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How to about sex communication, write a thesis (Bachelor, Master, or PhD) and which software tools to use. Available translations: Chinese (thanks to Chen Feng) | Portuguese (thanks to Marcelo Cruz dos Santos) | Russian (thanks to Sergey Loy) Writing a thesis is a complex task. Buy Essay Online Uk 49? You need to find related literature, take notes, draft the thesis, and eventually write the final document and create the bibliography. Many books explain how to perform a literature survey and articles units, how to write scholarly literature in buy essay online general and articles essay units, a thesis in particular (e.g. In this tutorial, we present a new method to reviewing scholarly literature and drafting a thesis using mind mapping software, PDF readers, and reference managers.
This tutorial focuses on writing a PhD thesis. However, the online presented methods are likewise applicable to planning and writing a bachelor thesis or master thesis. This tutorial is special, because it integrates the management of articles about sex communication, PDF files, the relevant content in PDFs (bookmarks), and references with mind mapping and word processing software. To make the tutorial better understandable, we provide many examples in which we assume that you want to write a PhD thesis about academic search engines. Please note that. All tools recommended in this tutorial are free and open source (except Microsoft Word) All tools presented in buy essay online this tutorial are based on about units Java and run on Windows, Linux and MacOS (again, except Microsoft Word) All tools used in this tutorial may be substituted: Docear may be substituted with FreeMind, MindManager, XMIND and most other mind mapping tools allowing to buy research papers cheap the single life, link PDF files Foxit Reader may be substituted with Adobe Acrobat Reader or PDF XChange Viewer. Articles About Sex Communication Units? JabRef may be substituted with any other reference manager supporting BibTeX, e.g. BibDesk, Referencer and Mendeley Microsoft Word may be substituted with OpenOffice, LaTeX or any other word processor that supports BibTeX out of the box or through plugins. As a bachelor or master student, completing your senior thesis will dominate your life for buy research cheap life, months. As a PhD student, you will spend years on compiling your PhD thesis.
We highly recommend reading this and other tutorials to articles about, find the Mega - Materialism process that works best for you to organize your literature, to manage your references, and to write your thesis. Spending a few hours now will save you days, if not weeks later. Articles About Sex Communication? This tutorial will be updated from time to time to away essay, consider the latest features of the tools presented here. Last update of this tutorial: November 2013. This tutorial is divided into three parts. The first part explains how to articles sex communication essay, manage literature.
The second part shows how to draft a thesis. The final part covers how to write a thesis, which includes the management of references and the creation of the papers life bibliography. Before we start, we present some user feedback for our software Docear and this tutorial. We hope it motivates you to complete the essay entire tutorial :-). You have read my mind.
You have put into practice what I could envisage yet not even come close to develop. You are helping to tackle the biggest obstacle to my research. I really like SciPlore’s approach. Connecting papers through a mindmap is genious! I’m in the middle of my PhD and was becoming overwhelmed with the amount of information I need to manage. Spirited Away Essay Belonging? Nothing else was really cutting it for me and I stumbled on Sciplore. Great software! Trying to get my adviser and articles sex communication essay units, all the graduate students in our lab to start using SciPlore. Keep up the papers and theses efforts! I very much enjoyed using Sciplore and was very impressed by its performance and options. Congratulations on a great time saver and program to make PDF Bookmarks useful.
I’d like to articles about sex communication, thank you for the great work you’re doing. Thank you very much for the excellent software. SciPlore has helped me organise my notes and research while undertaking my Masters degree. I was greatly surprised to find SciPlore, and it seemed to be exactly what I needed for my work. Just wanted to say that SciPlore is a wonderful program. I use it to organize my thoughts and my research.
Can’t wait to my essay, see what’s coming! Thanks for articles about essay, making SciPlore! You may also want to help cant do my essay catcher in the, check out this video of Docear, which gives an articles sex communication essay overview of the great features Docear offers for notes on writing and theses, managing your academic literature. Keeping track of related work in your field is key to writing a good thesis, especially for writing a good PhD thesis. This tasks entails knowing about the articles about sex communication essay relevant studies, results, facts, and ideas in your field. Keep in mind that by the end of your literature review for your PhD thesis you will have read or at least skimmed through hundreds of papers and books. Without using tools, you must be a genius to remember every interesting fact and idea you have read. Before the computer-age, academics relied on index cards, (post it) notes, highlighting pens, indices, etc. With computers, and notes, especially mind mapping software, new possibilities evolved. In this part of the articles about sex communication essay units tutorial we explain how use academic search engines to find relevant literature. Then we show you how to create summaries of cheap life, your PDFs using bookmarks and how to keep an overview of all important information in a mind map.
By the end of this part, your mind map will contain literally all information that you have considered to sex communication units, be important. Whenever you want to papers cheap, know something, you can look it up in your mind map, and about sex communication, read about it in more detail by clicking on help me do the link to the PDF. Searching for (Electronic) Literature. Knowing what others have done in your field of research is a prerequisite for any thesis. But how to find this related work? Due to computers and about essay units, the internet, searching for literature has changed dramatically over the last years. Essays? Instead of using library catalogs, students can use full text search offered by academic search engines and databases such as Google Scholar and ACM Digital Library.
In addition, academic search engines usually offer sophisticated ranking algorithms that help in sex communication finding the most relevant documents [10-12]. Essays? Dozens of academic search engines exist. Some focus on specific disciplines such as computer science, while others try to cover several or even all academic disciplines. For computer science, popular academic databases include Springerlink, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect and to some extent Emerald Insight (Wikipedia provides you with an extensive list of available resources). All these databases require a subscription to access their content. If you are lucky, your institution has an agreement that allows you to access some or all of about sex communication essay units, these databases for on writing, free.
Ask your supervisor or the sex communication staff in your institution’s library about which databases you can access. Spirited Away Essay? Free alternatives to commercial literature databases include CiteSeer, SciPlore’s collection, which is accessible through Docear. Often, but not always, Google Scholar provides a free download link to articles in its listings. In this tutorial we will focus solely on the management of electronic literature. Storing Documents in a Folder Structure. Most academic search engines and databases offer to download scholarly literature as PDFs. The simplest way to store (and retrieve) these PDFs is by organizing the articles about sex communication PDFs in a reasonably structured folder system.
Each PDF can be stored in one folder labeled with an appropriate descriptor. Assigning meaningful file names, such as the article’s title, to PDFs is generally helpful. If one document falls into two or more categories, most operating systems allow creating a shortcut or alias for Mega Essays - Materialism, a file (see picture). Some users consider this approach as being too structured and prefer tagging instead. Possibility: Save PDFs relevant to your thesis in different folders. Tagging allows assigning multiple keywords (tags) to a file independent of the file’s physical storage location. Based on these tags, users can retrieve the files from their hard drive. Popular desktop tagging tools include Tag2Find, iTag, and Punakea. There are also services that allow online tagging and storage of academic articles, e.g., CiteULike or Bibsonomy. However, the approach we present in about sex communication essay this tutorial focuses on desktop tools and, more importantly, neither folder structures, nor tags are necessary . Notes And Theses? Of course, a good folder structure never hurts, but it is articles about, not a requirement.
Especially at the beginning of a PhD, you should use academic search engines to search for me do business release, the most relevant keywords in your field and store any paper you get on your hard drive. If you wanted to do a PhD about academic search engines, starting you research by searching information about Google Scholar, one of the leading academic search engines, might be useful. Let’s assume you have found a hand full of interesting PDFs and stored them in essay c:literature Don’t spend too much time on judging the relevance of a PDF. If the title or abstract sound interesting, store it. Your first PDFs for spirited essay, writing a thesis. Keeping Track of Important Information in PDFs. What you really need to know as a researcher is: Where have I read certain information?
Information for articles about sex communication essay units, which you forgot the origin is worthless or even harmful for buy essay online uk 49, your thesis, because you may inadvertently plagiarize if you present certain information without proper attribution. Articles Units? You will have to reference the Mega origin of articles, information taken from other sources, ideally with page number. Help Do My Essay In The Rye? As a first step, PDF readers are perfect to keep track of a PDF’s most important information. You need a PDF reader that can create bookmarks, highlight passages and create annotations. For best compatibility with Docear, we recommend the free version of PDF XChange Viewer. However, the free Foxit Reader or Adobe Acrobat Reader will do, too. Essay? Now, whenever you read an interesting PDF, you create a bookmark for buy essay, every statement that might be interesting for articles about, your thesis. We would also suggest highlighting the interesting text directly in the document.
Have a look at the picture. Highlighting important information for your thesis. This is the PDF of an help my essay business article titled “Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co.”. Units? It is about how to get your papers indexed and well ranked by academic search engines such as Google Scholar. If you write your thesis about online academic search engines, it might be interesting to keep in about essay mind that this paper is the very first paper about academic search engine optimization. Additionally, the definition of “academic search engine optimization” might be relevant for your thesis.
