayers had Byzantine months engraved on help cant scarlet themes it.
Al-Biruni reports in Shadows that he said to him:- The Byzantines also eat food. Then do not imitate them in buy research online cheap 5 family this! Article by: J J O'Connor and E F Robertson. Click on this link to see a list of the Glossary entries for this page List of References (72 books/articles)
Write my Paper for Cheap in High Quality - The Scarlet Letter Notes - UK Essays - University of North Carolina Greensboro
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The Heroic Deed: Myth and Revolution. According to legend, the last words of Che Guevara before his execution were “I know you've come to kill me. Shoot coward, you are only going to kill a man.” What Che meant here was that the cause of revolution would live on despite his death. Whether or not the myth is true, the meaning behind it has inspired revolutionaries throughout the world. In certain ways, the myth surrounding Che Guevara has been just as important as the truth. In fact, myths provide a crucial underpinning to do my, how ideology and society is able to function. Myths play a major role not only in society, but in radical political movements, as was recognized by the French syndicalist Georges Sorel and free the great, the Peruvian communist Jose Carlos Mariategui. And despite the scientific pretensions of much of the left, myths also supply inspiration, passion and faith to militants in the course of struggle.
Before discussing the role of myth on the left, we need to help do my essay letter themes, have some idea of how myth works in the world. According to Joseph Campbell, a scholar of myths, mythology performs four functions in human society. Can A Essay Person Building? The first one is the mystical function where “Myth opens the world to the dimension of mystery, to the realization of the mystery that underlies all forms.”  The universe is full of wonder, glory and mystery that we lie in awe before. These mysteries lie beyond the realm of human experience and cannot be captured in our ordinary language. Yet the symbols and rituals of mythology are a way to cant essay themes, address and an essay on stereotypes …, make sense of this reality that lies beyond our comprehension. The second function of myth, Campbell says, is cosmological. Myth in essay this sense can be thought of as a form of proto-science, showcasing how the universe works by providing explanations for the creation of the world, the origin of human life, the change of seasons, etc. In modern society, the cosmological function is taken over more and more by science. However, Campbell states that myths and can a compare essay use first person building, science don't come into conflict, rather science pushes to help cant do my essay scarlet letter, the edge of mystery, to that which can never be known, such as the source of life. Campbell identifies the third function of myth as its sociological function of “supporting and validating a certain social order.”  This purpose of myth can vary greatly depending upon the particular society.
We can naturally expect feudal society to consider usury and the pursuit of profit to be vices, while capitalist society would look upon them as virtues. Naturally, the myths of a reigning social order, such as capitalism, promote that system and its values. Yet even within different capitalist societies, the women empowerment, role of myth can vary greatly. Let us expand on this. For example, the predominant myths in help cant essay letter the United States promote individualism, the American Dream and white supremacy. The founding myth is that the American Revolution brought “freedom and democracy.” Yet this revolution in actuality was marked by limited popular involvement (mainly among the white and male population) that created institutions to solidify the rule of a new local ruling class based upon expansionism, genocide and slavery. This legacy of the American Revolution has made it quite easy to women empowerment parts, be used, obsessively so, by help scarlet, American leaders to promote the dominant values of online, capitalist society which is reflected in the working class.
The reality of the American Revolution has in fact made it difficult to be embraced by cant do my scarlet themes, those advocating egalitarian change. On the other hand, French society, while also capitalist, has a far more economistic class consciousness ethic among the working class than in the USA. Modern France owes its origin to the Revolution of 1789 which was a massive social upheaval from below (far surpassing the American Revolution) that brought radical changes that conflicted with the bourgeois leadership. While the needs, reigning social order in essay themes France can be traced to 1789, there is an ambivalence in the embrace of the values of the revolution by the ruling class. Political figures may revere the “Republic” but there is no corresponding civil worship of its “founding fathers” (as can be found in the United States).
Although conservatives can wrap themselves in 5 family the Tricolor, the slogan “Liberte, egalite, fraternite” can easily be appropriated by opponents of help letter themes, capitalism such as socialists, communists, and anarchists. Mythology, just like ideology, serves the role of initiating and interpellating individuals into subjects. Can A And Contrast Building? The reigning myths associated with them in society such as the American Dream or Christian values, are not merely mistaken ideas or examples of cant do my essay scarlet letter themes, “false consciousness,” but rather they exist in papers online cheap needs material practices (such as schools or churches). According to Louis Althusser, “Ideology does not exist in the ‘world of ideas’ conceived as a ‘spiritual world’. Ideology exists in institutions and cant scarlet letter themes, the practices specific to them. We are even tempted to say, more precisely: ideology exists in apparatuses and the practices specific to them.”  Ideology (such as myths) exists through the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA), even though they are private – churches, schools, families, etc, they still reinforce the rule of the dominant class through ideology. Buy Research Papers Cheap 5 Family? We can see this in scarlet themes the example of Christian fundamentalism, whose adherents not only believe in God, pray and attend church.
As Althusser says, “If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’.”  Thus, a Christian fundamentalist is likely to be an and contrast essay person building American patriot who waves the flag, raises their children to revere the institutions and laws of the country (so long as they are in conformity with family values), serve in the military, etc. Yet whereas it was the help do my letter, church that was dominant in feudal society, Althusser identifies the school as the main ISA in modern society.  At school, students learn not only skills such as reading and writing, but socialization in the reigning values and culture of papers cheap 5 family, society, so that they can eventually become “good” and “obedient” citizens. Do My Essay Scarlet Themes? In other words, the school serves to prepare most students to be obedient workers who accept the myths and values of society and accept their subordinate station in life as natural. We should not look at the interpellation of subjects through the buy research cheap needs, ISAs as denying human agency (which is help cant do my a common objection to Althusser). The ISAs are necessary not only because it takes more than repressive force for the ruling order to maintain its power (although they will rely upon that as a last resort), but since class struggle never ceases. “Just as the class struggle never ceases, so the dominant class's combat to unify existing ideological elements and forms never ceases. Buy Research Papers Online Introduction? This amounts to help do my essay themes, saying the dominant ideology can never completely resolve its own contradictions, which are a reflection of the class struggle - although its function is to resolve them.”  Ideology and myths remain a battleground. The same Christian fundamentalists may consider themselves to be patriotic Americans who believe in free enterprise, but if they are on strike on a picket line, they will no doubt react with hostility to can a compare and contrast building, scabs. Or the fundamentalists may attend a Tea Party rally to protest a more “liberal” or “socialistic” government that they see as drifting away from or betraying “true” American values. Even the non-Marxist Campbell argues that what counts in terms of do my scarlet, authority figures such as judges, Presidents, or generals is not who they are individually. It doesn't matter if the President is an adulterer or underhanded, he still is to be saluted and respected because of the role he plays in society.
As Campbell says, when you respect Presidents, “you're not responding to them as personalities, you're responding to them in their mythological roles.”  According to Campbell, the President should not be corrupt, rather he needs to understand that to empowerment essay diagram, perform the do my essay scarlet letter themes, mythological role required of him, that “he has to online, sacrifice his personal desires and help cant essay scarlet letter, even life possibilities to the role that he now signifies.”  The mythological role of the President is reflected in how the “Founding Fathers” such as Washington and Jefferson or later Presidents like Abraham Lincoln are revered. We can see the mythological role played out in the Presidential campaign of candidates, whether Bush, Clinton, or Sanders, who are portrayed as fighting and standing for “America” (portrayed with slight variations in meaning). It doesn't matter that all this is a total fabrication, what matters is that the role the President, regardless of the individual, plays as a force of social cohesion and in promoting the papers, myths and help do my essay scarlet, ideology of America. Thus, in buy research online order for the mythological role of help do my essay scarlet letter themes, President to function, it takes interpellated citizens who accept it on the one hand and an individual candidate who (at least appears to) to can a and contrast essay building, forfeit their own wants and needs for do my scarlet letter, the greater good of the country. The President thus becomes the literal embodiment of the nation.
The last function of myth that Campbell identifies is its pedagogical role: “how to live a human lifetime under any circumstances. Myths can teach you that.”  Human beings regardless of the society they live in, go through different stages in life — moving from childhood to buy research cheap introduction to nursing, adulthood with new responsibilities that can include marriage and family. Help Scarlet? There are different rites and free essays, rituals that are expected to go through to learn how to function as responsible and ethical members of themes, society, whether by …, graduating from college, going to help cant do my scarlet, communion or a bar mitzvah. The values taught are naturally colored by class, so that the rituals of a feudal Church are different than those of a business school. Campbell's four functions of myth apply to papers cheap humanism and m, socialist movements as well.
As we shall see later, when discussing Mariategui, even though socialism is help cant essay letter founded on materialistic and scientific principles, myths, symbols, and rituals play key roles in teaching militants how to live, fight and to die as comrades for buy research papers needs, the communist ideal. One of the major influences on Mariategui's Marxism and his understanding of myth came from the work of the French syndicalist theorist, Georges Sorel. Mariategui hailed Sorel as an equal of Lenin for undertaking “the true revision of Marxism, in the sense of the renovation and continuation of the work of Marx. ”  Sorel was praised for returning socialism to the “original sentiment of class struggle, as a protest against parliamentary pacification, bourgeoisified socialism,” that was found in reformist socialism. Lastly, Mariategui said, Sorel established “the religious, mystical, metaphysical character of socialism” which proved that “the strength of revolutionaries is not in their science; it is in their faith, in their passion, in their will. Help Themes? It is a religious, mystical, spiritual force.”  Mariategui drew upon Sorel's understanding of buy research needs, myth and help do my scarlet, his voluntaristic ethos to inform his own creative and non-dogmatic Marxism.
However, Sorel himself remains highly controversial, and an essay …, his writings on the power of myth and defense of help cant essay, violence, expressed most clearly in Reflections on Violence , have inspired not only Marxists such as Mariategui and Antonio Gramsci, but fascists such as Benito Mussolini. Sorel was originally an engineer by training, turned to Marxist politics following his early retirement in the 1890s. He contributed to a number of Marxist journals and was involved in supporting Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish military officer falsely accused of treason. However, Sorel did not adhere to can a compare and contrast building, the determinism found within the Second International that explained history and the behavior of do my letter themes, people through their economic motives. Sorel took up the defense of Marxism against those he perceived as vulgarizers because to him, the moral content was vital.  Sorel was convinced that Marxist theory needed to be renewed and revised particularly in regards to its understanding of buy research cheap introduction, economics, morality and human action. To that end, Sorel cast an admiring eye on the work of the Italian Marxist Antonio Labriola and briefly to cant essay scarlet themes, the German Eduard Bernstein during the buy research papers online introduction, revisionist controversy. Labriola was praised for help essay themes, his defense of historical materialism and Marxism as a theory of action.  Sorel commended Labriola for breaking with the economic determinism of Marxism and stressing the importance of ethics. Buy Research Online The Renaissance?  As part of Sorel's own revision of do my themes, Marxism, he came to the conclusion that the online humanism the renaissance and m, labor “theory of cant scarlet letter themes, value. no longer has any scientific usefulness and . . . gives rise to a great many misunderstandings.”  Labriola never contemplated his own writings being used to declare Marxist economics obsolete, so he broke relations with Sorel. Sorel's defense of Dreyfus was informed by the moral desire to defend the papers online cheap introduction, notions of truth and justice.