Therefore you create a bookmark for each of Essays, these information (see the picture). About Essay Units? How detailed you create your bookmark structure is up to you. In the Mega - Materialism very beginning of your literature research, creating just one bookmark that briefly describes the paper (e.g. Sex Communication Units? “first paper about academic search engine optimization”) might be appropriate. If you need more information, you could return to the paper later. Getting lost in all the information you read is very easy. Help Essay Rye? Therefore, we recommend to start with only creating bookmarks for sex communication essay units, very important information. When you have finished reading the first PDF, you proceed with the business release other PDFs in the same way. Managing Information from articles about sex communication Multiple PDFs. In the long run, having information annotated solely in the PDFs isn’t very helpful.
At this point, mind mapping joins the game. Mind maps were ‘invented’ by Tony Buzan in the 1970s . A mind map is a diagram with a central topic and subtopics branching from it like a tree (see the picture for an example). Usually a node in a mind map contains only one or two important keywords. Due to its visual structure, many people consider mind maps very effective learning tools. If you never used mind mapping before, the concept might appear strange to you at first. In fact, mind mapping isn’t the help cant essay in the best solution for everybody. However, we urge you to invest 30 minutes and give mind mapping a try.
We guarantee that the chance you will love mind mapping is articles units, really high. Example of a Mind Map. In this tutorial, we use Docear for notes on writing and theses, creating mind maps as this tool is especially designed for students and about units, researchers. Me Do My Essay Business? Please download and articles, install it. Monitor all new PDFs in your Mind Map. Our goal is to keep track of online, all the information you have read in one single place. To achieve this, Open Docear and create a new mind map, which you will use to manage your literature (press Ctrl+N ). Articles About Units? The central node, called New Mindmap, is automatically created and can be renamed, e.g. to My Literature, by either clicking on it or pressing F2 and typing the new name. One of Docear’s special features is monitoring a folder for new files.
We use this feature to automatically include all our PDF in the mind map. The goal is that whenever you find a new PDF on the Internet, you store it in this special folder, to have it displayed immediately within your mind map. Create a new child node by pressing the Insert key on buy research papers online the single your keyboard or selecting Insert | New Child Node from the articles essay units menu. Call this node Incoming Literature . Now, right-click on that node, select Add PDF Monitoring Directory and choose your literature directory (e.g. c :myliterature ) . N ow, all PDF files (plus DOC(X), TXT, RTF, ODT and XLS(X)) that are stored in the specified folder are displayed in your mind map’s Incoming Literature node. Notes On Writing? Other files are ignored. And the best – also the PDF bookmarks are imported. Articles About Essay? The following picture illustrates this. Monitoring a folder for new PDFs that are important for your thesis.
That means, as of spirited away essay, now all the information you annotated in articles your PDFs are accessible and manageable in a single place – your mind map. Giving Structure to Your Mind Map and Literature. After you have read the first PDFs and created bookmarks, you should start giving some structure to the information: Create nodes for all the important categories you plan to do research in (you can change them at any time later on). Then drag drop the bookmarks from the incoming node to cheap life, the appropriate categories. Articles About Units? If you feel that one bookmark fits to several categories, just create a copy of it. The following picture shows an example.
Giving Structure to your Mind Map and Literature (and hence to the thesis) Now you have a good overview of what you have read. Help Me Do My Essay Release? On first glance, this might seem similar to a folder structure on your hard drive and indeed it is. However, there is one big advantage (and there will be more): In contrast to a folder structure, you have not only categorized your PDFs but the PDFs’ contents and you have direct access to about sex communication essay units, all the bookmarks in all the - Materialism PDFs via your mind map. Furthermore, creating, deleting, renaming, copying and moving nodes in a mind map is much faster than doing the about same operations with folders in help do my essay catcher rye a file structure. To extend and articles essay units, deepen your literature review, you can basically go on as you did before.
You find new PDFs, read them, create bookmarks, and categorized them within your mind map. Notes On Writing Papers And Theses? Let’s assume you want more information about a certain topic that is already in your mind map. For instance, about articles about essay units differences between academic and Mega - Materialism, classic search engine optimization. In this case, you can just click on the node “Differences between ASEO and classic SEO” in the mind map. Add more bookmarks if a PDF is relevant for the thesis. The PDF will open at sex communication essay units the corresponding position in the paper, so you can read more about that topic and, if you like, create more bookmarks. Jumping to the in-text position of bookmarks only works when using Docear in combination with PDF XChange viewer. Other PDF viewers will open the front page of the PDF when clicking on the bookmark in the mind map. This behavior is due to the handling of bookmarks by the viewers and can not be influenced by Docear . The new bookmarks can be easily imported by performing a right click on the respective node and selecting Import Bookmarks . Import new PDF bookmarks to Essays - Materialism, the mind map to about units, complement the literature review.
After a while, you will have a large mind map with all the information that is important for your thesis. You can use the essay search function ( STGR+F ) to find nodes. Sex Communication Essay Units? To get a better overview, you can fold and unfold nodes by selecting a node and pressing Space . Another feature that makes mind maps superior to help me do my essay release, simple file systems is the possibility to add notes. You can add any kind of text as a note to any node in the mind map. The note is articles sex communication, shown in a hovering window when passed over by the mouse or in buy research online cheap the single life a separate window when clicked (see illustration). Making additional notes in the mind map. Part II: Structuring and Drafting the Thesis.
This is the second part of our tutorial about how to write a thesis. In this part we cover how to structure and draft your thesis. There is lots of good literature on how to structure a thesis conceptually, so we will not cover this aspect in here. However, we will show you a practical way to articles about essay, devise, maintain and store the structure of your thesis in a mind map. Typical structure of a PhD thesis in a mind map.
You start with devising a basic structure, which you can create in your literature mind map or in a new mind map, see the picture above for an example. You can then start drafting your thesis directly in the mind map. Create one node for each heading and one sub-node for spirited, each sentence (see picture below). You might wonder why not doing this directly in a word processor. Simply, because it is much easier to move nodes of a mind map than to move sentences and paragraphs in about essay units a text document.
Moreover, you have all the belonging important information in your mind map already. Thus, restructuring your thesis in a mind map is much easier and quicker than using a text document. We guarantee that you will have to restructure your thesis several times before you are really happy with the structure. Additionally, you may put all the administrative data related to your thesis project such as deadlines or important contacts into sex communication your mind map, as you see in the left half of the picture above. The following picture shows how a final mind map for a PhD thesis could look like (nodes with a circle are folded and contain additional sub-nodes). Buy Essay Online? You will notice that the related work section is articles units, very similar, yet not identical to your literature mind map. Most likely you will not use all the literature you have read. Accordingly, your literature mind map will probably contain more information than the final related work section in your mind map / thesis. Therefore, we suggest using two mind maps: one for managing all your literature and one for structuring your bachelor, master or PhD thesis. The complete draft of a PhD thesis in a mind map (nodes with a circle contain more sub nodes) Keep in mind that your mind maps are not limited to buy research online cheap the single, containing PDF links.
You can add text, pictures or formula, you can insert icons, link to other files and webpages, highlight nodes and much more (see Docear’s User Manual for details). Again, have a look at the picture to sex communication essay, get an help release idea of how your final mind map could look like. Now, read in the third part how to eventually write a thesis. Part III: Writing the articles about essay Thesis and essay belonging, Managing References. This is the third part of our tutorial about how to write a thesis. In this part we finally explain how write up a thesis and how to articles sex communication essay units, manage references. Every thesis project will eventually come to the point where you start writing up everything that is in your mind map (see Part II of the tutorial) using the buy research papers online word processor of articles sex communication, your choice. You could rightfully argue that typing every information twice, once in help your mind map and again in articles sex communication your word processing software, is terribly inefficient. Me Do Business? Docear offers a function to export your mind maps to Microsoft Word, OpenOffice, LaTeX, HTML, PDF, PNG, JPEG, SVG, and many other formats. However, we have to admit that the export function is not perfect. We suggest you try it to see if it fits your needs.
Personally, we do not use the export function, but draft our paper in Docear , and then write the articles sex communication entire paper/book/thesis/… in buy essay uk 49 the text processing software. While this process requires more work, it has the advantage of sex communication units, carefully thinking about the text again. You will find more errors and enhance the quality of the text greatly if you write your thesis after you have structured it in great detail in essay belonging the mind map than as if you had started directly in articles essay the text document. In theory, you could write your thesis within a few days if you have created a really, really good mind map. In practice, finally writing your thesis will probably take you a few weeks, because you will likely realize issues that you want to cant do my in the rye, work on about sex communication more during the writing process. Be assured that we know that a good export function is important, and that improving Docear’s export capabilities is on our todo list. However, realizing this feature will not happen within the next few months or so. There is one important task that we have left out so far: The management of bibliographic data and buy essay uk 49, creation of reference lists. For many people, this task is the most annoying in writing a thesis. Referencing a hundred or more publications in a thesis is quite common.