That same moral concern would later find its way into cant his Reflections on buy research online cheap to nursing, Violence and the importance of mobilizing myths. Following the acquittal of Dreyfus, Sorel felt betrayed by the outcome since it only benefited opportunistic, careerists and parliamentary socialists. Help Do My? Sorel was repulsed by buy research papers online 5 family needs, the reformist politics of Jean Jaures and Alexander Millerand, the latter of whom entered a government of “republican defense.” Sorel was alarmed at what he perceived to be the statism and Jacobinism found in the government. Help Do My Essay Scarlet Themes? He believed that the autonomy of socialism risked being lost in the quick sand of opportunism and corruption of use first building, bourgeois politics.  The Affair had not raised the help cant letter themes, revolutionary elan of the …, proletariat, but smothered it. Sorel believed that any revolution must destroy the institutions and essay scarlet, values of liberal democracy that was leading civilization towards decadence. To Sorel, the parliamentarism, gradualism, opportunism and reformism found in the parties of the Second International led him to conclude that “the anarchists were right about this, and that, in entering into bourgeois institutions, revolutionaries have been transformed by adopting the spirit of these institutions: all the women parts, parliamentary deputies agree that there is very little difference between a representative of the bourgeoisie and a representative of the proletariat.”  Sorel's criticism of the help cant do my themes, dominant orthodoxy of official Marxism was echoed in the syndicalist movements that developed in opposition to online cheap humanism the renaissance, it. Syndicalist unions emerged in France, such as the General Confederation of help do my essay scarlet themes, Workers (CGT), which eschewed any form of political action, reliance on direct action, and a general strike by workers to usher in buy research cheap humanism the renaissance the revolution. Following 1906, there was an upsurge of labor unrest in France that led to strikes among postal workers, railway workers and numerous others. Help Cant Do My Scarlet Themes? In 1909, the strikes caused the government, led by the ex-Blanquist Georges Clemenceau to call in the army, who fired upon the workers.  By this time, Sorel had embraced syndicalism and attempted to theorize the movement in Reflections on Violence . In this work, Sorel completed his revision of Marxism, expunging any hint of determinism or its use as a method to understand the laws of the capitalism.
Sorel also embraced Henri Bergson's theories of the irrational and the power of intuition, along with Nietzsche's ethics of revolt and the contempt for established morality. For Sorel, Marxism was reduced to the class struggle, and its central tenets were to be interpreted as myths. In contrast to the “garrulous and lying” parliamentary socialists, Sorel praised the online cheap needs, syndicalist movement as the “great educative force that contemporary society has at its disposal for preparing the work of the future.”  Central to cant essay scarlet themes, syndicalism was that it was a reflection of the revolutionary general strike which produces an “entirely epic state of mind” that turns the “men of today into the free producers of tomorrow working in parts diagram workshops where there are no masters.”  These workers would be transformed, through their steeling in the “economic epic” of help cant do my essay, modern factories and by buy research papers online cheap introduction, participating in the general strike where the cant letter, proletariat organizes itself for battle, separating itself distinctly from the other parts of the nation, and regarding itself as the great motive power of history, all other social considerations being subordinated to that of combat; it is empowerment very clearly conscious of the glory which will be attached to its historical role and of the heroism of its militant attitude; it longs for the final contest in which it will give proof of the whole measure of its valor.  These heroic workers had no need to plan of battle for the conquest of state power, rather their victory and cant do my scarlet letter themes, the downfall of capital would result from the emergence in the working class of a new heroic mentality and the passion of violence, which inspired by the myth of the general strike. Can A Use First Person Building? After the cataclysmic battle, the workers, now transformed into producers would erect on its ashes a new civilization. To Sorel, whereas once the bourgeoisie, “was still, in the great majority, animated by the conquering, insatiable and pitiless spirit which, at the beginning of the modern epoch, had characterized the creators of new industries and the discoverers of unknown lands,” it had now degenerated and “become almost as stupid as the nobility of the eighteenth century.”  Sorel's argument hinges on the contention that myth encloses the “whole of socialism in the general strike. [which sees] in each strike a model, a test, a preparation for the great final upheaval.”  Although other Marxist theorists of the general strike such as Rosa Luxemburg saw its ethical power in preparing the proletariat for combat, it seen by her as a specific tactic, not a universal theory of revolution. Nor did Luxemburg ever deny the necessity of Marxist theory for the proletariat or fetishize violence. For Sorel, there was no way to historically or practically disprove the validity of the general strike because it was myth that was “secure from all refutation.”  No matter how valid science or criticism, it was could not shake the faith of people in myths such as religion or the general strike. A myth cannot be refuted “since it is, at help cant essay letter themes bottom, identical to the convictions of a group, being the expression of these convictions in the language of movement; and it is, in consequence, un-analyzable into parts which could be placed on the plane of historical descriptions.”  A myth was beyond reason and analysis. Myths like the general strike were important to Sorel because they are “are almost pure; they allow us to understand the activity, the sentiments and the ideas of the buy research papers online cheap humanism and m, masses as they prepare themselves to enter on a decisive struggle; they are not descriptions of things but expressions of cant essay themes, a will to online cheap humanism, act.”  Thus a myth in the modern world is a tool of combat that can inspire people to destroy the existing order.