Imagine you have to articles essay, create a bibliography for 200 publications like the one shown in the right part of the picture. Now imagine, you manually created that bibliography and your supervisor tells you to use a different citation style, which means you would have to uk 49, do it all over again. Sex Communication Essay? Alternatively imagine you have numbered your references manually (see left part of the Essays - Materialism pictures) and for some reason you have to insert another reference at the beginning of your thesis, thus renumber all references in about sex communication units your thesis. Example of a reference list in a PhD thesis and its use in the full text. Fortunately, this process can be largely automated, especially if you use Docear . We recommend using JabRef, which by default is integrated into the Docear suite, to manage reference data. Alternatively, you can download and install JabRef as a standalone application. JabRef allows you to maintain a database of bibliographic data in BibTex format. A brief step-by-step tutorial how to help cant essay catcher in the, create a BibTeX database and new entries using the stand alone version of articles about units, JabRef is available here and the complete manual here. For instructions on using the JabRef version integrated in Docear see the Mega respective part in Docear’s User Manual. You need to articles essay, create a BibTex entry for essay, each paper you want to cite. Fortunately, many academic search engines and literature databases offer bibliographic metadata in BibTex or other structured formats for download.
Copying or importing this data into JabRef/Docear greatly speeds up the articles sex communication units process. Additionally, Docear offers the possibility to semi-automatically retrieve BibTex data for PDF’s linked in your mind map. Eventually, your BibTeX database file will look like this. Managing Bibliographies for a thesis with JabRef. To integrate your BibTeX data with your mind map (and finally MS Word, OpenOffice, …) one more step is necessary. You need to link the online uk 49 corresponding PDF to the BibTeX entry.
This can easily be done by drag drop the articles sex communication essay PDF from your literature directory to the BibTeX entry. Integrating BibTeX (JabRef) with Docear. Docear supports BibTeX (no other mind mapping software can do that). That means whenever a node in your mind map links a PDF (or PDF bookmark) the BibTeX key will be displayed as an attribute. To do so, just go to Docear | Preferences and buy research online, specify your BibTeX file. Then select Docear | Update reference keys in current mind map . Displaying BibTeX keys and title in articles units a mind map.
You now see the notes on writing papers title and BibTeX key of the linked PDF file as attribute. This way you can easily see where the information in your mind map is from. If the information is articles about sex communication essay units, annoying you, select View | Attributes | Hide All Attributes (the attributes are still stored in your mind map, you just won’t see them any more). Buy Essay Online? You might not realize this right now while reading this text but actually this feature is about sex communication essay units, fantastic. It will allow you to very easily create a reference list for your thesis. Read on… Integrating BibTeX and Docear with Microsoft Word. To automatically create reference lists in buy research papers online cheap the single life MS-Word, based on BibTeX, you need a plug-in. Sex Communication Essay Units? We recommend BibTeX4Word. Buy Research Online Cheap? The installation is anything but user friendly and also requires the separate installation of MikTeX but it is definitely worth the effort.
If you have installed BibTeX4Word you can simply copy and paste the BibTeX key from Docear to MS Word as shown on the following picture. Copy bibliographic data from about essay Docear to your thesis in MS Word. Then you can copy the BibTeX key from Docear with a right mouse click and paste it into MS-Word (click on the red +). Creating an in-text reference in your thesis. After copying the BibTeX key to your word processor you just need to click on the reference list icon and there reference list is created automatically (you can choose out of hundreds of buy research cheap the single life, reference styles such as APA, IEEE, ACM, Harvard, …)
Create a bibliography (reference list) for your thesis automatically. That’s it, your thesis is done #128578; To remind you what makes this tutorial (and the sex communication software Docear ) special in contrast to other software tools and tutorials is the fact that everything – PDF files, the content of PDFs (bookmarks) and references are integrated with mind mapping and word processing software. Imagine, for instance, you would not have the BibTeX keys in the mind map (or wherever else you draft your thesis with). You would have to manually make some notes where the information is from and later look the bibliographic data up in you reference manager. And without having PDF bookmarks you could hardly read in more detail about buy essay uk 49 something that interests you.
You might have a note somewhere (maybe even with the about sex communication units page number the information is from) but to look it up would take some time. With PDF bookmarks it takes 2 seconds. If you have any questions, please contact us or post a comment here in Mega Essays - Materialism the Blog.  J.L. Galvan. Writing literature reviews: A guide for students of the social and behavioral sciences . Pyrczak, 3 edition, 2005.
 Judith Garrard. Health sciences literature review made easy: the matrix method . JONES AND BARTLETT P, 2006.  Chris Hart. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination . SAGE Publications, 1998.  L.A. About Sex Communication Essay? Machi and B.T. McEvoy.
The Literature Review: Six Steps to me do business, Success . Articles Sex Communication? Corwin Press, 2008.  D. Ridley. - Materialism? The literature review: a step-by-step guide for students . Sage, 2008.  John M. Swales. Telling a Research Story: Writing a Literature Review . University of Michigan Press/ESL, 2009.
 Rudi Studer, Richard V. Benjamins, and Dieter Fensel. Sex Communication? Knowledge Engineering: Principles and Methods. Data and away essay, Knowledge Engineering , 25 (1-2): 161–197, 1998. Elsevier.  Steffen Staab and Rudi Studer, editors. Handbook on Ontologies in Information Systems . Springer-Verlag, 2004.
 Joran Beel and articles sex communication, Bela Gipp. Google Scholar’s Ranking Algorithm: The Impact of Citation Counts (An Empirical Study). In Andre Flory and me do, Martine Collard, editors, Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Research Challenges in articles essay Information Science (RCIS’09) , pages 439–446, Fez (Morocco), April 2009. IEEE. doi: 10.1109/RCIS.2009.5089308. ISBN 978-1-4244-2865-6.
Available on http://www.sciplore.org.  Joran Beel and Bela Gipp. Google Scholar’s Ranking Algorithm: An Introductory Overview. In Birger Larsen and Jacqueline Leta, editors, Proceedings of the buy essay uk 49 12th International Conference on Scientometrics and Informetrics (ISSI’09) , volume 1, pages 230–241, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), July 2009. International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics. Sex Communication Essay Units? ISSN 2175-1935. Available on Mega Essays - Materialism http://www.sciplore.org.  Joran Beel and Bela Gipp. Articles Units? Google Scholar’s Ranking Algorithm: The Impact of Mega Essays - Materialism, Articles’ Age (An Empirical Study). In Shahram Latifi, editor, Proceedings of the sex communication essay 6th International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG’09) , pages 160–164, Las Vegas (USA), April 2009.
IEEE. doi: 10.1109/ITNG.2009.317. Mega Essays - Materialism? ISBN 978-1424437702. Available on articles essay http://www.sciplore.org.  Toni Buzan. Making the Most of your Mind . Pan Books, 1977. Share This Story, Choose Your Platform! Docear 1.0 Alpha 1 available for registered users. The new name of SciPlore MindMapping is… “Docear”
SciPlore MindMapping now provides literature recommendations (Beta 15) Help us finding a new name for “SciPlore MindMapping” Good by FreeMind, welcome FreePlane. I can’t find a PDF reader to create bookmarks with Linux. Any hints? KDE’s Okular can insert bookmarks and highlight text. It runs on buy research papers online the single life GNOME too. Both KDE and GNOME can coexist on a box Ubuntu. As appeared somewhere on this site as well as on the Web, jPDFbookmarks is IMHO the most appropriate and about sex communication units, established software for Essays, embedding bookmarks and articles about, notes into PDF files on Linux. Okular is a nice allowing to visually add bookmarks, highlights and notes to spirited essay, the PDF file BUT those are linked with current user only so can’t be transferred and get visualised on other computers, that is, Okular stores all those modifications in the user’s home dir, not in the PDF file itself. I am just about to start my PhD.
Thank you very much for articles sex communication essay, this tutorial, it is really helpful and on papers first glance sciplore mindmapping looks great! does there exist also a german version of articles about essay, this tutorial? no sorry, there is no german version of this article. i found this tutorial two month ago, tried sciplore mindmpping, and notes, finished my literature survey for my BSc yesterday. Sex Communication Essay? Your software is online cheap, awesome! awesome! awesome! It helped me so much! Thank you! Thanks. This is fantastic.
I was just thinking how valuable it would be to have this… and then I found you on wikipedia. One question. About Sex Communication? I have a PDF that already has a ton of bookmarks in it (a dissertation) — What’s an help business easy way to remove those, so I can start fresh? you can delete bookmarks in a PDF e.g. with foxit reader. About Sex Communication? alternatively create a node in your mind map (e.g. “trash”) and move the imported bookmarks into that node. this way the bookmarks won’t be deleted in the PDF but at least they won’t be imported again. how to delete Map and what is reference key. Currently I am using endnote and how can I link the reference to Sciplore pdf.
Also, is it possible to get the pdf into one folder with a click from each reference in endnote rather rafting each reference to Essays - Materialism, copy it. endnote is currently not supported by SciPlore MindMapping and we have no intensions to change that. The in (wordprocess) text references are given as numbers that refer to the bibliography references. Can this tool enter in text references in the Harvard format of sex communication essay units, (Author, date)? SciPlore MindMapping does not directly create reference lists. Accordingly, it depends on whatother tool you use if references can be created in Harvard style. This is cant rye, great article and software too.. Articles About Units? I am using freeplane for mind mapping- basically to - Materialism, organize whatever I understood from articles sex communication research article. But this software seems to be good for researcher like me.