Yet Sorel distinguished a myth from utopia because the latter was an help intellectual product which is a combination of buy research online the renaissance and m, imaginary institutions having sufficient analogies to real institutions for the jurist to be able to reason about cant scarlet letter themes them; it is a construction which can be broken into parts and buy research online cheap humanism and m, of which certain pieces have been shaped in such a way that they can (with a few alterations) be fitted into future legislation.  A utopia can be refuted by scarlet themes, showing that it is incompatible with “the necessary conditions of I'm writing …, modern production.”  Thus, Sorel detached Marxism from help cant essay scarlet themes, any analysis of society or rationality and replaced theory with revolutionary myths that were needed to bring forth apocalyptic violence. Socialism in papers online 5 family needs Sorel's mind was little different than religion by encouraging a new morality among people.  Revolutionary myths could provide this in a way that reason and Marxist materialism could not. The myth of the general strike was an inexhaustible source of regeneration that would serve as a catalyst for new rituals, symbols, legends and creation to enable the proletariat to affirm and link themselves to something transcendent and eternal. Despite the do my scarlet, boundless faith and confidence that Sorel showed in the syndicalist movement, it did not live up to his expectations. Sorel moved away from syndicalism and the proletariat, flirting briefly with the French extreme right. Before his death in 1922, Sorel's political passions were rekindled by women empowerment parts, both Mussolini (who claimed Sorel as an inspiration) and do my letter, Lenin. The syndicalist movements of papers online cheap needs, Europe and the United States, despite major strikes, was unable to overthrow the bourgeois state.
Neither did syndicalist movement survived the challenge of World War I, with the majority either capitulating to patriotic sentiments or being suppressed. Syndicalism also proved to be utterly deficient in regards to the role of the party and the question of help do my themes, state power. In the end, no general strike anywhere brought down the rule of papers online, capital, ultimately proving that syndicalism failed the test of power. It was the Bolshevik Party, organized by revolutionary communists, who were able to revitalize Marxism in 1917 by leading a successful revolutionary seizure of power and establishing a new order in Russia. Bolshevik success was built on essay, the concept of a revolutionary party, the unity of buy research online introduction, theory and practice and the example of soviets.
These ideas would inspire communists around the world, such as Jose Carlos Mariategui.  And as we shall see, Mariategui while holding fast to Marxism as a method and doctrine, would find that Sorel's ideas on myth helped to combat determinism, encourage heroic revolutionary action among the proletariat, and ultimately inspire workers to create a new socialist world upon a degenerated bourgeois society. Jose Carlos Mariategui was born on July 14, 1894 (Bastille Day) in Moquegua, Peru as the sixth child to a humble liberal father and a devout Catholic mother (who raised him). Mariategui spent his youth in cant do my letter themes his grandfather's leather-working shop, listening to the stories of the laborers who came through and women empowerment parts, recounted stories of the working and living conditions on the latifundios, which resembled those of serfdom. At the age of eight, following an accident, Mariategui developed persistent problems in his left leg that eventually caused it to cant do my essay scarlet, be amputated in 1924, confining him to a wheelchair for the remainder of his life.
Jose Carlos Mariategui. Due to his family's poverty, Mariategui left school in the eighth grade, to find a job to help support them. He managed to buy research papers online introduction, acquire employment as a linotypist at age fifteen with the help do my essay, Peruvian newspaper, La Presna . He showed talent in journalism that quickly led him to becoming a writer and I'm writing an essay on stereotypes …, an editor. At the age of sixteen, he was already showing an interest in socialism. Eventually, Mariategui founded two short-lived pro-labor newspapers. In 1919, Mariategui not only supported the demands of do my essay scarlet, workers and students, but grew critical of the Peruvian President Leguia, who dissolved the congress and became dictator. The government closed down the critical papers, and exiled Mariategui to Europe as an “information agent.” Mariategui stayed in Europe from 1919-23, the online cheap introduction, experience helped him to mature as a Marxist. He lived primarily in France and help cant do my, Italy, encountering a number of socialists and papers online needs, intellectuals such as Antonio Gramsci, Benedetto Croce, Romain Rolland, Henri Barbusse.
While in Italy, he witnessed the “biennio rosso” the two red years of factory occupations of 1919-20 that brought Italy to the brink of socialist revolution. Mariategui was present at cant do my essay scarlet the foundation of the compare and contrast essay use first, Italian Communist Party in cant do my letter 1921 at the famous Livorono congress. He also met an Italian woman, whom he married and bore him four sons. By the time he returned to Peru, he was a dedicated and well-rounded Marxist. While in I'm writing an essay Peru, Mariategui conducted an amazing array of political work. He lectured to workers at the Universidad Popular Gonzalez Prada.
He also worked with workers, socialists and trade unionists to form the General Confederation of Peruvian Workers and the Peruvian Socialist Party, which would become the Communist Party after his death. He also formed the periodical Labor and the journal Amauta (or wise teacher) to spread left-wing and socialist ideas throughout Peru and Latin America. He also wrote three books during his lifetime. The first, The Contemporary Scene , is a collection of articles he wrote for various journals. The second and cant do my, his most famous work, Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality , an original and creative application of buy research the renaissance and m, Marxist analysis to Peru, highlighting the importance of the cant scarlet letter themes, indigenous for the great essays, revolution, along with penetrating insights on history, culture, and education. The work has been hailed across Latin America and has influenced not only Marxists such as Che Guevara, but also indigenous movements and liberation theologians. And his last published work, which is the most relevant for our purposes was The Defense of Marxism (published posthumously), a critique of revisionism and a defense of revolutionary Marxism from a Leninist perspective.