It is Mega Essays - Materialism, hard to organize PDF when collection become huge. Units? Thanks for the great software not only similar to Mega Essays, freeplane but also supports Mendeley- one of the best PDF organizing software. I thank the developer for articles essay units, making good software for researches (nobody bothers about Mega Essays - Materialism researchers, one who bothers makes money- was slogan with reference to Endnote or VectorNTI ). Any hints, how I can create bookmarks on mac, besides Adobe software? Apparently there is no Foxit Reader for Mac. no sorry, I only know of Adobe Acrobat for sex communication essay, Mac. Online Uk 49? If you find an alternative, please tell me. I don’t know if you are still checking back to this site, but the latest version of preview (s/w standard on articles about sex communication units mac o/s) does bookmarking and highlighting. For mac (also for windows and linux) you might use the program jpdfbookmarks.
I’ve just try it in a windows environment. This program can also be used in a mac environment because it is written in java. Another good alternative for windows is PDFX-Change Viewer. I use the pro version which costs money, but I think with the free version of the program you can also make bookmarks. thank you very much. i will have a look at help cant the websites. ohhh…I was really lagging behind in terms of my Master dissertation….and now with this I am very hopeful to meet the submission deadline.. thanks a lot and will surely send you my comments once i am done with my project work and will share my experience using SciPlore mindmapping. Great service by all developers and their team. congratulations. I just recently stumbled upon Sciplore Mindmapping and I love the idea. I directly tried it out, but stumbled onto two rather annoying problems: 1. When I select a directory (along with it’s subdirectories) to essay units, monitor my PDFs and import them, they are re-imported at each start-up.
As a result I end up with the entries being duplicated EVERY time. 2. The second thing is perhaps not so much a problem than a question: Assume I already have a PDF and with it’s bookmarks imported into a mindmap. Now if I add more bookmarks to that PDF is it possible to just import the added bookmarks. I didn’t find an help business release “Update Bookmarks” option and if I do “import bookmarks”, it imports ALL the bookmarks, which is unnecessary and if the PDF has many bookmarks very annoying… I hope somebody can help me with this as it is kind of putting me off from reallying digging into Sciplore and doing everything with it. Thanks and best regards, regarding 1: this definately is a bug. Sex Communication Units? i have sent you an Mega email. regarding 2: thx for the suggestion, i added it to our todo list. maybe we will have implemented this in beta 13. Unfortunately I didn’t get your email regarding the bug. Perhaps you could send it again? I sent it again (maybe it’s in your spam folder?).
Anyway, ths is what I wrote: Are you sure you are using the latest beta 11 from our website. If so, please could you send me the mind map this happens with? or. ideally, create a new and simple mind map in essay units which this problem. occurs and send this to Mega Essays - Materialism, me.
It would be nice, if one were able to select the PDF viewer that is used by Sciplore to open the PDFs. I am working in Linux and used Wine to install the “Foxit Reader”, which does work great. Nonetheless I don’t want it as my default viewer for the whole system, as it’s not part of Linux and articles about sex communication essay units, it takes long to online, start up. I’d prefer just starting “Foxit Reader” from inside JabRef and about essay, Sciplore for adding bookmarks and else use the default viewers from Linux. Is there any way this is possible? Best regards and thanks again, I also added this suggestion to papers and theses, our todo list. But it will take some more time than your other idea before we will implement it. ——— PDF-Xchange + Wine = bookmarking PDF reader in SciPlore under Linux ——— I found this workaround which may be useful to articles units, Linux users that want to use a bookmark enabled PDF reader within SciPlore. 1) download the belonging free version of PDF-Xchange, (a viewer that allows bookmarking and has a very nice search tool) from here:
2) install PDF-Xchange so it runs under Wine. 3) Copy the following lines, paste them to a text file and save it as PDF-Xchange.sh or something similar. # Purpose: To convert Linux-style filename to Windows-style to pass as an about essay units argument. # to wine when starting PDF Reader. #assuming you use the default installation folder in online uk 49 Wine. App=`eval wine “‘C:Program FilesTracker SoftwarePDF ViewerPDFXCview.exe'” “‘$Filename'”` path to PDF-Xchange executable may be different, check it for sex communication essay units, your system..
4) Change properties of the notes papers and theses script you just saved to make it executable. 5) In SciPlore open “preferences” under ‘tools” menu to open the Freemind properties window and click on the HTML tab/button. 5) Go to the input box labeled “Default Browser Command Other Os” and replace the text “xdg-open ” with “dir-where-u-saved-yr-script/PDF-Xchange.sh ” 6) Click Save in the Freemind properties window. Sciplore will prompt you to restart to enable the units changes but this was not necessary for me. Now when you click on a PDF in your mindmap it will be opened with PDF-Xchange! The script is a modified version of a Foxit script found here: However Foxit would not work within Scilore in help my essay release this way, failing to open the pdf, although it worked within Nautilus (the Gnome file manager) Both work fine with PDF-Xchange though! Hello, I tried SciPlore on the Mac OS X 10.6.5.
It seems can not load highlight markers from pdf modified by Acrobat X in about essay the same system. However, bookmarks are imported smoothly. currently, sciplore only imports bookmarksand no comments or highlighted text. Hi, this sounds great. I have already started writing my PH.D. working with endnote (not Bibtex), is Endnote compatible with your program? Or is there a way how I can move my reference-files to your program? Thanks! sciplore mindmapping is not compatible with endnote. and if you google, switching from business endnote to e.g. jabref seems to articles about essay, be difficult. Help Me Do Business? if you find an articles units easy way i would be very happy if you told me and notes papers, i would publish it on our blog.
Hi, this is a great blog and extremely helpful however I have a quick question about using JabRef to cite things in MSword. I followed the instructions to use my JabRef citation database with MSword but am having trouble getting the citations in the form I would like. Essay Units? I need to cite according to do my catcher rye, American Sociological Assocation standards and about sex communication units, can’t seem to find a format file that works. Spirited Away Belonging? The furtherest I have gotten is going to about sex communication essay, the package manager in MikTex and downloading packages that are suppose to contain new formats. Is this how I should be doing this and Mega Essays - Materialism, if so do you know of a packages for ASA citation. I am sorry but I don’t know any packages that contain an essay ASA citation style but I am very sure that there is one. Maybe you could ask here http://www.medicalnerds.com/how-to-use-jabrefbibtex-with-microsoft-word-2003/ or the guys from buy research papers cheap miktex: http://miktex.org/support. If you find an answer, feel free to post it here. Hi, really nice and sex communication units, helpfull programm. I have a question and maybe an idea for away essay belonging, new implementation:
1. I use the latest version (14 Beta) but the sex communication essay bookmarks don’t really guide me to the correct page. I always get to online uk 49, the starting page of the PDF. This happens with own created bookmarks and also with already generated bookmarks from the writer of the PDF. (I use foxit reader) 2. In my opinion the articles units mindmap structure is essay belonging, prefered to articles about essay units, use it with LaTeX. Notes On Writing Papers? If there’s a way to sex communication units, export the different nodes with downwardly used sections similar to LaTeX (chapter/section/subsection …), an easy, first usable text could be generated.
The whole formatting for help my essay, the text have to be done in the header of your writings so you don’t have to think about. you just have to export in about sex communication a .txt. Maybe one have to Mega, define what is “text” and what are headlines. Do you tink that could work? the feature to jump to the bookmarked page is not yet implemented. Sex Communication Essay Units? regarding the latex export: it`s on out todolist too but definately will take a few more month to be implemented. I installed the SciPlore, but when i start it, i get this message :”freeMind.Main.freeMind cann’t be started” ! What shold i do? Help plz. have you installed the latest Java version from http://www.java.com ? if you still have this problem please contact us at feedback A.T sciplore. org and notes on writing papers and theses, tell us your operating system. I’m not sure I completely understood the articles process described here. From what I understood: First, you make a mindmap of the help release literature you collected and organize it by topic perhaps.
Then, you make a second mindmap more according to about sex communication essay units, how you want the paper/arguments to build up. I guess what I don’t understand is how the buy research papers online life second mindmap works (in general, I do understand mindmapping). Do you copy nodes from the articles about sex communication essay first map? What if I just want the uk 49 bookmark, when I copy it to the new mindmap will the bibliographic info come along with it? I hope you can answer my questions/confusion, and thank you in advance.
eventually it`s up to sex communication, you. Buy Research Papers The Single Life? if you have just a “small project”, e.g. a bachelor or master`s thesis you could do everything in a single mind map. Articles About Essay Units? if you have a larger project (e.g. a phd and several additional papers) you might want to use two mind maps. Buy Essay Uk 49? one for the literature management and one for each paper. and yes, you can just copy nodes (and bookmarks) between mind maps and reference information will be kept. Thank you for your reply – and articles about sex communication, after using the Mega Essays maps, I realized I already had the answer to articles sex communication essay, one of my questions. By the way, I’d like to help me do my essay release, mention that I agree with Michael (Oct 2010) #2, that it would be handy to have the sex communication essay units option when updating bookmarks to essay belonging, choose between “all” and “new” (currently all are imported again). right click on a bookmark and select “PDF Management - Import new bookmarks” – this should import new bookmarks only. Hi, I have a few questions related to the “monitoring folder” function:
1) what’s the difference between “smart” and essay units, “thorough” update of monitoring folder? I deleted some pdfs from the folder being monitored as a test and buy essay online uk 49, even after trying the “thorough update” the information from the deleted files remained – I expected data from articles about essay deleted files to help my essay business, have also been deleted. 2) for some pdfs my mindmap automatically makes child nodes for various headings and some other categories I can’t quite figure out (for one pdf the mindmap made a child node for every page in the document). How can I stop it from automatically making child nodes other than manually deleting them? 1) add a section in the help mindmap on articles essay units monitoring folders and on reference management (some information is on the web-based manual, but there is nothing in the mindmap itself. 2) you use the term “monitoring directory” in most places and “watch folder” in one instance, but then in the mindmap software it’s actually called “monitoring folder”; consistency in online cheap life the terms would probably be helpful when people are searching for information. what’s the difference between “smart” and “thorough” update of monitoring folder? “smart” checks the file date (last modified) of PDFs and compares this to the date of the mind map. only PDF being modified later than the date of the last incoming folder update are analysed. “thourough” checks all PDFs for bookmarks which might take a long time.
I expected data from deleted files to have also been deleted. this will be possible in essay units one of the on writing papers next versions of SciPlore MindMapping (Docear). However, I would appreciate if you could post your wish here http://docear.idea.informer.com/ too. 2) for some pdfs my mindmap automatically makes child nodes for various headings and some other categories I can’t quite figure out (for one pdf the articles about units mindmap made a child node for papers online cheap the single, every page in the document). How can I stop it from about sex communication essay automatically making child nodes other than manually deleting them? in the menu select “SciPlore MindMapping – Preferences – PDF Management”. There you can select which kind of annotations to import. Help My Essay? If you don’t want to import any annotations (un)select “SciPlore MindMapping – Import Annotations from PDFs” regarding your suggestions: yes, we will do this, thank you! If you have any further questions feel free to use our new forum http://sourceforge.net/apps/phpbb/docear/index.php.
And now a question for the community about file management (I’m new at this, so maybe I’m asking the obvious). – Mendeley because it grabs the metadata and renames the files automatically. – Foxit reader to easily import bookmarks into articles essay SciPlore MindMapping. – “Folder Monitoring” in MindMapping, but I want to monitor a folder that contains only the files that I’ve actually read and marked up. I imagine the following, but doesn’t seem very efficient: 1) download files to a folder, e.g.”journal downloads” 2) have Mendeley rename the files and save in “Documents library” in “Mendeley Desktop”; delete version in “journal downloads” 3) open and read the file in Foxit, re-save in another folder, e.g. “read documents”; delete the version in “Documents library”??
Question: For those using Mendeley, Foxit and MindMapping, does anybody have a more efficient way to manage your files? Thanks for cant in the rye, any ideas!! Why not doing the following: 1) Download new PDFs to c:allmypdfs. 2) Specify this directory as a “watched folder” in Mendeley and create a monitoring node for the same directory in the mind map. That means you will have all your PDFs in Mendeley (with the correct meta data) and in a node in a mind map. 3) Double click PDFs you want to read in your mind map. They will open in Foxit Reader.
Create comments and other annotations. 4) Import the annotations to the mind map, sort them, remove the articles about essay link to the PDF from the monitoring node in the mind map. Then you will have all your other unread PDFs in the monitoring node left and the read PDFs in the other nodes of your mind maps. Of course, on papers online life your hard drive everything is in articles sex communication units one folder, but does this matter? Thanks very much. I am runnign into a problem.
I will use a lot of literature sources. Spirited Away Essay Belonging? The pdfs during my dissertation work will run up in the hundreds at least. So I found it almost unusable when I expanded the folder in the mind map because of the all the pdfs (let alone the additional bookmarks), So what I did was start breaking down the articles about sex communication essay units Node : “incomming literature” into cant do my essay catcher rye sub headings – however when I do this then I assume the path for each individual pdf, that is put into a sub node, has a broken path to the “monitoring folder” which then then creates deadlinks from the about sex communication essay pdf to the bookmarks. I have also tired first structuring my folders on my pc to online, match the articles mind map structure I want – but I still get the help do my essay catcher broken link problem. Anyhelp? Is there a way to move nodes around (and into newly created ones) within the monitoring folder node? You might want to about units, check this PrepLit software out for preparing the literature review. Mega - Materialism? PrepLit is a research tool that can search through your PDF collection.
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Free license of. PrepLit is available for educational institute, blogger, journalist, and public speaker. Buy Research Online The Single Life? More information on Preplit http://preplit.com. good paper for any student PHD or master. Hi there, this is a helpful post, this will give ease to those people who are having a hard time writing their thesis. I think we share the same views as well. About Essay Units? I created a blog with step by step guide on making a research. Spirited Away Essay Belonging? Of course they are free, that is why I put it on a blog. If you have time, visit it… http://howtothesis.blogspot.com. I like you site – and articles about sex communication essay units, have directed students to it. But I cannot find it now ! Have you removed it ? Or is there another link.
Please let me know. I am Just starting to write my PhD Thesis. Buy Essay Online Uk 49? I find the articles units tutorial immensely useful. FOR MAC USERS RE: READER WITH NOTES, HIGHLIGHTING AND BOOKMARKING. I noticed Foxit is only available for online, Windows. I’m new to Macs, but in case anyone else had that problem, you can use the built in Previewer.
Sorry if this is articles about units, redundant, I didn’t want to read through all the messages. i am just starting phd .i find this useful. I am doing my research on the enteric nervous system imaging and 3d reconstruction.I want to get use of this programe. I am very Happy to review this. it gave me lot of courage. hve solved my problems. please suggest me a software which will help me to write a paper/references in a easy way. i need it for and theses, my paper. I desire to know how to make a questionnaire for my thesis, please suggest me a software which will help me to write references in a Ph.D. This is articles, very timely advice in writing a thesis, thanks for sharing!
I have just gone through the tutorial, and am strongly inclined to uk 49, adopt the about sex communication approach you outline as I undertake writing my thesis, but a few questions: 1.I recently purchased the buy research the single program, PapersApp. Should I entirely ignore that program if I use your suggested approach? 2. I tend to read journal articles in printed form, and have many that I’ve highlighted, etc. I’ve considered reading digital documents and highlighting PDFs, and recognize the benefits of doing so, but haven’t done so yet because I’ve been unsure about which PDF reader to use, and how durable any mark-ups I make to files will be. Additionally, I’ll have to go through all of the papers I’ve read and articles essay units, transfer my highlights to cant do my essay rye, the digital files. Will Foxit Reader (which you recommend) perform essentially the same mark-up and organizational functions as Papers? Thanks very much. I apologize for the late reply and hope my answers will still be useful to about sex communication, you. Concerning your 1st question: I am not familiar with the PapersApp and the features it offers.
Generally speaking, there are numerous applications that support academic literature management and all have their strengths and weaknesses. So, I can’t tell you which one is cant essay catcher, right for you. However, to sex communication units, my knowledge, Docear, which is the help my essay business successor of our mind mapping software, is the articles about essay units only integrated tool for academic literature management based on help essay in the mind maps. If you would like to articles about essay units, use our approach, i.e. make mind maps your main tool for organizing your literature, Docear is likely your best bet. Concerning your 2nd question:
The markup features provided by PDF readers (not only Foxit, but also Adobe and others) have significantly improved since we first wrote this post. Foxit is still my personal favorite, because of its simple and clean interface, fast loading times and good integration with Docear. PDF annotations (highlights, comments etc.) are stored within the PDF, so they’re as durable or persistent as the file itself. Foxit has a nice feature I haven’t seen in any other PDF reader so far: it lets you export your annotations in spirited a special XML-based format called FDF. Furthermore, Docear allows you to automatically import all annotations you made in a PDF into sex communication essay units your mind maps. Buy Essay Online? I hope that answers your questions. I suggest, you check out the articles about sex communication units Docear suite to see whether it fulfills your organizational needs. Hello,I am so interested in buy research cheap the single life SciPlore Mindmapping.But I can not find “Update reference keys in about sex communication current mind map” when I integrated BibTeX (JabRef) with SciPlore MindMapping.I can not any get reference keys from Jabref. I sincerely expect your reply.
Thanks very much. Thanks for your interest in SciPlore MindMapping. The development of our mind mapping software has been transferred to Docear, which is a separate project solely dedicated to advancing the mind mapping suite. Docear offers more features, a large user community and active developer support. We suggest you give it a try. Best, the SciPlore Team! I would like to say THANKYOU. This has been a tremendously great eye opener. I never new such platforms exist, until i stumbled upon this online.
Keep the good work. This something i must share not only with my students, but also my research colleagues. It matches my imagination. Papers? I wonder why I haven’t seen this before…… Thank you so much. I am in the middle of my masters thesis and discovered this tool though a Phd forum. Sex Communication Units? It is simple and papers online cheap the single, easy to use for literature management. I am planning to share it with my fellow researcher friends. Articles Sex Communication Essay? One question: Is there a back up option in Docear? Thank you Docear team ! Thanks for buy essay uk 49, using Docear and recommending it to your colleagues and friends. Indeed, Docear offers the articles sex communication essay units option to backup you mindmaps.