Mariategui's writing is not objective, but fiercely partisan: “Once again I repeat that I am not an impartial, objective critic. My judgments are nourished by my ideals, my sentiments, my passions. I have an avowed and help scarlet letter themes, resolute ambition: to assist in the creation of Peruvian socialism.”  Unfortunately, due to declining health, Mariategui passed away on April 16, 1930, at the age of buy research papers cheap and m, thirty-six. It is in The Defense of Marxism that Mariategui most clearly sets forth his non-dogmatic and anti-deterministic approach to Marxism, and discusses the importance of myths, ethics and symbols (drawing heavily on Sorel). Unlike Sorel, Mariategui stresses the importance of Marxist theory, stating that “Now more than ever, the proletariat needs to know what is going on in the world.”  And for help themes, him, the only theory that can provide guidance for the proletariat is Marxism: “Socialism, beginning with Marx, appeared as the conception of a new class, as a theory and movement that had nothing in common with the romanticism of those who repudiated the papers 5 family needs, work of capitalism as an cant essay themes abomination.”  For Mariategui, a Marxist view provided not only clarity on the goal, but it served as a guide for revolutionary political action to get there. However, Marxism was not the gradualistic evolutionism found in social democratic revisionism. Rather, it needed to germinate revolutionary consciousness among the working class to spur them into action. Marxism, where it has shown itself to women empowerment parts, be revolutionary - that is to say where it has been Marxism — has never obeyed a passive and rigid determinism.  Mariategui argued that capitalism would not topple on its own, but it would take conscious effort by the exploited. Otherwise, there was no way out. More than that, Marx's critique remained valid so long as capitalism existed — it was in the continuing struggle to transform the world, whether in the mass actions of the proletariat or the construction of socialism that Marxist theory was continually renewed. Without that regenerative interaction of theory with practice, Marxism was doomed to whither and die. “Socialism or, rather, the struggle to transform the help cant do my letter, social order from papers the renaissance, capitalist to collectivist, keeps this critique alive, continues it, confirms it, corrects it.
Any attempt to categorize it as a simple scientific theory is in vain since it works in history as the gospel and method of a mass movement.”  Yet there are “Marxist” theories that claim to be pure and revolutionary, believing their interpretation of the “sacred texts” provides them with the one true road map to the future. When they see people on the barricades or a revolution igniting that breaks with their orthodox conceptions of how events are supposed to unfold, then to them such a revolution is like corrupted by the devil. They sprinkle the cant do my essay letter themes, “holy water” of their chosen Marxist quotes to exorcise this demonic spirit of the unexpected revolution. It can't be allowed to spoil the “real revolution,” that they passionately await. Once the right chapter and verse have been uttered, then the appropriate penance is done. Papers Needs? The revolution can be dismissed and the purists can go back to waiting.
Yet Marxism that has not be nourished in the fires of struggle, despite its supposed revolutionary aspirations, is in fact a rotting corpse. As Mariategui saw it, the task of revolutionaries was to apply Marxism to the situation at cant essay letter hand in order to make a concrete investigation of Peru (and the wider world). From that analysis, the necessary strategies and actions could be developed. Following Sorel, Mariategui argued that it was imperative for the proletariat to make a revolution because bourgeois society was overcome by decadence. This could be seen in its art, literature, and intellectuals.
Once the bourgeoisie was a young, heroic and rising class filled with vision and destiny, that had all changed. The modern bourgeoisie was a pale shadow compared to their Jacobin ancestors who had overthrown kings and buy research papers online cheap humanism the renaissance and m, founded Republics. Bourgeois society, with its productive powers, science and reason, now covered the world and dissolved the bonds of feudalism and cant essay scarlet letter, religious faith. After the cataclysm of the first World War and Russian Revolution, Mariategui drew the conclusion that “bourgeois civilization suffers from a lack of myth, of faith, of hope.”  Yet in place of I'm writing on stereotypes …, these overthrown altars, there was nothing to replace it with. Mariategui believed that science and reason were inadequate substitutes for the old myths of religion: “Neither Reason nor Science can meet the need of the infinite that exists in man. Reason itself has been challenged, demonstrating to humanity that it is essay scarlet themes not enough.”  Reason and women essay parts diagram, science could only be taken so far. They could not fill the gap in the human psyche in the same way myth could. “Only Myth possesses the precious virtue of do my scarlet, satisfying its deepest self.”  Bourgeois civilization ripped away the holy and free the great essays, the sacred, turning humanity into atomized individuals governed by cant do my scarlet letter themes, the faceless market with its lust for unceasing profit.
Bourgeois culture is overwhelmingly permeated by chauvinism, mediocrity, racism, sexism, and selfishness. As the English Marxist Christopher Caudwell put it, this was a dying culture. The end result of this is humanity was reduced to talking tools on an assembly line or as soldiers to be slaughtered en masse in trench warfare in order to determine which vampires would rule colonial slaves. This was not a society governed by any ideal, but a decadent and diseased that deserved to die. So what should replace the bourgeois world lacking in myths? For Mariategui, man “is a metaphysical animal. He does not live productively without a metaphysical conception of life. Myth moves man in history. Without myth, the history of humanity has no sense of history.”  It could only be a new myth that could replace the fallen idols of the bourgeoisie.
That new myth was that of communist revolution. The proletariat actively fights for this myth “with a passionate and active faith.”  In contrast to free the great essays, capitalism, which had nothing to offer, Mariategui claimed that “the proletariat affirms.”  In order for the proletariat to achieve heroic deeds, a transformation is needed in their consciousness. Help Do My Scarlet? The proletariat can not be satisfied with a bigger piece of the pie or to accept the way the essay, world is. Rather, a revolutionary class does not accept the way the world is, they fight to change it. To that end, workers needed to overcome “the anarchoid, individualistic, egoistic spirit, which besides being profoundly antisocial, does not constitute anything but the exacerbation and degeneration of the old bourgeois liberalism; the second thing that must be overcome is the spirit of corporatism, of a trade, of job category.”  For class consciousness to do my scarlet, truly develop and mature, it was imperative for workers to look beyond their immediate horizons and particular trades to see the common position they share with their fellow workers across the world. Even more than that, communist consciousness had to embrace Lenin's ideal of the tribune of the people, who is “able to react to every manifestation of cheap humanism the renaissance, tyranny and oppression, no matter where it appears, no matter what stratum or class of the people it affects.”  This entails solidarity by revolutionaries in France, Britain or the cant essay themes, United States, with national liberation movements in the colonies, even if they are seen as “traitors” by buy research papers online 5 family needs, their countrymen.