All you need to do is to register for a free user account and activate the backup function. Please see Docear’s user manual for details: http://www.docear.org/support/user-manual/#Backup_Versioning. Thank you Norman for the quick reply. I discovered that the online backup option is enabled by default in cheap the single life the preference tab under Online Services in Docear. I am using Docear on Linux and articles about sex communication essay units, have a slight problem opening linked pdf files with bookmarks or annotations. Help? I have Foxit reader and PDf exchange viewer install using Wine but they refuse to become my default browsers even after I have made them default by answering ‘Yes’ to sex communication essay, the prompts that pop up when I open Foxit or PDFexchange. When I click to open pdf links through Docear, it opens with the Mega - Materialism default Ubuntu pdf viewer. Articles About Sex Communication? (I have read that Foxit has a linux version as well but it doesn’t give all the functionality that its Windows’ version gives like multiple tabs etc).
Is there a way I can open my bookmarked pages or highlighted text through Docear in Linux ? Please post your question in the Docear Support Forum: http://www.docear.org/support/forums/ (no registration required). Mega - Materialism? The experts at Docear are better capable to articles units, help you. Best, If your question refers to formatting the bibliography in APA style, you can achieve that by installing the apalike BibTex style (http://ctan.mackichan.com/biblio/bibtex/base/apalike.bst) and using the following style flag in help do my BibTex4Word (assuming you use MS Word): apalike/pluh( hello…please i would like someone to sex communication essay units, help me with an article containg the APA STYLE. thanks. Excellent exposition of critical thinking for students. University of Canberra, Australia. Good tutorial. Centrally focused on electronics aids to writers.
Will help students a lot. Currently Iam in the middle of my disserttaion working on chapter two. Since last year I have been typing all of my notes and references paperlesly on the computer. Finding this tutorial really helps and I will be using it. Thank you. I’m in the midst of preparing my literature chapter and I found this tutorial is really helpful.
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essay of ethnography WRITING AN ETHNOGRAPHY. 1. To understand the nature of ethnographic writing as part of the translation process. 2. To identify different levels of ethnographic writing. 4. To write an ethnography. Every ethnographer probably begins the task of writing a cultural description with the feeling it is too early to start. Doing ethnography always leads to a profound awareness that a particular cultural meaning system is almost inexhaustibly rich. You know a great deal about a cultural scene but you now realize how much more there is to know. About Essay! It is well to recognize that what you write is help my essay business release true of every ethnographic description: it is essay units partial, incomplete, and will always stand in need of revision. Most ethnographers would do well to set aside the feelings that writing is premature and begin the help cant essay catcher in the rye task sooner rather than later. In the about sex communication units process of writing one discovers a hidden store of knowledge gained during the research process.
As most professional writers will affirm, the only way to learn to write is to write. In the same way that learning to swim cannot occur during classroom lectures on swimming, discussion of principles and strategies to follow in writing do not take one very far in learning to write. It is online best to observe other swimmers, get in the water yourself and paddle around, and then have an articles about sex communication experienced swimmer point out ways to improve your breathing and buy essay online uk 49, stroke. One of the best ways to learn to essay units write an ethnography is to read other ethnographies. Select those that communicate to you the Essays meaning of another culture. Those written in a way that brings that culture to articles essay units life, making you feel you understand the people and Mega Essays, their way of life. If you read well-written ethnographies during the about sex communication essay units process of writing, your own writing will improve spontaneously. Every ethnographer can identify books and articles that are well-written cultural descriptions.
In the past eight years, my colleague David McCurdy and I have scoured the professional literature in search of brief examples of ethnographic writing of the highest caliber. Our standard has been to buy research papers online cheap life identify writing that translates the meanings of an alien culture so well that someone unfamiliar with ethnography grasps those meanings. These selections of ethnographic writing have been collected in three successive editions of Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology (1971, 1974. 1977). For sheer readability, two of the best longer ethnographies are Elliot Liehow’s urban ethnography, Tally’s Corner (1967), and Colin Turnbull’s study of the Pygmies, The Forest People (1962). In this step I want to examine briefly the nature of ethnographic writing as part of the translation process.
Then I want to discuss the principles of the D.R.S. Method as applied to writing an ethnography. In the process I will give some specific suggestions on articles about sex communication, writing, but always keep in Mega Essays, mind that the way to learn to write an ethnography is to write an ethnography. THE TRANSLATION PROCESS. A translation discovers the meanings in one culture and about sex communication essay units, communicates them in such a way that people with another cultural tradition can understand them. The ethnographer as translator has a dual task. For one, you must make sense out of the cultural patterns you observe, decoding the help me do my essay business release messages in cultural behavior, artifacts, and knowledge. The more fully you apprehend and digest the cultural meaning system operating in the social situation you study, the more effective your final translation. Your second task is to communicate the articles essay cultural meanings you have discovered to online life readers who are unfamiliar with that culture or cultural scene.
This means that every ethnographer must develop the skills of about, communicating in Mega, written form. It requires that you take into units consideration our audience as well as our informants. In a real sense, a truly effective translation requires an intimate knowledge of two cultures: the one described and the one tacitly held by the audience who will read the description. Many highly skilled ethnographers fail to finish the work of ethnographic translation. They give months of time to the intensive study of another culture, analyzing in great detail the meanings encoded in that culture. Then, without taking time to learn the skills of papers online life, written communication, without understanding their audience, without even feeling the importance of communicating in a way that brings the culture to life, they write an ethnography. Their audience becomes a very small group of other ethnographers, who, by virtue of their interest in articles sex communication essay units, the culture, are willing to wade through the notes on writing papers vague and general discussions, examine the taxonomies, paradigms, and other tables or charts, and glean an understanding of the people and their way of about sex communication essay units, life. The ethnographic literature is plagued by half-translations that cannot be used as guides to another way of life. In discussing the steps in writing an ethnographic description I will make numerous suggestions for creating a full translation, one that communicates the cultural meanings you have discovered.
However, one fundamental cause of inadequate cultural translations lies in the failure to buy research online cheap understand and use different levels of writing. During the writing of any ethnographic description, the ethnographer must keep these various levels in mind and consciously use them to increase the communicative power of the translation. Levels of Ethnographic Writing. Every ethnographer deals with the most specific, concrete, human events as well as the most general. In our fieldnotes we identify an infant with a specific name, held by a specific mother, nursing at articles about units that mother’s breast, at Mega Essays a specific time and in a specific place. In those same fieldnotes we will make observations about human love, nurturance, and the universal relationship of mothers and children. Articles Sex Communication Essay! In the final written ethnography, the buy research online cheap the single life range of levels is articles sex communication units enormous.
More than anything else, the way these levels are used will determine the communicative value of an ethnographic translation. Kenneth Read, in his beautifully written ethnography of the buy essay Gahuku peoples of about units, Highland New Guinea, The High Valley (1965), suggests the Essays underlying cause of partial translations in ethnography: Why, then, is so much anthropological writing so antiseptic, so devoid of anything that brings a people to life? There they are, pinned like butterflies in a glass case, with the articles sex communication essay units difference, however, that we often cannot tell what color these specimens are, and we are never shown them in flight, never see them soar or die except in do my catcher in the rye, generalities. The reason for this lies in the aims of anthropology, whose concern with the particular is incidental to an understanding of the general (1965:ix). In anthropology, as in sex communication units, all social sciences, the concern with the particular is incidental to uk 49 an understanding of the general.
But when this principle is articles about units transported wholesale into doing ethnography, it creates a travesty of the translation process. When an ethnographer studies another culture, the only place to begin is with the on writing papers and theses particular, the concrete, specific events of everyday life. Then, through the research process described in articles about units, this book, the ethnographer moves to more and on writing papers, more general statements about the culture. Articles About Essay! With the discovery of more general categories and cultural themes, the ethnographer begins to make comparisons with other cultures and make even more general statements about the culture studied. And all too frequently, it is primarily this kind of help do my in the rye, analysis and understanding that finds its way into the ethnographic description.
In writing an ethnography, as a translation in the full sense, the concern with the sex communication essay units general is incidental to an understanding of the particular. In order for a reader to see the lives of the people we study, we must show them through particulars, not merely talk about them in generalities. There are at do my essay in the rye least six different levels that can be identified in ethnographic writing as we move from the general to the particular. Let’s examine each of these different kinds of translation statements. Level One: Universal Statements. These include all statements about human beings, their behavior, culture. Articles Sex Communication Essay Units! or environmental situation. They are all-encompassing statements. Although the beginning ethnographer may often feel incompetent to make any universal statements, all of us know things that occur universally and can include them in our ethnographies. Most cultural descriptions include universal statements.
A study of papers, air traffic controllers, for example. might assert, ‘In all societies, people manage the movement of their bodies through space in sex communication essay units, such a way that they do not constantly collide with other human beings.” Such a statement is relevant to controlling the movement of vehicles in help cant essay in the, which humans move about as well. A study of clerks who record burglaries in articles about units, the police department might assert the following universal statement: “in all human societies, some people keep records of one sort or another about their affairs.” For each of the six levels of abstraction that appear in ethnographic writing, I want to give an example from The Cocktail Waitress: Woman’s Work in a Man’s World (Spradley and Mann 1975). This will clarify the nature of the various levels by showing their expression in a single work. The following universal statement is one among several: “Every society takes the biological differences between female and away essay belonging, male to articles sex communication essay create a special kind of reality: feminine and masculine identities” (1975:145). Uk 49! In the context of articles sex communication essay, a specific bar in a specific city, we made an assertion about a universal feature of on writing papers, human experience. Level Two: Cross-Cultural Descriptive Statements. The second level of abstraction includes statements about two or more societies, assertions that are true for some societies but not necessarily for all societies. Consider the following statement from The Cocktail Waitress: “When anthropologists began studying small, non-Western societies they found that people participated in a single web of life. Articles Units! . Mega - Materialism! . . [W]hen we turn to sex communication complex societies such as our own, the number of cultural perspectives for any situation increases radically” (1975: 8, 9). This statement says something about two very large classes of human societies—the small, non-Western ones and the complex ones.
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In our study of Brady’s Bar, we included statements at this level; they did not refer exclusively to Brady’s Bar, but to all the institutions of which Brady’s was one example: “Bars, in general, are places of employment for hundreds of articles about sex communication units, thousands of women, almost always as cocktail waitresses. Their role in bars tends to help me do be an extension of their role at essay home—serving the needs of men. . . Online! . Like most institutions of American society, men hold sway at the center of social importance” (1975: 145). Level Four: General Statements about a Specific Cultural Scene. When we move down one level of articles about sex communication essay units, abstraction, we can note many statements about a particular culture or cultural scene, Most ethnographies are filled with statements at me do this level. “The Fort Rupert Kwakiutl engage in seine fishing.” “The air traffic controllers at the Minneapolis International Airport work one of sex communication, three shifts.” Participant observation provides many statements at this level. We can say things like, “The waitresses at Brady’s get hassled by customers” or “Tramps aren’t really tramps unless they make the bucket,” These are descriptive statements about a particular scene or group, but even so, they are still general in nature. Moreover, even when expressed by an informant and used in an ethnography as a quotation from an papers the single informant, they represent an abstraction. Every culture is filled with these low-level abstractions that must find their way into any ethnographic description. Here is an example from articles about essay units, Brady’s Bar: “At one level, Brady’s Bar is primarily a place of business.
At another level, Brady’s Bar is a place where men can come to play out exaggerated masculine roles, acting out their fantasies of sexual prowess, and reaffirming their own male identities, Brady’s Bar is belonging a men’s ceremonial center” (1975: 130-31). This level of ethnographic writing contains many of the themes the ethnographer wants to present to the reader. Thus, the articles sex communication essay theme of males expressing their identities in buy essay online uk 49, many different ways—in the essay way space is organized, the way drinks are ordered, and the like—is described in statements at this level. Sometimes one can encapsulate general statements at my essay Level Four in a quotation from an informant: they still remain statements of a very general nature. Making use of an informant quotation helps provide a sense of articles sex communication units, immediacy and gives the reader a closer acquaintance with the spirited away essay culture, but we must move to even more specific levels. Level Five: Specific Statements about a Cultural Domain. At this level, the ethnographer begins to make use of all the different terms in articles sex communication, one or more cultural domains. On Writing Papers! We are now dealing with a class of events, objects, or activities as you have discovered them in articles about sex communication, the cultural scene.
For example, here is an buy essay online ethnographic statement at this level from my research on the factory that makes tannery equipment: “One of the most important jobs that men do is to make drums. A drum can be small, such as a barrel, or more than thirty feet across. There are many stages in making a drum, including making heads, making pins, making cross pieces, making staves, making doors, and making door frames. Articles About Sex Communication! The entire process of making a drum can take as long as a week and involve the work of several men.” Descriptive statements at this level can make reference to taxonomies and paradigms that encapsulate a great deal of information. However, these representations in themselves seldom communicate more than a skeleton of relationships to the reader. In order to essay translate these into a description that will be understood, a great deal of about sex communication, narrative description at this level and the next more specific level is required.
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She steps up to the table and asks, “Are you ready to order now’?” One of the males grabs her by the waist and jerks her towards him. ‘I already know what I want! I’ll take you,” he says as he smiles innocently up at her” (1975:132). As a reader, you immediately begin to see things happening, perhaps feel things the actors in this situation feel. Instead of merely being told what people know, how they generate behavior from this knowledge, and how they interpret things, you have been shown this cultural knowledge in help, action. A good ethnographic translation shows; a poor one only about units tells. Perhaps another example of the six levels in ethnographic writing will clarify the effect on the reader. Drawing from my research among tramps, the following statements all describe a single aspect of their experience: begging, borrowing, panhandling, lending, and otherwise exchanging things. LEVEL ONE: Reciprocity among human beings is balanced where two people give to each other over time, each giving and each receiving. Such reciprocity occurs in all societies.
LEVEL TWO: Tramps, like those who live in tribal villages, depend on one another in help me do release, time of need. They expect others to reciprocate. A Kwakiutl Indian will give in a potlatch and later receive gifts at someone else’s potlatch. A tramp will give to another tramp and also beg from about sex communication essay, another tramp. LEVEL THREE: Tramps engage in much more reciprocal exchange than do other members of the larger society. This kind of exchange takes many forms. LEVEL FOUR: A tramp in online, the Seattle City Jail will exchange goods and services with other tramps. About Essay! If he is a trusty in the jail, he might exchange a service for money with someone in lockup. LEVEL FIVE: (Informant’s statement) “Yes, a tramp will beg from other tramps. If you’re panhandling you can expect another tramp to give you money or a cigarette if he has it.
You realize that sometime he will need something and then it will be your turn.” LEVEL SIX: It was a dull Tuesday afternoon and a slight mist of rain was blowing gently in from the Puget Sound. Joe had become a kickout an cant rye hour earlier; several minutes ago he walked off the elevator on the first floor of the Public Safety Building and found his way to the street. Pulling the collar of his worn tweed jacket up around his neck, he hunched his shoulders slightly and headed downtown, wondering where he would find money for a drink or even a cigarette. He might have to make a flop under the bridge on Washington Street tonight to stay out of the rain. He saw a man approaching him as he headed slowly down James Street, obviously another tramp. Looked like a home guard tramp, but he couldn’t tell for sure. “Can you spare a quarter for a jug?” he asked. “I just got a kickout.” “No, I’m flat on my ass myself,” the other man said, “but how about a smoke, all I got are Bull Durhams.” After taking a light too, Joe started on down James Street looking for a tourist or businessman to essay units panhandle. Ethnographic writing includes statements at all six levels on the continuum from the general to the particular. Effective writing, that which serves to communicate the help meanings of a culture to the reader, is achieved by making all these statements, but doing so in units, a certain proportion. Professional journals, in which the author writes primarily for colleagues, tend to consist of statements at Levels One and Two; that is, the description is made in general terms, the away belonging author avoiding specific incidents. Those outside a narrow professional group often find these articles dense, dull, antiseptic, and inadequate translations.
Some ethnographic writings, whether articles, papers, or books, adopt a formal style using Levels Three and articles about sex communication, Four. On Writing! Most dissertations and theses are written at these middle levels of essay, abstraction, although they may contain a great deal of information also at away belonging Level Five. They tend to present the bare bones, the skeleton of about sex communication, knowledge, without the flesh of examples and Mega, specific incident statements of Level Six. At the other extreme, some ethnographic novels and articles units, personal accounts consist entirely of statements at Level Six, with, perhaps, a few statements from Level Five thrown in - Materialism, now and then. Articles Sex Communication Units! This kind of writing holds the reader’s attention hut may fail to communicate the overall structure of a culture or the nature of ethnography. It should be clear that mixing the various levels in the desirable proportion depends on the goals of the ethnographer. In You Owe Yourself a Drunk: An Ethnography of Urban Nomads (1970), 1 made a great deal of use of spirited away belonging, Levels Three through Six, ranging back and forth among statements about tramps generally, to specific incidents.
Many of the incidents were contained in quotations from informants. In The Cocktail Waitress (Spradley and Mann 1975), we sought to communicate to a wider audience and included many more statements at Level Six, the most specific level. We also tried to articles units relate the culture of online life, Brady’s Bar to the universal level of articles essay units, writing more frequently. In retrospect, we tended to scale down the middle level of generalizations. In Deaf Like Me (Spradley and Spradley 1978), an in-depth study of a family coping with a deaf child, we moved almost entirely to the most concrete level in order to in the rye communicate with the widest possible audience. Articles Sex Communication Essay Units! Although much of the data were gathered by ethnographic interviewing and other ethnographic techniques, we recounted specific incidents in order to communicate more effectively to the reader. We sought to show what the culture of families was like, how they coped with a deaf child, what strategies they used, and buy essay online uk 49, the consequences for communication.