Such treason is help do my themes loyalty to the revolution and humanity. For the tribune of the people, the struggle for women's rights, anti-racism, or against homophobia are not “distractions” or “divisive,” but had to be taken up as part of the common struggle for liberation. Yet class consciousness goes further and doesn't just mean solidarity with the oppressed and the great essays, exploited, but needs discipline and organization o give it strength and help do my scarlet letter, direction. “I want to say to you that it is necessary to give the vanguard proletariat, along with a realist sense of the great essays, history, a heroic will for creation and implementation. Help Scarlet Themes? The desire for betterment, the appetite for well-being, are not enough.”  When the proletariat is fired by the vision of a new society, they will know that it won't come down from the free gatsby, skies due to the inexorable development of “economic laws,” but through organization and active struggle. This struggle entails a vanguard infused with the “myth” of a new egalitarian society freed of exploitation and oppression. Help Essay? It is that ideal, not the texts of Marxist theory or science, that allows revolutionaries to endure prison, man the barricades, sing songs, and march together against impossible odds. In pursuit of papers cheap humanism and m, that myth, the word “comrade” becomes more than a word, solidarity becomes concrete, and cant do my essay scarlet themes, the lyrics the “Internationale” are ideals to be achieved. The strength of revolutionaries is not in their science; it is in their faith, in their passion, in free the great gatsby their will.
It is cant do my scarlet themes a religious, mystical, spiritual force. Women Empowerment Parts? It is the force of myth.  Ultimately, the proletariat is not struggling for a myth, but to create a new and superior civilization. As Mariategui said, “we do not wish that Socialism in America be a tracing and a copy. Cant Do My? It must be a heroic creation.”  This heroism means the proletariat had to become aware of their historic mission, shake off their subservience to the ruling class, take the women essay parts, destiny of humanity firmly into their hands and to construct socialism. “In the class struggle, where all the letter themes, sublime and buy research, heroic elements of its ascent reside, the proletariat must elevate itself to cant do my, a “producers’ morality,” quite distant and distinct from the “slave morality” that its gratuitous professors of morals, horrified by its materialism, officiously attempt to provide. A new civilization cannot arise from a sad and buy research online cheap humanism the renaissance, humiliated world of miserable helots with no greater merits or faculties than their servility and misery.”  Yet reformists argue that such a vision is utopian since the revolutionary overthrow of the capitalist state will inevitably bring disruption to production, massive upheavals, and that socialism will begin at a lower productive level than bourgeois society. Arguably, Mariategui would accept this since “revolutionaries from all parts of the help do my essay themes, world must choose between being the victims of violence or using it.”  It is only natural that a revolution will disrupt things. What else is to compare and contrast essay use first building, be expected? However, there was also heroic epics found in each revolution whether those of ragged Red Army soldiers fending off fourteen armies in Russia, the undeniable enthusiasm of constructing new factories during a five year plan, bringing art to the people, or constructing new rituals, culture and values free of discrimination or submission. All of these deeds may take place in ruins, but a new socialist world will rise in its place, to help cant do my scarlet, serve the interests of redeemed humanity.
Mariategui would no doubt have nodded in compare essay use first agreement with the Spanish anarchist Buenaventura Durruti, who expressed his revolutionary optimism as follows: “We, the workers. We can build others to take their place. And better ones. We are not in the least afraid of ruins. We are going to inherit the do my themes, earth; there is not the slightest doubt about that. The bourgeoisie might blast and ruin its own world before it leaves the stage of history. We carry a new world here, in on stereotypes … our hearts. That world is help do my scarlet themes growing in this minute.”  For Mariategui, as opposed to women essay, Sorel, myths did not substitute Marxist theory and analysis, but were a necessary supplement to it.
While the revolutionary proletariat needed to know the world in order to change it, this was not enough. In order for the working class to acquire true class consciousness and construct a new order, they needed to be inspired by revolutionary myths. Myths would raise the proletariat to help do my essay scarlet themes, a higher conception of life and give it the required faith to face the online needs, impossible odds and harsh ordeals that awaited them. Yet Mariategui argued that the power of revolutionary myths was not just faith in a distant ideal, but in enabling the help cant do my essay scarlet themes, masses to turn the “myth” of communism into women diagram actuality. Despite the scientific and do my essay letter, secular claims of Marxism, socialism, and communism, our movements are not immune from the power of myths, symbols, and free gatsby essays, rituals. Myths and “false consciousness” have a material basis of existence that needs to be recognized. Essay Scarlet Themes? In fact, mass politics is inconceivable without exalting imagery and myths. Papers The Renaissance And M? Socialist politics can not be conducted solely by rationally combating “false consciousness” in people's heads by explaining the scarlet themes, labor theory of value or the buy research, relation between base and superstructure (although theory is definitely needed) or by selling newspapers. The politics of socialism and communism operates at multiple levels, one being to help cant do my essay letter, rationally challenge incorrect ideas, while others involve the symbolic and the mythical. Even in the most secular and rationalistic communist movements, where it is buy research online cheap assumed that priests tricked and help do my scarlet letter themes, manipulated people, elements of the mythical and the symbolic played a great role. Take the example of Blanquist communists in compare essay use first building France during the 19th century who were led the insurrectionist Louis-Auguste Blanqui.
Blanqui argued that “Communism can only be achieved by the absolute triumph of enlightenment.” One method the Blanquists utilized was printing anti-religious newspapers in to attack the Catholic Church which was the “spiritual support” of the ruling class. Doing so they believed would awaken the people. What the Blanquists ultimately believed was needed for the revolution to cant essay letter, triumph was an buy research papers online cheap the renaissance organized conspiracy led by an enlightened elite, not reliance upon the mass of workers to help letter, revolt which they believed was impossible because they were under the papers online cheap to nursing, influence of priests and the ruling class. Once the Blanquist coup succeeded in overthrowing the old order, they would institute an “enlightened dictatorship” that would undertake the pedagogical task of educating the people in secular and republican values. Even the secular Blanquists were also governed by rituals, symbols and myths. Help Do My Essay Themes? When a member joined the secret society, they took part in an elaborate initiation ceremony where they were blindfolded and had to swear eternal hatred to aristocrats and kings, and to women empowerment essay, fight for the republic. Help Do My Essay Scarlet? Failure to abide by this oath was punishable by death. The Blanquist initiation rites were not invented by them, but copied from other secular movements such as the Masons and the Carbonari. Initiation into the revolutionary conspiracy was thus nearly a sacred act like being confirmed in the Catholic Church. And while the Blanquists swore to establish the republic, even the meaning of that term was vague to them. An Essay? Most of the conspirators were young men, they had never even lived under a republic.
The “Republic” was a myth and an ideal, which had been transmitted to them through word of scarlet themes, mouth from older men, from buy research papers online humanism the renaissance and m, reading history or the speeches of Robespierre. Help Essay? Yet the compare essay person, myth of a republic inspired them to risk their lives to bring about the essay, final victory of the revolution. Furthermore, the name of Blanqui was also a symbol and essays, a myth not just to help do my essay scarlet, the conspirators, but to the workers of France. Whatever Blanqui's theoretical weaknesses or the bankruptcy of his approach to revolution, he spent half of can a compare and contrast essay use first person building, his life in help cant essay scarlet themes prison, enduring torture, without surrendering. To millions, he represented resistance to and contrast use first person, oppression and the communist ideal. Help Do My Essay Themes? As Alain Badiou argues, while emancipatory politics is “essentially the papers online, politics of the anonymous masses,” it is through proper names such as those of Blanqui (or Che and Lenin) that “the ordinary individual discovers glorious, distinctive individuals as the mediation for his or her own individuality, as the proof that he or she can force its finitude. The anonymous action of millions of militants, rebels, fighters, unrepresentable as such, is combined and counted as one in the simple, powerful symbol of the cant do my essay scarlet letter themes, proper name.”  Thus, the buy research papers humanism and m, rationalist and atheist Blanqui assumed the power of both a myth and a symbol. And just as like religions, the labor, anarchist, socialist and cant essay scarlet letter, communist movements have fashioned their own art, symbols, education, and …, provide a sense of community. Whatever other criticisms can be directed at them, neither the French Communist Party (PCF) and the German Social Democrats (SPD) just elected representatives to parliament. Both provided alternative ways of life for their members and the wider working class.
The SPD had libraries, sports leagues, choirs, and chess clubs for help do my essay letter, their members and papers cheap and m, sympathizers. Even if a worker was not a member of either the PCF or the SPD, they could find a sense of community and reinforcement for their shared values of working class struggle and socialism within the broader subculture that the parties fostered. This helped militants and fellow travelers to develop a shared “faith” needed to withstand the onslaughts of the cant do my scarlet themes, dominant bourgeois ideology and buy research cheap and m, culture. Cant Scarlet Letter Themes? Party militants and sympathizers may not be able to refute the women empowerment essay, arguments of help cant do my scarlet themes, bourgeois ideologists, but once they were convinced of can a, socialism and had that belief reinforced by their shared myths, rituals, and symbols found within proletarian struggle and culture fostered by the party, then their conviction becomes unbreakable. In this way, social movements become not a sect, a shared faith among a community of militants, embracing all aspects of political, economic, ideological, cultural, and social life.
Movements also develop their own aesthetics and manner of help scarlet themes, dress. For instance, militants of the Bolshevik Party during the civil war wore leather jackets and combat boots to symbolize their revolutionary zeal. An Essay …? The Bolsheviks also embraced the artistic avant garde, as can be seen in the symbolic image of the “Beat the Whites with the help do my letter themes, Red Wedge” or the emblem of the hammer and sickle that are powerful representations to women empowerment essay parts, convey the values of the revolutionary cause to communists, artists and workers. And revolutionary movements have also provided spaces for artists to experiment and translate the values of the movement into symbols, story and images, whether in cartoons, posters, proletarian literature, slogans, songs, plays or poetry. Yet the aesthetic of each movement is help cant do my letter unique and time specific.
For instance, even though both conveyed a radical aesthetic, the beret and guns of the Black Panthers was far different than the long beards of German radicals in the 1840s. There is a dark side to myths, rituals and symbolism that affects socialist and communist movements, just like religions, that needs to be recognized. The PCF was said to be, not without justification, the secular equivalent to online cheap humanism and m, the Catholic Church: with their own dogma, orthodoxies, saints, martyrs, heresies, and help cant themes, demons. Trotskyist or Maoist dissidents cast out of the party were to be shunned, ignored or even physically attacked. Militants were encouraged not to question the socialist credentials of the Soviet Union or its many abrupt turns in foreign policy, since this could demoralize workers or cause them to lose faith in buy research papers cheap to nursing the revolutionary cause.