Although statements appear in this study at articles about sex communication all the help me do business other levels of generalization, they are woven into articles the particular so thoroughly that they do not stand out. We attempted to communicate more general statements through the use of particular statements. Each ethnographer will have to determine his or her intended audience. I believe that ethnographic research holds important values for all people and that ethnographers should write for those outside the academic world. I urge students and others to online use the middle levels of generalizations sparingly. Emphasize the most general and the most specific. In ethnographic writing, the concern with the articles sex communication essay units general is incidental to an understanding of the particular for an important reason. It is notes papers because generalities are best communicated through particulars. And the second half of all translation involves communicating to outsiders the meanings of a culture.
STEPS IN WRITING AN ETHNOGRAPHY. Like doing ethnographic research, writing an ethnography can appear to be a formidable task if seen as a single task. Essay Units! All too often, the beginning ethnographer conceives the writing as simply writing. You sit down with blank paper and all your fieldnotes and begin writing the ethnography. When it is completed it will require some revision and editing, hut the work is largely one long, arduous task. Underlying the D.R.S. Method of research is the assumption that breaking a large task into buy essay uk 49 smaller ones and articles about essay units, placing these in sequence will simplify the work and improve one’s performance. This assumption applies equally to writing.
However, because each of us has developed patterns of writing from years of experience, it is far more difficult to create a series of steps that have wide applicability. The following steps must be considered as suggestions only. Readers will want to create their own series of steps to organize writing in a manner that best fits patterns developed through past experience. However, the underlying premise, that it is buy research papers cheap life valuable to divide up the writing of an ethnography into about sex communication units tasks, does have wide applicability. Step One: Select an audience. Because the audience will influence every aspect of notes on writing papers, your ethnography, selecting an audience is one of the first things to be done. All writing is an act of communication between human beings and in that sense it is similar to talking. When speaking to someone, there are innumerable cues that remind us that our audience is present. The writer needs to select an audience, identify it clearly, and then keep in mind throughout the writing who that audience is.
When writing for a specific journal or magazine, the ethnographer must carefully scrutinize past issues of the journal to discover the articles sex communication style of writing. You are, in fact, discovering the audience that such a journal is written for. If one intends to help cant essay rye write a book-length ethnography, then the audience may be scholars in the field, students, the general public, or some other group. The best advice I have ever received for selecting an audience came from Marshall Townsend, the editor at the University of Arizona Press: A basic concept we stress at the University of Arizona Press is that of the “target reader.” What we urge YOU as an author to do is to pick out a “target reader” and write in book form for only one reader. Pick out about sex communication essay, some real person whom you know, then set down your materials so this person wilt understand what you are saying. When you have a “target reader,” you effect a single level of away essay belonging, presentation. rather than trying to provide information to everyone from articles units, those who have their doctorates to buy essay online students in high school who want to delve into the subject just a bit. Choose your level of communication and stay with it—by addressing yourself in your writing to only this one person.
We believe you will find this concept a highly workable one. When you as an author write successfully for one, we as a publisher may he able to about essay take your book and sell thousands of copies because each person feels “this was meant for me.” On the notes on writing and theses other hand, if you try to write for thousands, and embrace all of their varied interests and viewpoints, we may not he able to sell a single copy. Articles About! Stick to your one-level approach, and we as publishers will take care of informing readers at all levels of interest and of understanding how the hook will fit Into their realm. Step Two: Select a thesis. In order to me do business communicate with your audience, you need to have something to say.
All too often, ethnographic descriptions appear to articles essay units be like meandering conversations without a destination. Although of buy research papers online the single, interest to the ethnographer and a few colleagues, such writing will not hold the essay attention of many more. A thesis is the and theses central message, the point you want to articles make. There are several sources for finding a thesis. First, the major themes you have discovered in ethnographic research represent possible theses. For example, a major theme in cant essay catcher in the rye, the culture of tramps was that being in jail affected one’s identity, even made a man want to go out and get drunk. In jail a man learned to “hustle,” and this reinforced his identity as a tramp trying to “make it” on the street. This theme became the thesis of the articles sex communication essay units ethnography: that jailing drunks, rather than being therapeutic, actually played an important role in creating the identity of tramp. This thesis was summed up in the title of the ethnography, which came from an informant who said, “After thirty days in jail, you owe yourself a drunk!”
Second, a thesis for your ethnography may come from the overall goals of spirited belonging, ethnography. You may, for example, state your thesis in the following way: “To most people, a bar is a place to drink. But to the cocktail waitress, it is about essay much more complex. It is a world of varied cultural meaning that she learns in order to help do my essay in the rye carry out her work and cope with difficulties. In this paper I want to show just how complex the cultural knowledge of the cocktail waitress is, in contrast to articles about sex communication units the casual impressions of the outsider.” Your thesis can simply be to show that cultural meaning systems are much more complex than we usually think. Another way to formulate this type of thesis is in terms of a set of recipes for behavior. Culture can be viewed as a set of instructions for carrying out life’s ordinary activities.
Your thesis would be to Essays - Materialism show the reader the recipe for being a tramp, a cocktail waitress, or some other kind of sex communication essay, person. Frake in Essays, a series of articles, has made effective use of this kind of thesis. For example, he has written on “How to ask for a drink” (1964c) and “How to enter a house” among the Yakan in the Philippines (1975). Still another way to formulate this type of thesis is to show the tacit rules for behavior. This thesis argues that much goes on about sex communication essay, in social life that we do not see, that there are tacit rules of behavior that people have learned but seldom discuss. The point of your paper is to make those tacit rules explicit.
Third, a thesis may come from the literature of the social sciences. Away! In one paper on tramps I reviewed the literature on the concept of “reciprocity.” Then, I formulated a thesis that linked the patterns of reciprocity among tramps to these more general concepts (Spradley 1968). When a thesis has been selected, it is useful to state it briefly, perhaps in a single sentence, and about sex communication essay units, place it before you as a constant reminder as you write. This will help organize your paper and integrate it around a single major idea. It will also help the reader to grasp the meanings of the culture ma way that a simple listing of domains and their meanings will not. Step Three: Make a list of’ topics and create an outline.
Any ethnography will necessarily deal with only selected aspects of on writing papers and theses, a culture. Furthermore, you will use only part of the material you have collected. This step involves reviewing your fieldnotes and the cultural inventory you made and listing topics you think should be included in the final description. Some of these topics will be things like “introduction” and “conclusion.” Once listed, you can then make an outline based around your thesis. This will divide up your actual writing into sections, each of which can be done as a separate unit. If you have been writing short descriptive pieces throughout the project (See Appendix B), many or all of articles about sex communication units, these may fit into the outline. Step Four: Write a rough draft of each section. . A rough draft is intended to be rough, unfinished, unpolished.
One of the great roadblocks for many writers is the desire to revise each sentence as it goes down on paper. Constant revision not only me do business slows the sex communication units entire writing process but also takes away from the free flow of communication. Constant revision seldom occurs in speaking; we may now and then restate something, but usually we talk without revising. Essays - Materialism! Write as you talk is an excellent rule to articles sex communication essay follow in composing a rough draft of each section. Step Five: Revise the outline and create sub/heads.
Almost always the outline from which one writes becomes changed in the process of writing. Once a rough draft is completed for each section, it is a good idea to Mega - Materialism make a new outline, rearranging sections as appropriate. You may want to use subheads to give your reader a clue to the structure of the paper and also to act as transitions from one part to another. Native folk terms can often be used as subheads in articles about sex communication essay, an ethnography, helping to create a view that reflects the cultural knowledge of your informants. Step Six: Edit the rough draft.
At this point in help me do my essay release, the writing you will have a rough draft of your paper, a fairly clear outline, and a number of subheadings you want to use throughout the paper. Now it is time to go over it with an eye to improving the details of writing. Work through each section and at the same time keep the about entire description in help me do my essay business, mind. Make changes directly on sex communication units, the pages you had previously written. When you want to add a paragraph or sentence, write them on the back of the page or on spirited away essay, a separate piece of paper with instructions as to where they will appear. At this stage, it is often useful to about essay ask a friend to read over help business release the manuscript and make general comments. Sex Communication Essay! An outside perspective is especially useful for making improvements that will enhance the communicative power of the description. Step Seven: Write the introduction and conclusion . By now the description has taken on substantial form and you can write these two parts of the paper in a more effective manner. - Materialism! Some writers find that they write better if they write a rough introduction at articles about essay units the start of the writing but save the conclusion until the end.
In either case, now is the time to review both the introduction and conclusion and revise them to help me do my essay fit the paper. Step Eight: Reread your manuscript for articles about sex communication essay, examples . Examples involve writing at the lowest level of abstraction. Because of their importance in communication, a special reading of the paper to on writing see if you have used enough examples is highly desirable. Look for places where general statements have made your writing too “dense” and see if you can insert a brief or extended example at those places. Step Nine: Write the final draft . In some cases this will merely involve typing the paper or turning it over to sex communication units someone else to type. In other cases. you will need to go carefully over on writing papers the manuscript again, making the final editorial changes. Units! Using steps such as this means you have been over the entire manuscript numerous times during the papers online the single life course of writing. Instead of a single, first-draft-as-final-draft, your paper has gone through a series of developmental stages. In this chapter we have discussed ethnographic writing as a part of the translation process. Writing is a skill learned slowly and one that shows great variation from one person to another.
The suggestions in this chapter are offered only as general guidelines, not as hard-and-fast rules that every writer should try to follow.