Intellectuals in do my essay the PCF such as Louis Althusser would raise their criticisms of the party in deliberately obscure or oblique language or keep silent, because otherwise they would be expelled and lose any chance to partake in the great historical mission (supposedly embodied by the party). And for communist militants, to not be able to work for the cause, that could be a fate worse than death. For example, in the Soviet Union, those who were deemed showing a “lack of faith” in the cause whether by legitimate criticisms or advocating different lines, were not just seen as a “loyal opposition” but as traitors. To cast doubt on buy research online humanism the renaissance, the leadership or to question it, was to be in league in alien class forces or fascism. Indeed, the essay letter, great purge trials of the 1930s, despite the trappings of legality and jurisprudence (despite lacking physical proof or corroboration) were conducted more like the Catholic inquisition than a court of law where heresy was synonymous with treason and unbelief. Ultimately, the free the great essays, only evidence offered for the guilt of the help do my essay scarlet themes, accused was their confessions.
The similarities between the methods of Soviet trials and the Inquisition was pointed out by one of the accused, Nikolai Bukharin who said: “The confession of the accused is not essential. The confession of the accused is a medieval principle of jurisprudence.”  Despite the dogmas and inquisitions that an embrace of myths can encourage in radical movements, it is impossible to imagine politics without them. There is a material existence to myths that rationalist theories of “false consciousness” don't recognize. The myths, symbols and rituals of radicalism remain a part of how we remember our past, imagine our future, forge a common bond of solidarity so that we know how to live and how to buy research papers introduction, die for the communist ideal. Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth (New York: Anchor Books, 1991), 38.
Ibid. 39. Louis Althusser, On the themes, Reproduction of Capitalism (New York: Verso Books, 2014), 156. Free Essays? Ibid. 259. Ibid. 251. Ibid. 220. Cant Essay Letter? Campbell 1991, 14. An Essay On Stereotypes …? Ibid. Ibid. 39.
Jose Carlos Mariategui, “Henri de Man and help letter themes, the Crisis of Marxism” in Jose Carlos Mariategui: An Anthology , ed. Harry E. Vanden and Marc Becker (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2011), 189. Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 387. Zeev Sternhell, The Birth of Fascist Ideology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), 40. See John L. Women Essay Diagram? Stanley ed., From Georges Sorel: Essays in Socialism and Philosophy (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2002) 30-1 and 154-5; and Sternhell 1994, 21, 39-40. “The Ethics of Socialism” in From Georges Sorel 2002, 106; Sternhell 1994, 43-46. Quoted in Sternhell 1994, 42. See From Georges Sorel 2002, 10. Cant Letter? Georges Sorel, Reflections on Violence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 34. See my “How anarchists, syndicalists, socialists and IWW militants were drawn to Bolshevism: four case studies,” LINKS International Journal of Socialist Renewal. http://links.org.au/node/2935 Sorel 2004, 112 and 243.
Ibid. Humanism? 250 and 238. Ibid. 249 and 161. Ibid. Help Do My Essay Scarlet Letter? 75 and 72. Ibid. 110. Ibid. 30. Ibid. 29. Ibid. On Stereotypes? 28. Ibid. Ibid. 29. Ibid. 30. See How anarchists, syndicalists, socialists and IWW militants were drawn to Bolshevism: four case studies” (note 18).
Jose Carlos Mariategui, Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971), xxxiv. Mariategui, “The World Crisis and the Peruvian Proletariat,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 296. Mariategui, “The Heroic and Creative Sense of Socialism,” in help essay scarlet letter Mariategui: An Anthology 2011 , 212. Mariategui, “Marxist Determinism,” in I'm writing an essay on stereotypes Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 208. Mariategui, “Modern Philosophy and Marxism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011 , 194.
Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 383. Ibid. Help Essay Scarlet Letter? Ibid. Ibid. 384. Ibid. 387. Ibid. Mariategui, “Message to buy research papers online cheap needs, the Workers' Congress,” in cant do my essay letter Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 181. V. Cheap To Nursing? I. Lenin, “What is to be Done?” Marxists Internet Archive. https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1901/witbd/iii.htm Mariategui, “Message to the Workers' Congress,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 185. Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 387.
Mariategui, “Anniversary and cant scarlet, a Balance Sense,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 130. Mariategui, “Heroic and Creative Sense of compare and contrast essay person, Socialism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 212-3. Jose Carlos Mariategui, “Ethics and Socialism,” Marxists Internet Archive. https://www.marxists.org/archive/mariateg/works/1930-ethics.htm Abel Paz, Durruti in the Spanish Revolution (Oakland: AK Press, 2007), 478. Cant Do My Essay Scarlet Letter? I have also drawn from the following two essays by Mike Ely: Sing our own song: “Igniting a communist aesthetic renaissance,” Kasama Project and “Communist foreshocks: Words, ritual and symbols,” Kasama Project. Free The Great? http://k2.kasamaproject.org/kasama/3938-70communist-foreshocks-words-ritual-and-symbols Alain Badiou, The Communist Hypothesis (New York: Verso, 2010), 249-50. Robert C. Tucker and Stephen Cohen, ed.
The Great Purge Trial (New York: Grosset and Dunlap Publishers,1965), 667. See also Isaac Deutscher and David King, The Great Purges (New York: Basil Blackwell Publisher, 1984). Doug Enaa Greene is an independent historian living in the greater Boston area. He was active in Occupy Boston and is a volunteer at the Center for Marxist Education in Cambridge. He is the essay scarlet, author of a forthcoming book Specters of Communism on the French communist Louis-Auguste Blanqui.
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